(es TA zoe lam)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Generic: 1 mg, 2 mg
Binds to stereospecific benzodiazepine receptors on the postsynaptic GABA neuron at several sites within the central nervous system, including the limbic system, reticular formation. Enhancement of the inhibitory effect of GABA on neuronal excitability results by increased neuronal membrane permeability to chloride ions. This shift in chloride ions results in hyperpolarization (a less excitable state) and stabilization. Benzodiazepine receptors and effects appear to be linked to the GABA-A receptors. Benzodiazepines do not bind to GABA-B receptors (Vinkers 2012).
Extensive hepatic metabolism to 11 inactive metabolites including 1-oxo-estazolam and 4-hydroxy-estazolam; metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estazolam is mediated by CYP3A4
Urine (<5% as unchanged drug, >70% as inactive metabolites); feces (4%)
Time to Peak
Serum: ~2 hours (range: 0.5 to 6 hours)
Duration of Action
10 to 24 hours
Special Populations Note
The clearance of estazolam may be accelerated in smokers, presumably due to enzyme induction.
Use: Labeled Indications
Insomnia: Short-term management of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and/or early morning awakenings.
Concurrent use with itraconazole or ketoconazole; pregnancy
Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for benzodiazepines is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.
Insomnia: Oral: 1 mg at bedtime, some patients may require 2 mg
Insomnia: Oral: Initial: 1 mg at bedtime; initiate at 0.5 mg at bedtime in debilitated or small elderly patients; initiate increases in dose with caution.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied); use with caution.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling (has not been studied); use with caution.
Oral: Administer at bedtime (right before getting into bed or in bed). Do not administer with or right after a meal.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68° to 77°F). Protect from light.
Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy
Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination
Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Consider therapy modification
Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine patches (Butrans brand) at 5 mcg/hr in adults when used with other CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification
Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
CloZAPine: Benzodiazepines may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CloZAPine. Management: Consider decreasing the dose of (or possibly discontinuing) benzodiazepines prior to initiating clozapine. Consider therapy modification
CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Exceptions: Levocabastine (Nasal). Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Monitor therapy
Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy
Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (e.g., opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification
Fosphenytoin: Benzodiazepines may increase the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Short-term exposure to benzodiazepines may not present as much risk as chronic therapy. Monitor therapy
Hydrocodone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Hydrocodone. Management: Consider starting with a 20% to 30% lower hydrocodone dose when using together with any other CNS depressant. Dose reductions in the other CNS depressant may also be warranted. Consider therapy modification
HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Avoid combination
Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Ketoconazole (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Avoid combination
Macrolide Antibiotics: May increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Management: Consider an alternative less likely to interact. Azithromycin is likely a lower-risk macrolide, and benzodiazepines less dependent on CYP3A metabolism (e.g., lorazepam, oxazepam) are similarly less likely to interact. Exceptions: Azithromycin (Systemic); Fidaxomicin; Roxithromycin; Spiramycin. Consider therapy modification
Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Methadone: Benzodiazepines may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methadone. Avoid combination
Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce adult dose of CNS depressant agents by 50% with initiation of concomitant methotrimeprazine therapy. Further CNS depressant dosage adjustments should be initiated only after clinically effective methotrimeprazine dose is established. Consider therapy modification
Metyrosine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Metyrosine. Monitor therapy
Minocycline: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Mirtazapine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy
Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
OLANZapine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Benzodiazepines. Management: Avoid concomitant use of parenteral benzodiazepines and IM olanzapine due to risks of additive adverse events (e.g., cardiorespiratory depression). Olanzapine prescribing information provides no specific recommendations regarding oral administration. Avoid combination
Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination
OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: When oxycodone is combined with another CNS depressant, a dose reduction of one or both agents should be considered. The extended release oxycodone starting dose should be reduced 50% to 67% when initiated in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification
Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination
Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification
Phenytoin: Benzodiazepines may increase the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Short-term exposure to benzodiazepines may not present as much risk as chronic therapy. Monitor therapy
Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy
Ritonavir: May increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Monitor therapy
ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy
Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy
Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Monitor therapy
Sodium Oxybate: Benzodiazepines may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Sodium Oxybate. Avoid combination
Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification
Tapentadol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Start tapentadol at a dose of one-third to one-half of the normal dose if being initiated in a patient who is taking another drug with CNS depressant effects. Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. Consider therapy modification
Teduglutide: May increase the serum concentration of Benzodiazepines. Monitor therapy
Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination
Theophylline Derivatives: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Benzodiazepines. Consider therapy modification
Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy
Yohimbine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antianxiety Agents. Monitor therapy
Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification
>10%: Central nervous system: Drowsiness (42%)
1% to 10%:
Central nervous system: Dizziness (7%), ataxia (4%), hangover effect (3%), abnormality in thinking (2%), confusion (2%), anxiety (≥1%)
Dermatologic: Pruritus (1%)
Gastrointestinal: Constipation (≥1%), xerostomia (≥1%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Hypokinesia (8%), leg pain (3%), stiffness (1%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Acne vulgaris, adenopathy, agitation, agranulocytosis, amnesia, apathy, arm pain, arthralgia, arthritis, asthma, auditory impairment, breast swelling, cardiac arrhythmia, chills, cough, decreased appetite, decreased libido, diaphoresis, diplopia, dysgeusia, dyspnea, edema, emotional lability, enterocolitis, epistaxis, euphoria, eye irritation, eye pain, fever, flatulence, flushing, gastritis, genital discharge, hallucination, hematuria, hostility, hypersensitivity reaction, hyperventilation, hyporeflexia, increased appetite, increased serum AST, increased thirst, jaw pain, laryngitis, leukopenia, melena, muscle spasm, myalgia, neck pain, neuritis, nocturia, nystagmus, oliguria, oral mucosa ulcer, oral paresthesia, otalgia, palpitations, paresthesia, pelvic cramps (menstrual cramps), photophobia, polyuria, purpura, rhinitis, scotoma, seizure, sinusitis, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, sleep disorder, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, stupor, swelling of eye, syncope, thyroid nodule, tinnitus, tremor, twitching, urinary hesitancy, urinary incontinence, urinary urgency, urticaria, visual disturbance, vomiting, vulvovaginal pruritus, weight gain, weight loss, xeroderma
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Anterograde amnesia: Benzodiazepines have been associated with anterograde amnesia.
• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, have been reported, and in some cases, following initial dosing. Patients who develop severe reactions should not be rechallenged.
• Paradoxical reactions: Paradoxical reactions, including hyperactive or aggressive behavior, have been reported with benzodiazepines, particularly in adolescent/pediatric or psychiatric patients.
• Sleep-related activities: An increased risk for hazardous sleep-related activities such as sleep-driving, cooking and eating food, having sex, and making phone calls while asleep have been reported. Concurrent use of alcohol and other CNS depressants, as well as exceeding the recommended maximum dose, may increase the risk of these behaviors. Patients will often not remember doing these activities. Discontinue treatment in patients who report any sleep-related episodes.
• Depression: Use caution in patients with depression, particularly if suicidal risk may be present; preexisting depression may emerge or worsen during therapy.
• Drug abuse: Use with caution in patients with a history of drug abuse or acute alcoholism; potential for drug dependency exists. Tolerance, psychological and physical dependence may occur with prolonged use.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment.
• Respiratory disease: Use with caution in patients with respiratory disease. Benzodiazepines may cause significant respiratory depression.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Debilitated patients: Use with caution in debilitated patients; initial doses should be at the lower end of dosing range.
• Elderly: Use with caution in the elderly, especially small or debilitated elderly patients.
• Fall risk: Use with extreme caution in patients who are at risk of falls; benzodiazepines have been associated with falls and traumatic injury.
• Appropriate use: Does not have analgesic, antidepressant, or antipsychotic properties. Should be used only after evaluation of potential causes of sleep disturbance. Failure of sleep disturbance to resolve after 7 to 10 days may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness. Worsening insomnia or the emergence of new abnormalities of thought or behavior may represent unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Use lowest effect dose (adverse events appear dose-related). Prolonged use is not recommended.
• Tolerance: Estazolam is a short half-life benzodiazepine. Duration of action after a single dose is determined by redistribution rather than metabolism. Tolerance develops to the effects (Vinkers 2012). Chronic use of this agent may increase the perioperative benzodiazepine dose needed to achieve desired effect.
• Withdrawal: Rebound or withdrawal symptoms may occur following abrupt discontinuation or large decreases in dose. Use caution when reducing dose or withdrawing therapy; decrease slowly and monitor for withdrawal symptoms. Flumazenil may cause withdrawal in patients receiving long-term benzodiazepine therapy. Abrupt discontinuation after sustained use (generally >10 days) may cause withdrawal symptoms.
Respiratory and cardiovascular status; CBC and urinalysis periodically during prolonged use; daytime alertness; behavior profile
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Although information specific to estazolam has not been located, all benzodiazepines are assumed to cross the placenta. Teratogenic effects have been observed with some benzodiazepines; however, additional studies are needed. The incidence of premature birth and low birth weights may be increased following maternal use of benzodiazepines; hypoglycemia and respiratory problems in the neonate may occur following exposure late in pregnancy. Neonatal withdrawal symptoms may occur within days to weeks after birth and “floppy infant syndrome” (which also includes withdrawal symptoms) has been reported with some benzodiazepines (Bergman 1992; Iqbal 2002; Wikner 2007). The use of estazolam is contraindicated in pregnant women.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience dry mouth, nausea, headache, or fatigue. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of depression (suicidal ideation, anxiety, emotional instability, or illogical thinking), hallucinations, memory impairment, severe dizziness, change in balance, confusion, or severe loss of strength and energy (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
More about estazolam
- Other brands: Prosom