Class: Selective Serotonin-reuptake Inhibitors
VA Class: CN609
Chemical Name: N-Methyl-γ-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine hydrochloride
Molecular Formula: C17H18F3NO•HCl
CAS Number: 56296-78-7
Brands: Prozac, Prozac Weekly, Sarafem, Symbyax
Antidepressants increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) compared with placebo in children, adolescents, and young adults (18–24 years of age) with major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders; balance this risk with clinical need.1 470 471 Fluoxetine is not approved for use in pediatric patients except for patients with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.1 (See Pediatric Use under Cautions.)
Appropriately monitor and closely observe all patients who are started on fluoxetine therapy for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior; involve family members and/or caregivers in this process.1 470 471 476 (See Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk under Cautions.)
Uses for Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Major Depressive Disorder
APA states that effectiveness of antidepressants is generally comparable between and within classes of medications, including SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, MAO inhibitors, and other antidepressants (e.g., bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone).a Choose antidepressant based mainly on patient preference; nature of prior response to medication; safety, tolerability, and anticipated adverse effects; concurrent psychiatric and medical conditions; and specific properties of the medication (e.g., half-life, actions on CYP isoenzymes, other drug interactions).a For most patients, an SSRI, SNRI, mirtazapine, or bupropion is considered optimal.a Consult APA’s Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder for additional information.a
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
SSRIs usually are preferred drugs in management of bulimia because of more favorable adverse effect profile.365
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Dosage and Administration
Allow at least 2 weeks to elapse between discontinuance of an MAO inhibitor and initiation of fluoxetine, and at least 5 weeks to elapse between discontinuance of fluoxetine and initiation of an MAO inhibitor or thioridazine.1 (See Contraindications and also see Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome-like Reactions under Cautions.)
Monitor for possible worsening of depression, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior, especially at the beginning of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments.1 470 471 476 (See Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk under Cautions.)
Sustained therapy may be required; periodically reassess need for continued therapy.1
Avoid abrupt discontinuance.1 Taper dosage gradually and monitor for withdrawal symptoms.1 If intolerable symptoms occur following dosage reduction or discontinuance, consider reinstituting previously prescribed dosage, then resume more gradual dosage reductions.1 (See Withdrawal of Therapy under Cautions.)
Administer conventional capsules, tablets, and solution orally once (in the morning)1 2 70 or twice daily (preferably in the morning and at noon) without regard to meals.1 2 4 7 58 217 If sedation occurs, the second dose may be administered at bedtime.217
Administer fixed-combination fluoxetine/olanzapine capsules (Symbyax) once daily in the evening.448
Available as fluoxetine hydrochloride; dosage is expressed in terms of fluoxetine.1
Consider prolonged elimination half-life of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine (active metabolite) when titrating dosage or discontinuing therapy.1 2 Several weeks may be required before full effect of dosage alterations is realized.1 2 3 48 50 52 53 56
Major Depressive Disorder
Manufacturer states that both the initial and target dosage in lower weight children may be 10 mg daily.1
An increase in dosage to 20 mg daily may be considered after several weeks in lower weight children if insufficient clinical improvement is observed.1
Children and adolescents ≥7 years of age: Initially, 10 mg daily.1
In adolescents and higher weight children, should increase dosage to 20 mg daily after 2 weeks; additional dosage increases may be considered after several more weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed.1
In lower weight children, dosage increases may be considered after several weeks if insufficient clinical improvement is observed.1
Usual dosages: 20–60 mg daily for adolescents and higher weight children or 20–30 mg daily for lower weight children.1
Major Depressive Disorder
As conventional capsules, tablets, or solution: Initially, 20 mg daily (in the morning).1 May initiate with lower dosage (e.g., 5 mg daily, 20 mg every 2–3 days).2 212 If no improvement is apparent after several weeks of therapy with 20 mg daily, an increase in dosage may be considered.1 2 10
Usual dosage: 10–80 mg daily.1
Usual dosage: 20–60 mg daily; dosages ≤80 mg daily were well tolerated in clinical studies.1
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
20 mg once daily given continuously throughout the menstrual cycle or intermittently (i.e., only during the luteal phase, starting 14 days prior to the anticipated onset of menstruation and continuing through the first full day of menses).366
Efficacy was maintained for periods of ≤12 months following 2 months of acute treatment in patients receiving 60 mg daily as conventional fluoxetine capsules.1 410 Most clinicians recommend continuing antidepressant therapy, including fluoxetine, for at least 6–12 months before attempting to discontinue therapy.355 410 If used for extended periods, periodically reassess need for continued therapy.1
40 mg daily in weight-restored patients has been used.345
Monotherapy for Acute Depressive Episodes†Oral
Combination Therapy for Acute Depressive EpisodesOral
Fluoxetine/olanzapine (Symbyax): Initially, fluoxetine 25 mg and olanzapine 6 mg (Symbyax 6/25) once daily in the evening.448
Fluoxetine 25 mg and olanzapine 3–6 mg (Symbyax 3/25 or Symbyax 6/25) once daily in the evening as initial and maintenance therapy in patients with a predisposition to hypotensive reactions, patients with hepatic impairment, those with a combination of factors that may slow metabolism of the drugs(s) (e.g., female gender, geriatric age, nonsmoking status), or those who may be pharmacodynamically sensitive to olanzapine; when indicated, escalate dosage with caution.448
In other patients, increase dosages of fluoxetine/olanzapine according to patient response and tolerance as indicated.448 In clinical trials, antidepressive efficacy was demonstrated at olanzapine dosages ranging from 6–12 mg daily and fluoxetine dosages ranging from 25–50 mg daily.448 507 508 Dosages >18 mg of olanzapine and 75 mg of fluoxetine not evaluated in clinical studies.1 448
When used with olanzapine as the single-ingredient components, administer the drugs once daily in the evening, usually initiating therapy with 5 mg of olanzapine and 20 mg of fluoxetine.1 May adjust dosage within the dosage ranges of 20–50 mg for fluoxetine and 5–12.5 mg for olanzapine.1 Use an initial dosage of 2.5–5 mg of olanzapine with fluoxetine 20 mg in patients with a predisposition to hypotensive reactions, patients with hepatic impairment, those with a combination of factors that may slow metabolism of the drugs(s) (e.g., female gender, geriatric age, nonsmoking status), or those patients who may be pharmacodynamically sensitive to olanzapine; when indicated, escalate dosage increases with caution.1
Although the manufacturer states that long-term efficacy (>8 weeks) not established, patients have received the fixed combination ≤24 weeks in clinical trials.448 507 508 If used for >8 weeks, periodically reassess need for continued therapy.448
20 mg once or twice daily has been used in conjunction with CNS stimulant therapy (e.g., dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate).380
60 mg daily has been used.289
Higher than average antidepressant SSRI dosage apparently is required for reduced alcohol intake; fluoxetine 40 mg daily is comparable to placebo in efficacy.289
Carefully individualize dosage in substantial hepatic impairment; adjust based on tolerance and therapeutic response.51
Consider reducing dosage and/or frequency.1
Cautions for Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Concurrent or recent (i.e., within 2 weeks) therapy with an MAO inhibitor.1 MAO inhibitors are contraindicated within 5 weeks after discontinuance of fluoxetine.2 298 365 366 (See Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome-like Reactions under Cautions and also see Interactions.)
