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Entacapone

Pronunciation

Pronunciation

(en TA ka pone)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Comtan: 200 mg

Generic: 200 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Comtan

Pharmacologic Category

  • Anti-Parkinson's Agent, COMT Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Entacapone is a reversible and selective inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). When entacapone is taken with levodopa, the pharmacokinetics are altered, resulting in more sustained levodopa serum levels compared to levodopa taken alone. The resulting levels of levodopa provide for increased concentrations available for absorption across the blood-brain barrier, thereby providing for increased CNS levels of dopamine, the active metabolite of levodopa.

Absorption

Rapid

Distribution

IV: Vdss: 20 L

Metabolism

Isomerization to the cis-isomer, followed by direct glucuronidation of the parent and cis-isomer

Excretion

Feces (90%); urine (10%)

Onset of Action

Rapid

Time to Peak

Serum: 1 hour

Half-Life Elimination

Beta phase: 0.4 to 0.7 hours; gamma phase: 2.4 hours

Protein Binding

98%, primarily to albumin

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

AUC and Cmax are approximately 2-fold higher in those with a history of alcoholism and hepatic impairment.

Use: Labeled Indications

Parkinson disease: Adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease who experience “wearing-off” symptoms at the end of a dosing interval

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to entacapone or any component of the formulation

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in U.S. labeling): Clinical or laboratory evidence of uncompensated cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, pulmonary (including bronchial asthma), or renal disease; history of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and/or nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis; hepatic impairment; narrow-angle glaucoma; pheochromocytoma; in the presence of a suspicious, undiagnosed skin lesion or history of melanoma; concomitant use with a nonselective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (eg, tranylcypromine, phenelzine) or concomitant use with both a selective MAO-A and selective MAO-B inhibitor; when administration of a sympathomimetic amine is contraindicated

Dosage

Parkinson disease: Adults: Oral: 200 mg with each dose of levodopa/carbidopa, up to a maximum of 8 times daily (maximum daily dose: 1600 mg daily).

Note: To optimize therapy, the dosage of levodopa may need to be reduced or the dosing interval may need to be extended. Patients taking levodopa ≥800 mg daily or who had moderate-to-severe dyskinesias prior to therapy required an average decrease of 25% in the daily levodopa dose.

Dosage adjustment in renal impairment: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; however, renal function was not found to significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of entacapone.

Dosage adjustment in hepatic impairment:

U.S. labeling: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling. Treat with caution and monitor carefully; AUC and Cmax may possibly be doubled.

Canadian labeling: Use is contraindicated.

Administration

Always administer in association with levodopa/carbidopa; can be combined with both the immediate and sustained release formulations of levodopa/carbidopa. May be administered without regard to meals. Should not be abruptly withdrawn from patient's therapy due to significant worsening of symptoms.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy and/or indication. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine patches (Butrans brand) at 5 mcg/hr in adults when used with other CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Exceptions: Levocabastine (Nasal). Monitor therapy

COMT Substrates: COMT Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of COMT Substrates. Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (e.g., opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Hydrocodone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Hydrocodone. Management: Consider starting with a 20% to 30% lower hydrocodone dose when using together with any other CNS depressant. Dose reductions in the other CNS depressant may also be warranted. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

MAO Inhibitors: COMT Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce adult dose of CNS depressant agents by 50% with initiation of concomitant methotrimeprazine therapy. Further CNS depressant dosage adjustments should be initiated only after clinically effective methotrimeprazine dose is established. Consider therapy modification

Metyrosine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Metyrosine. Monitor therapy

Minocycline: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Pipamperone [INT]: COMT Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Pipamperone [INT]. Pipamperone [INT] may diminish the therapeutic effect of COMT Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Sodium Oxybate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider alternatives to combined use. When combined use is needed, consider minimizing doses of one or more drugs. Use of sodium oxybate with alcohol or sedative hypnotics is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tapentadol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Start tapentadol at a dose of one-third to one-half of the normal dose if being initiated in a patient who is taking another drug with CNS depressant effects. Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

TiZANidine: CYP1A2 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of TiZANidine. Management: Avoid these combinations when possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, initiate tizanidine at an adult dose of 2 mg and increase in 2-4 mg increments based on patient response. Monitor for increased effects of tizanidine, including adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (14%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Dyskinesia (25%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Syncope (1%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (8%), fatigue (6%), anxiety (2%), drowsiness (2%), agitation (1%), hallucination (≤1%)

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis (increased; 2%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (10%), abdominal pain (8%), constipation (6%), vomiting (4%), xerostomia (3%), dyspepsia (2%), flatulence (2%), dysgeusia (1%), gastritis (1%), gastrointestinal disease (1%)

