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Duetact Side Effects

Generic Name: glimepiride / pioglitazone

Note: This page contains information about the side effects of glimepiride / pioglitazone. Some of the dosage forms included on this document may not apply to the brand name Duetact.

Not all side effects for Duetact may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

For the Consumer

Applies to glimepiride / pioglitazone: oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by glimepiride / pioglitazone. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking glimepiride / pioglitazone:

More common
  • Anxiety
  • bladder pain
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • blurred vision
  • chills
  • cold sweats
  • coma
  • confusion
  • cool, pale skin
  • depression
  • difficult, burning, or painful urination
  • fast heartbeat
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • headache
  • increased hunger
  • increased weight
  • lower back or side pain
  • nausea
  • nightmares
  • seizures
  • shakiness
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
Less common
  • Accidental injury
  • loss of appetite
  • pain or swelling in the arms or legs without any injury
  • pale skin
  • stomach pain
  • troubled breathing with exertion
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • vomiting
  • weight loss
  • yellow eyes or skin

Some of the side effects that can occur with glimepiride / pioglitazone may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common
  • Body aches or pain
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty with moving
  • dryness or soreness of the throat
  • ear congestion
  • fever
  • hoarseness
  • joint pain
  • loss of voice
  • muscle aching or cramping
  • muscle pains or stiffness
  • runny nose
  • sneezing
  • stuffy nose
  • swollen joints
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • tooth disorder
  • trouble swallowing
  • voice changes
Less common
  • Dizziness
  • itching skin
  • lack or loss of strength
  • skin rash

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to glimepiride / pioglitazone: oral tablet

General

The most common adverse reactions included upper respiratory tract infections, accidental injury, and combined edema/peripheral edema.[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Very common (10% or more): Lower leg edema (up to 12.3%)

Pioglitazone:
Very common (10% or more): Edema (up to 26.7%)
Common (1% to 10%): Cardiac failure, chest pain[Ref]

Pioglitazone is associated with edema (peripheral, generalized, and pitting edema and fluid retention) when used alone or when used in combination therapy. In pioglitazone monotherapy trials, edema occurred in 2.5% (n=81), 4.7% (n=275), and 6.5% (n=169) of patients receiving 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg of pioglitazone daily for 16 to 26 weeks. Pioglitazone in combination with a sulfonylurea for 16 to 24 weeks resulted in edema in 1.6% (n=184), 11.3% (n=540), and 23.1% (n=351) of patients receiving 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg of pioglitazone daily, respectively. In a study in patients with NYHA class II or III heart failure the percentage of patients experiencing CHF progression during the study was 13.4% and 8.2% in patients receiving pioglitazone (n=262) and glyburide (n=256), respectively.

In the PROactive trial, a study in 5238 patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of macrovascular disease who were force-uptitrated to pioglitazone 45 mg once a day or received placebo in addition to standard of care, edema occurred in 27.3% of patients treated with pioglitazone (n=2605) compared with 15.9% of placebo (n=2633) patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events leading to at least 1 hospitalized congestive heart failure event occurred in 5.7% of patients receiving pioglitazone and 4.1% of patients receiving placebo.

The primary objective of the 3-year PROactive trial was to examine the effect of pioglitazone on mortality and macrovascular morbidity in high-risk patients. No statistically significant difference between pioglitazone and placebo/standard care were observed for time to the first occurrence of their first event (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) including silent MI, stroke, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac intervention including coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous intervention, major leg amputation above the ankle, and bypass surgery or revascularization in the leg). A total of 514 patients receiving pioglitazone experienced at least 1 event compared with 572 patients receiving placebo/standard care.

Postmarketing reports of congestive heart failure have been received in patients treated with pioglitazone. Reports have been received from patients both with and without a history of a known history of heart disease and both with and without concomitant insulin use.[Ref]

Hepatic

Pioglitazone:
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): ALT values greater than 3 times upper limit of normal (3 x ULN)
Postmarketing reports: Hepatic failure

Glimepiride:
Common (1% to 10%): Elevated ALT to greater than 2 x ULN
Postmarketing reports: Liver function impairment (e.g. with cholestasis and jaundice), as well as hepatitis, which may progress to liver failure, hepatic porphyria reactions and disulfiram-like reactions[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

There have been postmarketing reports of serious allergic reactions in patients receiving glimepiride such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, dyspnea, hypotension, and shock. In clinical trials allergic reactions such as pruritus, erythema, urticaria, and morbilliform or maculopapular eruptions, occurred in less than 1% of patients receiving glimepiride, and some resolved despite continued treatment.