Concurrent pimozide therapy.1
Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk
Possible worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior in both adult and pediatric patients with major depressive disorder, whether or not they are taking antidepressants; may persist until clinically important remission occurs.1 470 471 476 512 However, suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide.1 470 471 476 514
Appropriately monitor and closely observe patients receiving fluoxetine for any reason, particularly during initiation of therapy (i.e., the first few months) and during periods of dosage adjustments.1 470 471 476 512 (See Boxed Warning and also see Pediatric Use under Cautions.)
Anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and/or mania may be precursors to emerging suicidality.1 470 476 Consider changing or discontinuing therapy in patients whose depression is persistently worse or in those with emerging suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, particularly if severe, abrupt in onset, or not part of patient’s presenting symptoms.1 470 471 476 If decision is made to discontinue therapy, taper fluoxetine dosage as rapidly as is feasible but consider risks of abrupt discontinuance.1 470 (See General under Dosage and Administration.)
Allergic Reactions and Rash
Possible anaphylactoid reactions (e.g., bronchospasm, angioedema, laryngospasm, and/or urticaria).1
Rash and/or urticaria, sometimes associated with systemic manifestations (e.g., fever, leukocytosis, arthralgia, edema, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, proteinuria, mild elevation in serum aminotransferase concentrations, vasculitis, lupus-like syndrome) reported; systemic manifestations may be serious.1 2 234 279
Other Warnings and Precautions
Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome-like Reactions
Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)-like reactions reported with SSRIs and SNRIs alone, including fluoxetine, but particularly with concurrent administration of other serotonergic drugs (e.g., 5-HT1 receptor agonists [triptans]), drugs that impair serotonin metabolism (e.g., MAO inhibitors), or antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists.1 248 492 517 518 519 526 529 530 531 (See Contraindications under Cautions and also see Interactions.)
Symptoms of serotonin syndrome may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile BP, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or GI symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).1 492 517 518 519 529 530 531
Severe serotonin syndrome may resemble NMS, which is characterized by hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations in vital signs, and mental status changes.1 517 518 519 529 530 531
Monitor patients receiving fluoxetine for the development of serotonin syndrome or NMS-like signs and symptoms.1 517 529 530 531 If such signs and symptoms occur, immediately discontinue treatment with fluoxetine and any concurrently administered serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents, including antipsychotic agents, and initiate supportive and symptomatic treatment.1 517 529 530
Activation of Mania or Hypomania
Altered Appetite and Weight
Possible anorexia and substantial weight loss, which may be undesirable in underweight or bulimic patients.1 2 15 60 61 63 65 66 67 69 72 122 161 176 Monitor weight change during fluoxetine therapy.1 (See Pediatric Use under Cautions.)
Possible increased risk of bleeding with SSRIs, including fluoxetine, and SNRIs;1 events ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.1 329 452 453 454 455 456 458 Concomitant use of aspirin, NSAIAs, warfarin, or other anticoagulants may increase risk.1 (See Drugs Affecting Hemostasis and Specific Drugs under Interactions.)
Hyponatremia or SIADH
Treatment with SSRIs, including fluoxetine, and SNRIs may result in hyponatremia;1 90 280 524 527 528 529 530 531 in many cases, SIADH is apparent cause.1 90 280 281 529 530 531 Increased risk in patients who are volume depleted, elderly, or taking diuretics.1 90 281 524 529 530 531 Consider drug discontinuance and initiate appropriate medical intervention in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia.1 529 530 531
Anxiety and Insomnia
Limited experience; use with caution in patients with concomitant illnesses affecting metabolism or hemodynamic response.1
May alter glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus.1 Hypoglycemia has occurred during fluoxetine therapy and hyperglycemia has developed following discontinuance of drug.1 Adjust insulin and/or oral antidiabetic agent dosage as necessary when initiating or discontinuing fluoxetine therapy.1
Mydriasis reported; use with caution in patients with elevated IOP or those at risk of acute narrow-angle glaucoma.1
Potential impairment of judgment, thinking, and motor skills.1 (See Advice to Patients.)
Long Elimination Half-Life
Because of the long elimination half-lives of fluoxetine and its major active metabolite, norfluoxetine, changes in dosage will take several weeks to be fully reflected in plasma concentrations, which affects dosage titration and withdrawal from treatment.1 2 3 48 50 52 53 56 217 Consider these potential consequences when drug discontinuance is required or when prescribing concurrent drugs that may interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following fluoxetine discontinuance.1
Withdrawal of Therapy
Withdrawal effects (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances [e.g., paresthesias, such as electric shock sensations], anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania) reported following discontinuance of serotonergic antidepressants, particularly when discontinuance was abrupt.1 Events generally self-limiting, but serious cases reported.1
Taper dosage gradually; monitor patients for withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing therapy.1 If intolerable symptoms occur following dosage reduction or discontinuance, consider reinstituting previously prescribed dosage then resume more gradual dosage reductions.1
Use of Fixed Combinations
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Possible complications, sometimes severe and requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, enteral nutrition, and other forms of supportive care, reported in neonates exposed to fluoxetine, other SSRIs, or SNRIs late in the third trimester; may arise immediately upon delivery.1 461 462 480 489 490 491
Conflicting findings from available studies evaluating possible risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) following in utero exposure to SSRIs; currently unclear whether SSRI use during pregnancy can cause PPHN.1 600 602 603 604 605 606 610
Carefully consider potential risks and benefits of treatment when used during third trimester of pregnancy.1 480 490 491 Consider cautiously tapering dosage during third trimester prior to delivery.1 480 481 482 491
Distributed into milk; use not recommended.1
Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine not established in children <8 years of age for major depressive disorder and in children <7 years of age for OCD.1
Decreased appetite and weight loss observed with the use of SSRIs, including fluoxetine; monitor weight and growth regularly in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine.1 (See Altered Appetite and Weight under Cautions.)
FDA warns that a greater risk of suicidal thinking or behavior (suicidality) occurred during first few months of antidepressant treatment compared with placebo in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder, OCD, or other psychiatric disorders based on pooled analyses of 24 short-term, placebo-controlled trials of 9 antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others).1 470 However, a more recent meta-analysis of 27 placebo-controlled trials of 9 antidepressants (SSRIs, including fluoxetine, and others) in patients <19 years of age with major depressive disorder, OCD, or non-OCD anxiety disorders suggests that the benefits of antidepressant therapy in treating these conditions may outweigh the risks of suicidal behavior or suicidal ideation.512 No suicides occurred in these pediatric trials.1 470 512
Carefully consider these findings when assessing potential benefits and risks of fluoxetine in a child or adolescent for any clinical use.1 470 471 476 512 (See Boxed Warning and also see Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk under Cautions.)
SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine, have been associated with clinically important hyponatremia in geriatric patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse effect.1 90 281 524 525 529 530 531 (See Hyponatremia or SIADH under Cautions.)
In pooled data analyses, a reduced risk of suicidality was observed in adults ≥65 years of age with antidepressant therapy compared with placebo.470 471 (See Boxed Warning and also see Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk under Cautions.)