Genitourinary: Urine discoloration (brown-orange; 10%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Purpura (2%)

Infection: Bacterial infection (1%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Hyperkinesia (10%), hypokinesia (9%), back pain (2% to 4%), weakness (2%)

Respiratory: Dyspnea (3%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Behavioral changes (including psychotic-like behavior), hepatitis (mainly cholestatic features), impulse control disorder (eg, pathological gambling, hypersexuality, spending money), mental status changes, neurological signs and symptoms (hyperpyrexia and confusion [resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome]), orthostatic hypotension, pulmonary fibrosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, rhabdomyolysis, sudden onset of sleep

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Abnormal thinking/behavioral changes: Abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported and may include aggressive behavior, agitation, confusion, delirium, delusions, disorientation, paranoid ideation, and psychotic-like behavior.

• Diarrhea: Has been associated with delayed development of diarrhea (usual onset after 4 to 12 weeks); use with caution in patients with lower gastrointestinal disease or an increased risk of dehydration. Diarrhea may be a sign of drug-induced colitis (primarily lymphocytic). Monitor for weight loss. Discontinue use with prolonged diarrhea.

• Dyskinesia: New-onset or exacerbation of preexisting dyskinesia may occur when used as an adjunct to levodopa. Decreasing the dose of levodopa may ameliorate these side effects in some cases.

• Hallucinations: May cause hallucinations.

• Impulse control disorders: Compulsive behaviors and/or loss of impulse control, which has manifested as pathological gambling, libido increases (hypersexuality), intense urges to spend money uncontrollably, and other intense urges have been reported. Dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy has been reported to reverse these behaviors in some, but not all cases.

• Melanoma: Risk for melanoma development is increased in Parkinson disease patients; drug causation or factors contributing to risk have not been established. Patients should be monitored closely and periodic skin examinations should be performed. The Canadian labeling contraindicates use in patients with suspicious, undiagnosed skin lesions or history of melanoma.

• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Entacapone, in conjunction with other drug therapy that alters brain biogenic amine concentrations (eg, MAO inhibitors, SSRIs), has been associated with a syndrome resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome (hyperpyrexia and confusion - some fatal) on abrupt withdrawal or dosage reduction. Concomitant use of entacapone and nonselective MAO inhibitors should be avoided.

• Orthostatic hypotension: May cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope.

• Pleural/retroperitoneal fibrosis: Dopaminergic agents from the ergot class have been associated with fibrotic complications, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis, pulmonary infiltrates or pleural effusion and thickening. These complications may resolve when the drug is discontinued, but complete resolution does not always occur. It is unknown whether nonergot, pro-dopaminergic agents like entacapone confer this risk.

• Rhabdomyolysis: Severe rhabdomyolysis has been reported with use.

• Somnolence: Patients have reported falling asleep while engaging in activities of daily living; this has been reported to occur without significant warning signs and may occur as late as up to 1 year after initiation of treatment. Monitor for daytime somnolence or preexisting sleep disorder. Use caution in the presence of sleep disorders, with other CNS depressants, sedating agents, psychoactive drugs or ethanol. Patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: The Canadian product labeling notes to use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease, including a history of myocardial infarction (MI) and arrhythmias; MI and other ischemic adverse events have been observed in clinical trials.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment or biliary obstruction. The Canadian labeling contraindicates use in hepatic impairment.

• Psychotic disorders: Avoid use in patients with major psychotic disorder due to the risk of exacerbating psychosis. Many treatments for psychosis may exacerbate the symptoms of Parkinson disease and may also decrease the effectiveness of entacapone.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

• Sedatives: Effects with other sedative drugs or ethanol may be potentiated.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation of therapy: Do not withdraw therapy abruptly.

• Urine discoloration: Urine may appear dark in color (brownish orange) during therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease; liver function tests, blood pressure, patient's mental status and impulse control disorders; daytime sleepiness; serum iron (if signs of anemia); weight loss (patients experiencing diarrhea); signs and symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome if abrupt discontinuation required; dermatologic examination (regularly while on therapy).

Canadian labeling (additional monitoring recommendations): Cardiac function with initial dosage adjustments and periodically during prolonged therapy (patients with history of MI or arrhythmia)

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies. The incidence of Parkinson disease in pregnancy is relatively rare and information related to the use of entacapone in pregnant women is very limited (Kranick, 2010).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience asthenia, fatigue, constipation, diarrhea, or urine discoloration. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe dizziness, syncope, illogical thinking, significant diarrhea, intolerable dyspepsia, uncontrollable urges, difficulty with motor activity, dyspnea, myalgia, hallucinations, mood changes, behavioral changes, skin growth, mole changes, narcolepsy, or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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