Glimepiride:
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Allergic reactions
Postmarketing reports: Serious allergic reactions

Oncologic

In 2 three-year clinical trials comparing pioglitazone to glyburide or placebo, there were 16 reports of bladder cancer in patients receiving pioglitazone (0.44%; n=3656) and 5 in patients not taking pioglitazone (0.14%; n=3679). Excluding patients in whom exposure to study drug was less than 1 year at the time of bladder cancer diagnosis, there were 6 cases among patients on pioglitazone and 2 cases in patients not on pioglitazone. There are too few events to establish causality.

Pioglitazone:
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Bladder cancer

Endocrine

Pioglitazone:
Frequency not reported: Resumption of ovulation in premenopausal, anovulatory women, hormonal imbalance

Glimepiride:
Postmarketing reports: Hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)[Ref]

SIADH has been reported postmarketing in patients receiving glimepiride, most often in patients who are on other medications or who have medical conditions known to cause hyponatremia or increase release of antidiuretic hormone.[Ref]

Ocular

Pioglitazone:
Postmarketing reports: New or worsening diabetic macular edema with decreased visual acuity[Ref]

Macular edema has been reported in postmarketing experience in diabetic patients who were taking pioglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, but some patients appear to have been diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination. Some patients had peripheral edema at the time macular edema was diagnosed. Some patients had improvement in their macular edema after discontinuation of their thiazolidinedione. It is unknown whether or not there is a causal relationship between pioglitazone and macular edema.[Ref]

Metabolic

Pioglitazone is associated with dose-related weight gain when used alone or when used in combination therapy. The mechanism of weight gain is unclear, but probably involves a combination of fluid retention and fat accumulation. In pioglitazone monotherapy trials, weight increases of 0.9 kg, 1 kg, and 2.6 kg occurred in patients receiving 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg of pioglitazone daily for 16 to 26 weeks. Pioglitazone in combination with a sulfonylurea for 16 to 24 weeks resulted in weight increases of 2 kg, 3.1 kg, and 4.1 kg, for patients receiving 15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg of pioglitazone daily respectively. In the PROactive (Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events) trial, the median change in body weight in patients treated with pioglitazone (n=2560) compared with placebo (n=2581) was -0.5 kg compared to +3.6 kg. The median exposure to drug was 2.7 years.[Ref]

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Very common (10% or more): Hypoglycemia (up to 15.7%), weight increase (up to 13.4%)[Ref]

Respiratory

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Very common (10% or more): Upper respiratory tract infection (up to 14.8%)
Common (1% to 10%): Sinusitis, pharyngitis

Pioglitazone:
Very common (10% or more): Upper respiratory tract infection (up to 13.2%)[Ref]

Hematologic

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Frequency not reported: Anemia

Pioglitazone:
Frequency not reported: Decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit

Glimepiride:
Postmarketing reports: Hemolytic Anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenia purpura[Ref]

Laboratory findings have shown decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit with pioglitazone therapy; mean hemoglobin values declined by 2% to 4% in pioglitazone treated patients compared to -1% to 1% in placebo-treated patients. These changes primarily occurred during the first 3 months. They changes may be related to increased plasma volume and not likely to be associated with any clinically significant hematologic effects.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Common (1% to 10%): Diarrhea, nausea[Ref]

Nervous system

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Common (1% to 10%): Headache, dizziness[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Common (1% to 10%): Limb pain

Pioglitazone:
Common (1% to 10%): Myalgia, pain in extremity, back pain
Frequency not reported: Elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK)[Ref]

Elevations in CPK were observed during protocol-specified measurement of CPK in pioglitazone clinical trials. Isolated elevation to 10 times the upper limit of normal was observed in 9 patients (0.2%). Elevations resolved without any clinical sequelae and the relationship to drug therapy is unknown.[Ref]

Dermatologic

Glimepiride:
Postmarketing reports: Porphyria cutanea tarda, photosensitivity reactions and allergic vasculitis[Ref]

Genitourinary

Pioglitazone-Sulfonylurea
Common (1% to 10%): Urinary tract infection[Ref]

References

1. "Product Information. Duetact (glimepiride-pioglitazone)." Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Lincolnshire, IL.

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