Common Adverse Effects
Anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, somnolence, asthenia, tremor, anorexia, nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, vasodilation, dry mouth, decreased libido, abnormal ejaculation, impotence, rash, sweating, abnormal dreams, flu syndrome, pharyngitis, sinusitis, yawning.1 2 3 5 6 10 61 63 71 72 234
Interactions for Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
When used in fixed combination with olanzapine, consider interactions associated with each drug in the fixed combination.448
Drugs Associated with Serotonin Syndrome
Potential pharmacologic interaction (potentially serious, sometimes fatal serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions) with serotonergic agents.1 283 299 300 301 303 492 Avoid such use, or use with caution.1 200 299 492 (See Contraindications and see Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome-like Reactions under Cautions.)If serotonin syndrome or NMS occurs, immediately discontinue fluoxetine and any concurrently administered serotonergic agents or antidopaminergic agents and initiate supportive and symptomatic treatment.1
Drugs Affecting Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes
Inhibitors of CYP2D6 or CYP3A4: clinically important pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely.1
Drugs Metabolized by Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes
Substrates of CYP3A4: clinically important pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely.1
Drugs Affecting Hemostasis
Concomitant use not recommended1
Decreased amphetamine metabolism; potential serotonin syndrome392
Anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin)
May alter blood glucose concentrations in patients with diabetes mellitus1
Adjust insulin and/or antidiabetic dosages as needed when fluoxetine therapy is initiated or discontinued1
β-Adrenergic blocking agents (e.g., metoprolol, propranolol)
Renally eliminated β-adrenergic blocking agents (e.g., atenolol) may be a safer choice365
Antidepressants, other SSRIs (e.g., citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) or SNRIs (e.g., desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, venlafaxine)
Potentially serious, sometimes fatal serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions1
Concomitant use not recommended1
Antidepressants, tricyclic (TCAs)
Observe patient closely for adverse effects.227 259 Plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored and TCA dosages reduced when fluoxetine is administered concurrently or has been recently discontinued1
Antipsychotic agents (e.g., clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, pimozide, risperidone, thioridazine)
Potentially serious, sometimes fatal serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions1
Pimozide: Possible increased risk of QTc interval prolongation.1 Bradycardia, altered mental status (e.g., stupor, inability to think clearly), and/or hypersalivation reported rarely with concomitant use477 478 479
Risperidone: Possible increased risperidone plasma concentrations; tardive dyskinesia reported368
If serotonin syndrome or NMS occurs, immediately discontinue fluoxetine and any concurrently administered antidopaminergic or serotonergic agents; initiate supportive and symptomatic treatment1
Clozapine: Use with caution, monitor closely, and consider decreasing clozapine dosage367
Olanzapine: No dosage adjustment necessary1
Pimozide: Concomitant use contraindicated1
Thioridazine: Concomitant use is contraindicated; an interval of >5 weeks should elapse between discontinuance of fluoxetine and initiation of thioridazine1
Increased plasma concentrations of diazepam and alprazolam366
Clinically important interaction possible in geriatric or other susceptible patients217
Increased risk of hyponatremia
Potentially serious, sometimes fatal serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions1
If serotonin syndrome or NMS occurs, immediately discontinue fluoxetine and any concurrently administered antidopaminergic or serotonergic agents; initiate supportive and symptomatic treatment1
5-HT1 receptor agonists (triptans)
If serotonin syndrome or NMS occurs, immediately discontinue fluoxetine and any concurrently administered antidopaminergic or serotonergic agents; initiate supportive and symptomatic treatment1
Potential for serotonin syndrome304
Isoniazid has some MAO-inhibiting activity304
If emergency use of linezolid is considered necessary, immediately discontinue fluoxetine; monitor closely for symptoms of CNS toxicity for 5 weeks or until 24 hours after the last linezolid dose, whichever comes first493
Do not initiate fluoxetine in patients receiving linezolid; when necessary, initiate 24 hours after last linezolid dose493
Concomitant use is contraindicated1
Allow at least 5 weeks to elapse between discontinuance of fluoxetine therapy and initiation of MAO inhibitor therapy 1 120 295 298 and at least 2 weeks between discontinuance of MAO inhibitor therapy and initiation of fluoxetine1 2 298
NSAIAs (e.g., aspirin)
Use with caution1
Adverse effects resembling serotonin syndrome303
Increased plasma phenytoin concentrations and phenytoin toxicity1
Allow at least 5 weeks to elapse between discontinuance of fluoxetine therapy and initiation of selegiline 313 and at least 2 weeks between discontinuance of selegiline and initiation of fluoxetine312 313
Sibutramine (no longer commercially available in US)
Possible serotonin syndrome492
Use with caution492
Stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate)
Potential serotonin syndrome392
Do not exceed maximum fluoxetine dosage of 20 mg daily392
Potentially serious, sometimes fatal serotonin syndrome or NMS-like reactions1
Use with caution1
Tryptophan and other serotonin precursors
Concomitant use not recommended1
Possible increased risk of bleeding1
Carefully monitor patients receiving warfarin during initiation and discontinuance of fluoxetine therapy1
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Pharmacokinetics
Food does not appear to affect systemic bioavailability, although it may delay absorption by 1–2 hours.1
In patients receiving hemodialysis, chronic administration produced steady-state plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine (active metabolite) concentrations comparable with those observed in patients with normal renal function.1
Plasma Protein Binding
Extensively metabolized in the liver to norfluoxetine and a number of other unidentified metabolites.1
Principally by hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites excreted by the kidney.1
Elimination half-life of approximately 2–3 days after a single dose and 4–6 days after chronic administration of fluoxetine.1
Elimination half-life of norfluoxetine is approximately 4–16 days after acute and chronic administration.1
In patients with chronic liver disease (e.g., cirrhosis), plasma clearances of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine reportedly are decreased and elimination half-lives are increased compared with those of healthy individuals.1 51
Capsules, Conventional and Delayed-release
15–30°C; protect from light.1
20–25°C; protect from light.542
20–25°C; protect from light.495
Mechanism of action as an antidepressant or as an anti-obsessive agent is unclear but presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity in the CNS resulting from its inhibition of CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT).1 2 3 4 7 8 13 18 21 28 29 31 37 76 138
Potent and highly selective reuptake inhibitor of serotonin.1 2 3 4 7 8 13 18 21 28 29 31 37 76 138 Increases synaptic concentrations of serotonin in the CNS but has little or no effect on other neurotransmitters.1 2 3 7 8 13 18 21 28 29 31 37 76 138 201 328 329 330
Advice to Patients
Importance of providing copy of written patient information (medication guide) each time fluoxetine is dispensed.1 470 471 476 Importance of advising patients to read the patient information before taking fluoxetine and each time the prescription is filled.1
Risk of suicidality; importance of patients, family, and caregivers being alert to and immediately reporting emergence of suicidality, worsening depression, or unusual changes in behavior, especially during the first few months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustment.1 470 471 476 (See Worsening of Depression and Suicidality Risk under Cautions.)
Importance of instructing patients not to take fluoxetine with an MAO inhibitor or within 14 days of stopping the MAO inhibitor, and not to take an MAO inhibitor within 5 weeks of stopping fluoxetine therapy.1
Importance of informing patients of potential risk of serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)-like reactions, particularly with concurrent use of fluoxetine and 5-HT1 receptor agonists (also called triptans), tramadol, tryptophan, other serotonergic agents, or antipsychotic agents.1 492 Importance of immediately contacting clinician if signs and symptoms of these syndromes develop (e.g., restlessness, hallucinations, loss of coordination, fast heart beat, increased body temperature, muscle stiffness, increased BP, diarrhea, coma, nausea, vomiting, confusion).1 492
Risk of allergic reactions and rash.1 Importance of advising patients to notify their clinician if they develop a rash or hives.1 Importance of also advising patients of the signs and symptoms associated with severe allergic reactions (e.g., swelling of the face, eyes, mouth; difficulty breathing) and to seek immediate medical attention if they experience these symptoms.1
Importance of informing patients that if they receive diuretics, or are otherwise volume-depleted, or are elderly, that they may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia during fluoxetine therapy.1
Importance of patients being aware that withdrawal effects may occur when stopping fluoxetine, especially with abrupt discontinuance of the drug.1
Risk of cognitive and motor impairment; importance of avoiding certain activities (e.g., operating machinery, driving a motor vehicle) until effects on the individual are known.1
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription (e.g., Symbyax, Sarafem) and OTC drugs or herbal supplements and alcohol-containing beverages or products, as well as any concomitant illnesses (e.g., bipolar disorder) or personal or family history of suicidality or bipolar disorder.1 Importance of also informing clinicians if patients plan to discontinue any medications while receiving fluoxetine therapy.1
Importance of advising patients about the risk of bleeding or bruising associated with concomitant use of fluoxetine with aspirin or other NSAIAs, warfarin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.1 Importance of advising patients to inform their clinician if they experience any increased or unusual bruising or bleeding while receiving fluoxetine.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
10 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Capsules
20 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Capsules
40 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Capsules
Capsules, delayed-release (containing enteric-coated pellets)
90 mg (of fluoxetine)
20 mg (of fluoxetine) per 5 mL*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Oral Solution
10 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Tablets
15 mg (of fluoxetine)*
20 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Tablets
60 mg (of fluoxetine)*
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride Tablets
25 mg (of fluoxetine) with Olanzapine 3 mg
25 mg (of fluoxetine) with Olanzapine 6 mg
25 mg (of fluoxetine) with Olanzapine 12 mg
50 mg (of fluoxetine) with Olanzapine 6 mg
50 mg (of fluoxetine) with Olanzapine 12 mg
This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2013. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.
FLUoxetine HCl 10MG Capsules (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 30/$14.99 or 90/$26.97
FLUoxetine HCl 10MG Tablets (PAR): 30/$13.99 or 90/$19.97
FLUoxetine HCl 20MG Capsules (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 30/$24.99 or 90/$50.97
FLUoxetine HCl 20MG/5ML Solution (PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATES): 120/$19.99 or 360/$39.97
FLUoxetine HCl 20MG Tablets (PAR): 30/$27.99 or 90/$65.97
FLUoxetine HCl 40MG Capsules (PAR): 30/$40.99 or 90/$119.97
FLUoxetine HCl 90MG Delayed-release Capsules (DR.REDDY'S LABORATORIES): 4/$123.99 or 8/$245.97
FLUoxetine HCl (PMDD) 20MG Capsules (SANDOZ): 28/$39.99 or 84/$99.97
Prozac 10MG Capsules (DISTA): 30/$214.00 or 90/$592.96
PROzac 20MG Capsules (DISTA): 30/$218.99 or 90/$630.95
PROzac 20MG/5ML Solution (DISTA): 120/$252.98 or 360/$712.97
PROzac 40MG Capsules (DISTA): 30/$420.01 or 90/$1,218.94
PROzac Weekly 90MG Delayed-release Capsules (LILLY): 4/$153.99 or 12/$425.95
Sarafem 10MG Tablets (WARNER CHILCOTT PROF PROD DIV): 7/$66.99 or 21/$183.97
Sarafem 20MG Tablets (WARNER CHILCOTT PROF PROD DIV): 7/$66.99 or 21/$181.97
Selfemra 20MG Capsules (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 28/$27.98 or 84/$79.95
Symbyax 12-25MG Capsules (LILLY): 30/$719.99 or 90/$2,110.00
Symbyax 12-50MG Capsules (LILLY): 30/$651.97 or 90/$1,864.88
Symbyax 3-25MG Capsules (LILLY): 30/$345.99 or 90/$1,003.96
Symbyax 6-25MG Capsules (LILLY): 30/$453.99 or 90/$1,342.99
Symbyax 6-50MG Capsules (LILLY): 30/$480.97 or 90/$1,390.93
This report on medications is for your information only, and is not considered individual patient advice. Because of the changing nature of drug information, please consult your physician or pharmacist about specific clinical use.
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com represent that the information provided hereunder was formulated with a reasonable standard of care, and in conformity with professional standards in the field. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com make no representations or warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such information and specifically disclaims all such warranties. Users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy are complex medical decisions requiring the independent, informed decision of an appropriate health care professional, and the information is provided for informational purposes only. The entire monograph for a drug should be reviewed for a thorough understanding of the drug's actions, uses and side effects. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com do not endorse or recommend the use of any drug. The information is not a substitute for medical care.
AHFS Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2013, Selected Revisions February 15, 2013. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Eli Lilly and Company. Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) Pulvules and delayed-release capsules prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN: 2011 Jun .
2. Dista Products Company. Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) product monograph. Indianapolis, IN; 1987 Dec 30.
3. Benfield P, Heel RC, Lewis SP. Fluoxetine: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in depressive illness. Drugs. 1986; 32:481-508. [IDIS 223767] [PubMed 2878798]
4. Sommi RW, Crismon ML, Bowden CL. Fluoxetine: a serotonin-specific, second-generation antidepressant. Pharmacotherapy. 1987; 7:1-15. [IDIS 391038] [PubMed 3554156]
5. Asberg M, Eriksson B, Martensson B et al. Therapeutic effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986; 47(Suppl):23-35. [IDIS 214396] [PubMed 2937776]
6. Wernicke JF. The side effect profile and safety of fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:59-67. [IDIS 197277] [PubMed 3156126]
7. Lemberger L, Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL et al. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:14-9. [IDIS 197269] [PubMed 3871765]
8. Stark P, Fuller RW, Wong DT. The pharmacologic profile of fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:7- 13. [IDIS 197268] [PubMed 3871767]
9. Pi EH, Simpson GM. New antidepressants: a review. Hosp Formul. 1985; 20:580-8.
10. Schatzberg AF, Dessain E, O’Neil P et al. Recent studies on selective serotonergic antidepressants: trazodone, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987; 7(Suppl):44-9S.
11. Baldessarini RJ. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In: Gilman AG, Goodman L, Rall TW et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: The Macmillan Company; 1985:387-445.
12. Muller EE, Locatelli V, Cella S et al. Prolactin-lowering and -releasing drugs: mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications. Drugs. 1983; 25:399-432. [IDIS 170483] [PubMed 6133737]
13. Fuller RW, Wong DT. Serotonin reuptake blockers in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987; 7(Suppl):36-43S.
14. Yen TT, Wong DT, Bemis KG. Reduction of food consumption and body weight of normal and obese mice by chronic treatment with fluoxetine: a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Drug Dev Res. 1987; 10:37-45.
15. Feighner JP, Cohn JB. Double-blind comparative trials of fluoxetine and doxepin in geriatric patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:20-5. [IDIS 197270] [PubMed 3882676]
16. Anon. Fluoxetine for depression. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1988; 30:45-7. [PubMed 3258399]
17. Goudie AJ, Thornton EW, Wheeler TJ. Effects of Lilly 110140, a specific inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake, on food intake and on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced anorexia. Evidence for serotonergic inhibition of feeding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1976; 28:318-20. [PubMed 6727]
18. Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Reid LR et al. Fluoxetine and two other serotonin uptake inhibitors without affinity for neuronal receptors. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983; 32:1287-93. [PubMed 6303355]
19. Byerley WF, McConnell EJ, McCabe RT et al. Decreased beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain after chronic administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Psychopharmacology. 1988; 94:141-3. [PubMed 2831557]
20. Blier P, de Montigny C, Chaput Y. Modifications of the serotonin system by antidepressant treatments: implications for the therapeutic response in major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987; 7(Suppl):24-35S.
21. Fuller RW. Functional consequences of inhibiting serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in rats. In: Ho BT, Schoolar JC, Usdin E, eds. Serotonin in biological psychiatry. New York: Raven Press; 1982:219- 28.
22. Anon. Fluoxetine: an antidepressant with specific serotonin uptake inhibition. Int Drug Ther Newsl. 1988; 23:5-11.
23. Weintraub M, Standish R. Fluoxetine: a specific serotonin uptake inhibitor being studied in depression. Hosp Formul. 1986; 21:758-63.
24. Meltzer HY, Young M, Metz J et al. Extrapyramidal side effects and increased serum prolactin following fluoxetine, a new antidepressant. J Neural Transm. 1979; 45:165-75. [PubMed 313977]
25. Robertson DW, Jones ND, Swartzendruber JK et al. Molecular structure of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a highly selective serotonin-uptake inhibitor. J Med Chem. 1988; 31:185-9. [PubMed 3257267]
26. Robertson DW, Krushinski JH, Fuller RW et al. Absolute configurations and pharmacological activities of the optical isomers of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-uptake inhibitor. J Med Chem. 1988; 31:1412-7. [PubMed 3260286]
27. Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Reid LR et al. Inhibition of serotonin uptake by optical isomers of fluoxetine. Drug Dev Res. 1985; 6:397-403.
28. Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Horng JS et al. A new selective inhibitor for uptake of serotonin into synaptosomes of rat brain: 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylprolylamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1975; 193:804-11. [PubMed 1151730]
29. Fuller RW, Perry KW, Molloy BB. Effect of 3- (p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine on the depletion of brain serotonin by 4-chloroamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1975; 193:796-803.
30. Wander TJ, Nelson A, Okazaki H et al. Antagonism by antidepressants of serotonin S1 and S2 receptors of normal human brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1986; 132:115-21. [PubMed 3816971]
31. Wong DT, Reid LR, Bymaster FP et al. Chronic effects of fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, on neurotransmitter receptors. J Neural Transm. 1985; 64:251-69. [PubMed 3003252]
32. Sulser F. Mode of action of antidepressant drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983; 44:14-20. [IDIS 170098] [PubMed 6406444]
33. Mishra R, Janowsky A, Sulser F. Subsensitivity of the norepinephrine receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system in brain: effects of nisoxetine versus fluoxetine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1979; 60:379-82. [PubMed 316774]
34. Schmidt MJ, Thornberry JF. Norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in brain slices in vitro after serotonin depletion or chronic administration of selective amine reuptake inhibitors. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1977; 229:42-51. [PubMed 201222]
35. Fuller RW, Snoddy HD. Fluoxetine enantiomers as antagonists of p-chloroamphetamine effects in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986; 24:281-4. [PubMed 3485293]
36. Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Perry KW et al. Importance of duration of drug action in the antagonism of p-chloroamphetamine depletion of brain serotonin—comparison of fluoxetine and chlorimipramine. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978; 27:193-8. [PubMed 623674]
37. Wong DT, Horng JS, Bymaster FP et al. A selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake: Lilly 110140, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine. Life Sci. 1974; 15:471-9. [PubMed 4549929]
38. Dumbrille-Ross A, Tang SW. Manipulations of synaptic serotonin: discrepancy of effects on serotonin S1 and S2 sites. Life Sci. 1983; 32:2677-84. [PubMed 6602261]
39. Wong DT, Bymaster FP. Subsensitivity of serotonin receptors after long-term treatment of rats with fluoxetine. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1981; 32:41-51. [PubMed 6974884]
40. Charney DS, Menkes DB, Heninger GR. Receptor sensitivity and the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment: implications for the etiology and therapy of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981; 38:1160-80. [IDIS 138923] [PubMed 6271089]
41. Bunney WE Jr, Garland BL. Selected aspects of amine and receptor hypotheses of affective illness. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1981; 1(Suppl):3-11S.
42. Banerjee SP, Kung LS, Riggi SJ et al. Development of β-adrenergic receptor subsensitivity by antidepressants. Nature. 1977; 268:455-6. [PubMed 197419]
43. Bergstrom DA, Kellar KJ. Adrenergic and serotonergic receptor binding after chronic desmethylimipramine treatment. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979; 209:256-61. [PubMed 220405]
44. Wolfe BB, Harden TK, Sporn JR et al. Presynaptic modulation of beta adrenergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex after treatment with antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1978; 207:446- 57. [PubMed 213556]
45. Maggi A, U’Prichard DC, Enna SJ. Differential effects of antidepressant treatment on brain monoaminergic receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980; 61:91-8. [PubMed 6101555]
46. Enna SJ, Kendall DA. Interaction of antidepressants with brain neurotransmitter receptors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1981; 1(Suppl):12-6S.
47. Peroutka SJ, Snyder SH. Long-term antidepressant treatment decreases spiroperidol-labeled serotonin receptor binding. Science. 1980; 210:88-90. [PubMed 6251550]
48. Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL, Lemberger L et al. Fluoxetine steady state pharmacokinetics in depressed patients. In: Abstracts of papers presented at American Pharmaceutical Association 133rd annual meeting and exposition. San Francisco, CA: 1986 Mar 16-20; 16:125. Abstract No. P-65.
49. Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Robertson DW. Mechanisms of effects of d-fenfluramine on brain serotonin metabolism in rats: uptake inhibition versus release. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988; 30:715-21. [PubMed 2463643]
50. Aronoff GR, Bergstrom RF, Pottratz ST et al. Fluoxetine kinetics and protein binding in normal and impaired renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984; 36:138-44. [IDIS 187566] [PubMed 6610522]
51. Schenker S, Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL et al. Fluoxetine disposition and elimination in cirrhosis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988; 44:353-9. [IDIS 246114] [PubMed 3262026]
52. Orsulak PJ, Kenney JT, Debus JR et al. Determination of the antidepressant fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine in serum by reversed-phase HPLC, with ultraviolet detection. Clin Chem. 1988; 34:1875-8. [IDIS 246744] [PubMed 3262022]
53. Lemberger L, Farid NA, Bergstrom RF et al. Fluoxetine, pharmacology and physiologic disposition. Int J Obes. 1987; 11(Suppl 3):157-61. [PubMed 3501991]
54. Saletu B, Grunberger J. Classification and determination of cerebral bioavailability of fluoxetine: pharmacokinetic, pharmaco-EEG, and psychometric analyses. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:45-52. [IDIS 197275] [PubMed 3882681]
55. Nash JF, Bopp RJ, Carmichael RH et al. Determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in plasma by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Clin Chem. 1982; 28:2100-2. [IDIS 158869] [PubMed 6982125]
56. Lemberger L, Rowe H, Carmichael R et al. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1978; 23:421-9. [IDIS 91146] [PubMed 630789]
57. Bergstrom RF, van Lier RBL, Lemberger L et al. Absolute bioavailability of fluoxetine in beagle dogs. In: Abstracts of papers presented at American Pharmaceutical Association 133rd annual meeting and exposition. San Francisco, CA: 1986 Mar 16-20; 16:126. Abstract No. P-66.
58. Bergstrom R, Wolen R, Dhahir P et al. Effect of food on the absorption of fluoxetine in normal subjects. In: Abstracts of papers presented at American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences 36th national meeting and 131st APhA annual meeting. Montreal, Canada: 1984 May 5-10; 14:110. Abstract No. 64.
59. Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL, Lemberger L et al. Fluoxetine single dose-multiple dose kinetics. In: Abstracts of papers presented at American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences 39th national meeting. Minneapolis, MN: 1985 Oct 20-24; 15:137. Abstract No. 3.
60. Bremner JD. Fluoxetine in depressed patients: a comparison with imipramine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1984; 45:414-9. [IDIS 191505] [PubMed 6384203]
61. Stark P, Hardison CD. A review of multicenter controlled studies of fluoxetine vs. imipramine and placebo in outpatients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:53-8. [IDIS 197276] [PubMed 3882682]
62. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994:393-444,539-50,771-4.
63. Cohn JB, Wilcox C. A comparison of fluoxetine, imipramine, and placebo in patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:26-31. [IDIS 197271] [PubMed 3882677]
64. Wernicke JF, Bremner JD. Fluoxetine effective in the long-term treatment of depression. Br J Clin Pract. 1986; 40(Suppl 46):17-23. [PubMed 3707819]
65. Chouinard G. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of outpatients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:32-7. [IDIS 197272] [PubMed 3882679]
66. Masco HL, Sheetz MS. Double-blind comparison of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of major depressive illness. Adv Ther. 1985; 2:275-84.
67. Feighner JP. A comparative trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in patients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:369-72. [IDIS 206448] [PubMed 3897204]
68. Wernicke JF, Dunlop SR, Dornseif BE et al. Fixed-dose fluoxetine therapy for depression. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987; 23:164-8. [PubMed 3496625]
69. Wernicke JF, Dunlop SR, Dornseif BE et al. Low-dose fluoxetine therapy for depression. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988; 24:183-8. [PubMed 3290940]
70. Rickels K, Smith WT, Glaudin V et al. Comparison of two dosage regimens of fluoxetine in major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:38-41. [IDIS 197273] [PubMed 3882680]
71. Rickels K, Amsterdam JD, Avallone MF. Fluoxetine in major depression: a controlled study. Curr Ther Res. 1986; 39:559-63.
72. Fabre LF, Crismon L. Efficacy of fluoxetine in outpatients with major depression. Curr Ther Res. 1985; 37:115-23.
73. Holsboer F, Von Bardeleben U, Gerken A et al. Antidepressant efficacy of fluoxetine in a diagnostically homogeneous inpatient population. Br J Clin Pract. 1986; 40(Suppl 46):8-16.
74. Fieve RR, Goodnick PJ, Peselow ED et al. Pattern analysis of antidepressant response to fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986; 47:560-2. [IDIS 229205] [PubMed 3533909]
75. Gorman JM, Liebowitz MR, Fyer AJ et al. An open trial of fluoxetine in the treatment of panic attacks. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987; 7:329-32. [IDIS 234693] [PubMed 3500189]
76. Fuller RW. Pharmacologic modification of serotonergic function: drugs for the study and treatment of psychiatric and other disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986; 47(Suppl):4-8. [IDIS 214393] [PubMed 3514585]
77. Ferguson JM. Treatment of an anorexia nervosa patient with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144:1239. [IDIS 234536] [PubMed 3498372]
78. Wilcox JA. Abuse of fluoxetine by a patient with anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144:1100. [IDIS 232984] [PubMed 3496803]
79. DePaulo JR, Simpson SG. Therapeutic and genetic prospects of an atypical affective disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987; 7(Suppl 6):50-4S. [IDIS 225374] [PubMed 3818992]
80. Reimherr FW, Wood DR, Byerley B et al. Characteristics of responders to fluoxetine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1984; 20:70-2. [PubMed 6371874]
81. South Wales Antidepressant Drug Trial Group. A double-blind multi-centre trial of fluoxetine and dothiepin in major depressive illness. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988; 3:75-81. [PubMed 3282004]
82. Stimmel GL. Fluoxetine: a serotonin-specific, second-generation antidepressant. Commentary 1. Pharmacotherapy. 1987; 7:14.
83. Gelenberg AJ. Fluoxetine: a serotonin-specific, second-generation antidepressant. Commentary 2. Pharmacotherapy. 1987; 7:14-5.
84. Patrias JM. Fluoxetine: a serotonin-specific, second-generation antidepressant. Commentary 2. Pharmacotherapy. 1987; 7:15.
85. Settle EC Jr, Puzzuoli Settle G. A case of mania associated with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1984; 141:280-1. [IDIS 180957] [PubMed 6362443]
86. Lebegue B. Mania precipitated by fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144:1620. [IDIS 237173] [PubMed 3500651]
87. Turner SM, Jacob RG, Beidel DC et al. A second case of mania associated with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1985; 142:274-5. [IDIS 195897] [PubMed 3871593]
88. Chouinard G, Steiner W. A case of mania induced by high-dose fluoxetine treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 1986; 143:686. [IDIS 215881] [PubMed 3485926]
89. Weber JJ. Seizure activity associated with fluoxetine therapy. Clin Pharm. 1989; 8:296-8. [IDIS 252910] [PubMed 2785443]
90. Hwang AS, Magraw RM. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone due to fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:399. [IDIS 254163] [PubMed 2784038]
91. Ware MR, Stewart RB. Seizures associated with fluoxetine therapy. DICP. 1989; 23:428. [IDIS 254677] [PubMed 2786293]
92. Chouinard G, Jones B. No crossover of sensitivity between zimelidine and fluoxetine. Can Med Assoc J. 1984; 131:1190. [PubMed 6238668]
93. Fisch C. Effect of fluoxetine on the electrocardiogram. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985; 46:42-4. [IDIS 197274] [PubMed 3871766]
94. Kalucy RS. Drug-induced weight gain. Drugs. 1980; 19:268-78. [IDIS 112886] [PubMed 6991239]
95. Crome P, Ali C. Clinical features and management of self-poisoning with newer antidepressants. Med Toxicol. 1986; 1:411-20. [IDIS 224382] [PubMed 3540518]
96. Rumack BH, ed. Poisindex. Fluoxetine. Denver: Micromedex, Inc; 1988 May.
97. Paykel ES, Mueller PS, de la Vergne PM. Amitriptyline, weight gain and carbohydrate craving: a side effect. Br J Psychiatry. 1973; 123:501-7. [PubMed 4588039]
98. Kahn D, Silver JM, Opler LA. The safety of switching rapidly from tricyclic antidepressants to monoamine oxidase inhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:198-202. [IDIS 254729] [PubMed 2738181]
99. Lemberger L, Rowe H, Bergstrom RF et al. Effect of fluoxetine on psychomotor performance, physiologic response, and kinetics of ethanol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985; 37:658-64. [IDIS 201897] [PubMed 3874037]
100. Steiner W, Fontaine R. Toxic reaction following the combined administration of fluoxetine and L-tryptophan: five case reports. Biol Psychiatry. 1986; 21:1067-71. [PubMed 3488767]
101. Bodkin JA, Teicher MH. Fluoxetine may antagonize the anxiolytic action of buspirone. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:150. [IDIS 253440] [PubMed 2786010]
102. Moskowitz H, Burns M. The effects on performance of two antidepressants, alone and in combination with diazepam. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1988; 12:783-92. [PubMed 3265525]
103. Vaughan DA. Interaction of fluoxetine with tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145:1478. [IDIS 248155] [PubMed 3263809]
104. Goodnick PJ. Influence of fluoxetine on plasma levels of desipramine. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:552. [IDIS 252861] [PubMed 2784633]
105. Rudorfer MV, Potter WZ. Combined fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:562-3. [IDIS 252869] [PubMed 2784634]
106. Vaughan DA. Combined fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:563-4.
107. Salama AA, Shafey M. A case of severe lithium toxicity induced by combined fluoxetine and lithium carbonate. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:278. [IDIS 251983] [PubMed 2492167]
108. Lemberger L, Rowe H, Bosomworth JC et al. The effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics and psychomotor responses of diazepam. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988; 43:412-9. [IDIS 240649] [PubMed 3128416]
109. Rowe H, Lemberger L, Bergstrom R et al. The effect of co-administration of fluoxetine and diazepam on psychomotor and physiologic responses. Pharmacologist. 1985; 27:196.
110. Turner SM, Jacob RG, Beidel DC et al. Fluoxetine treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1985; 5:207-12. [IDIS 202968] [PubMed 3894437]
111. Fontaine R, Chouinard G. An open clinical trial of fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1986; 6:98-101. [IDIS 213478] [PubMed 3517083]
112. Primeau F, Fontaine R. Obsessive disorder with self-mutilation: a subgroup responsive to pharmacotherapy. Can J Psychiatry. 1987; 32:699-701. [PubMed 3500773]
113. Cole JO, White K, Dugan SJ. The drug therapy of obsessive compulsive disorders. McLean Hosp J. 1987; 12:39-66.
114. Hamilton CA, Sellers EM, Sullivan JT et al. Interactions of fluoxetine (F) and amitriptyline (A) with ethanol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987; 41:231.
115. Grupp LA, Perlanski E, Stewart RB. Attenuation of alcohol intake by a serotonin uptake inhibitor: evidence for mediation through the renin-angiotensin system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988; 30:823-7. [PubMed 2852370]
116. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co; 1984:I8-10.
117. Finnegan KT, Gabiola JM. Fluoxetine overdose. Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145:1604. [IDIS 248471] [PubMed 3264119]
118. Tate JL. Extrapyramidal symptoms in a patient taking haloperidol and fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:399-400. [IDIS 254164] [PubMed 2784039]
119. Bell IR, Cole JO. Fluoxetine induces elevation of desipramine level and exacerbation of geriatric nonpsychotic depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988; 8:447-8. [IDIS 248840] [PubMed 3266222]
120. Sternbach H. Danger of MAOI therapy after fluoxetine withdrawal. Lancet. 1988; 2:850-1. [IDIS 246846] [PubMed 2902292]
121. Pope HG Jr, McElroy SL, Nixon RA. Possible synergism between fluoxetine and lithium in refractory depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145:1292-4. [IDIS 246219] [PubMed 3262313]
122. Debus JR, Rush AJ, Himmel C et al. Fluoxetine versus trazodone in the treatment of outpatients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1988; 49:422-6. [IDIS 248279] [PubMed 3053668]
123. Ferguson JM. Fluoxetine-induced weight loss in overweight, nondepressed subjects. Am J Psychiatry. 1986; 143:1496. [PubMed 3535547]
124. Rockman GE, Amit Z, Brown ZW et al. An investigation of the mechanisms of action of 5- hydroxytryptamine in the suppression of ethanol intake. Neuropharmacology. 1982; 21:341-7. [PubMed 7088267]
125. Van Woert MH, Magnussen I, Rosenbaum D et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of intention myoclonus. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1983; 6:49-54. [IDIS 113196] [PubMed 6189599]
126. Chung E. Cerebellar cyclic GMP in p,p′-DDT myoclonus: effects of antimyoclonic agents. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1983; 40:87-98. [PubMed 6306746]
127. Zabik JE, Roache JD, Sidor R et al. The effects of fluoxetine on ethanol preference in the rat. Pharmacologist. 1982; 24:204.
128. Murphy JM, Gatto GJ, Waller MB et al. Effects of scheduled access on ethanol intake by the alcohol-preferring (P) line of rats. Alcohol. 1986; 3:331-6. [PubMed 3778650]
129. Langdon N, Shindler J, Parkes JD et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of cataplexy. Sleep. 1986; 9:371-3. [PubMed 3509809]
130. Slater IH, Jones GT, Moore RA. Inhibition of REM sleep by fluoxetine, a specific inhibitor of serotonin uptake. Neuropharmacology. 1978; 17:383-9. [PubMed 209365]
131. Pastel RH, Fernstrom JD. Short-term effects of fluoxetine and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine on electroencephalographic sleep in the rat. Brain Res. 1987; 436:92-102. [PubMed 3500757]
132. Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA. Studies on the modulation of the sleep-wakefulness continuum in man by fluoxetine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor. Neuropharmacology. 1988; 27:597-602. [PubMed 3262203]
133. Kupfer DJ, Spiker DG, Coble PA et al. Sleep and treatment prediction in endogenous depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1981; 138:429-34. [IDIS 176783] [PubMed 7212100]
134. Linnoila M, Eckardt M, Durcan M et al. Interactions of serotonin with ethanol: clinical and animal studies. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987; 23:452-7. [PubMed 3324152]
135. Fuller RW, Perry KW, Molloy BB. Effect of an uptake inhibitor on serotonin metabolism in rat brain: studies with 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylprop ylamine (Lilly 110140). Life Sci. 1974; 15:1161-71. [PubMed 4550008]
136. Bymaster FP, Wong DT. Effect of Lilly 110140, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine on synthesis of3H serotonin from3H-tryptophan in rat brain. Pharmacologist. 1974; 16:244.
137. Chung Hwang E, Magnussen I, Van Woert MH. Effects of chronic fluoxetine administration on serotonin metabolism. Res Commun Chem Path Pharmacol. 1980; 29:79-98.
138. Guan XM, McBride WJ. Fluoxetine increases the extracellular levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res Bull. 1988; 21:43-6. [PubMed 2464422]
139. Peroutka SJ, Snyder SH. Regulation of serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptors labeled with [3H] spiroperidol by chronic treatment with the antidepressant amitriptyline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980; 215:582-7. [PubMed 6255132]
140. Garver DL, Davis JM. Minireview: biogenic amine hypotheses of affective disorders. Life Sci. 1979; 24:383-94. [PubMed 372718]
141. Schildkraut JJ. The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of supporting evidence. Am J Psychiatry. 1965; 122:509-22. [PubMed 5319766]
142. Kendall DA, Duman R, Slopis J et al. Influence of adrenocorticotropin hormone and yohimbine on antidepressant-induced declines in rat brain neurotransmitter receptor binding and function. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982; 222:566-71. [PubMed 6286924]
143. Messing RB, Phebus L, Fisher LA et al. Analgesic effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Lilly 110140), a specific inhibitor of serotonin uptake. Psychopharmacol Commun. 1975; 1:511-21. [PubMed 132683]
144. Lin MT, Chandra A, Chi ML et al. Effects of increasing serotonergic receptor activity in brain on analgesic activity in rats. Exp Neurol. 1980; 68:548- 54. [PubMed 6966578]
145. Gebhart GF, Lorens SA. Attenuation of pethidine-induced antinociception by zimelidine, an inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake. Br J Pharmacol. 1980; 70:411-4. [PubMed 6449224]
146. Hynes MD, Fuller RW. The effect of fluoxetine on morphine analgesia, respiratory depression, and lethality. Drug Dev Res. 1982; 2:33-42.
147. Sugrue MF, McIndewar I. Effect of blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake on drug-induced antinociception in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1976; 28:447-8. [PubMed 6756]
148. Larson AA, Takemori AE. Effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Lilly 110140), a specific inhibitor of serotonin uptake, on morphine analgesia and the development of tolerance. Life Sci. 1977; 21:1807-12. [PubMed 604708]
149. Malec D, Langwinski R. Effect of quipazine and fluoxetine on analgesic-induced catalepsy and antinociception in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1980; 32:71-3. [PubMed 6102137]
150. Hynes MD, Lochner MA, Bemis KG et al. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake, potentiates morphine analgesia without altering its discriminative stimulus properties or affinity for opioid receptors. Life Sci. 1985; 36:2317-23. [PubMed 2989631]
151. Lee RL, Spencer PSJ. The effect of clomipramine and other amine-uptake inhibitors on morphine analgesia in laboratory animals. Postgrad Med J. 1977; 53(Suppl 4):53-61. [PubMed 600899]
152. Hwang AS, Wilcox GL. Analgesic properties of intrathecally administered heterocyclic antidepressants. Pain. 1987; 28:343-55. [PubMed 3494977]
153. Feldman RS, Smith WC. Chlordiazepoxide-fluoxetine interactions on food intake in free-feeding rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1978; 8:749-52. [PubMed 308664]
154. Rowland N, Antelman SM, Kocan D. Differences among “serotonergic” anorectics in a cross-tolerance paradigm: do they all act on serotonin systems? Eur J Pharmacol. 1982; 81:57-66.
155. Leander JD. Fluoxetine suppresses palatability-induced ingestion. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987; 91:285-7. [PubMed 3104951]
156. Wurtman JJ, Wurtman RJ. Fenfluramine and fluoxetine spare protein consumption while suppressing caloric intake by rats. Science. 1977; 198:1178-80. [PubMed 929195]
157. McBride WJ, Murphy JM, Lumeng L et al. Effects of Ro 15-4513, fluoxetine and desipramine on the intake of ethanol, water and food by the alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) lines of rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988; 30:1045-50. [PubMed 3265788]
158. Angel I, Taranger MA, Claustre T et al. Anorectic activities of serotonin uptake inhibitors: correlation with their potencies at inhibiting serotonin uptake in vivo and3H-mazindol binding in vitro. Life Sci. 1988; 43:651-8. [PubMed 3261828]
159. Kim SH, Wurtman RJ. Selective effects of CGS 10686B, dl-fenfluramine or fluoxetine on nutrient selection. Physiol Behav. 1988; 42:319-22. [PubMed 2838855]
160. Weiss GF, Papadakos P, Knudson K et al. Medial hypothalamic serotonin: effects on deprivation and norepinephrine-induced eating. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986; 25:1223-30. [PubMed 3027720]
161. Harto NE, Spera KF, Branconnier RJ. Fluoxetine-induced reduction of body mass in patients with major depressive disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988; 24:220-3. [PubMed 3264922]
162. Zerbe RL. Safety of fluoxetine in the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes. 1987; 11:191-9. [PubMed 3501995]
163. Simpson RJ, Lawton DJ, Watt MH et al. Effect of zimelidine, a new antidepressant, on appetite and body weight. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 11:96-8. [IDIS 132457] [PubMed 6452151]
164. Bernstein JG. Induction of obesity by psychotropic drugs. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1987; 499:203-15. [PubMed 2886102]
165. Clemens JA, Sawyer BD, Cerimele B. Further evidence that serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in the control of prolactin secretion. Endocrinology. 1977; 100:692-8. [PubMed 401022]
166. Morgan WW, Herbert DC. Elevation of serum prolactin levels after the inhibition of serotonin uptake. Endocrinology. 1978; 103:1016-22. [PubMed 311282]
167. Wurtman JJ, Wurtman RJ. Fenfluramine and other serotonergic drugs depress food intake and carbohydrate consumption while sparing protein consumption. Curr Med Res Opin. 1979; 6(Suppl 1):28-33.
168. Hart JC, Leander JD. Reduction of palatability-induced fluid consumption by serotonergic uptake inhibition with fluoxetine. Pharmacologist. 1984; 26:183.
169. Blundell JE. Serotonin and appetite. Neuropharmacology. 1984; 23:1537-51. [PubMed 6152027]
170. Burket RC, Hodgin JD. Fluoxetine treatment of a depressed patient susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:680. [IDIS 253918] [PubMed 2785349]
171. Awad AG. New antidepressants—the serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa. 1987; 12:31-4.
172. Naranjo CA, Sellers EM, Roach CA et al. Zimelidine-induced variations in alcohol intake by nondepressed heavy drinkers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984; 35:374-81. [IDIS 183706] [PubMed 6230195]
173. Naranjo CA, Sellers EM, Sullivan JT et al. The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram attenuates ethanol intake. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987; 41:266-74. [IDIS 227058] [PubMed 3469057]
174. Riddle MA, Leckman JF, Hardin MT et al. Fluoxetine treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with Tourette’s syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145:1173-4. [IDIS 245293] [PubMed 3046386]
175. Hollander E, Papp L, Campeas R et al. More on self mutilation and obsessive compulsive disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 1988; 33:675. [PubMed 3058294]
176. Levine S, Deo R, Mahadevan K. A comparative trial of a new antidepressant, fluoxetine. Br J Psychiatry. 1987; 150:653-5. [PubMed 3307982]
177. Brady K, Zarzar M, Lydiard RB. Fluoxetine in panic disorder patients with imipramine-associated weight gain. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:66-7. [IDIS 251944] [PubMed 2785123]
178. Kelly MW, Perry PJ, Holstad SG et al. Serum fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentrations and antidepressant response. Ther Drug Monit. 1989; 11:165-70. [IDIS 251583] [PubMed 2785723]
179. Pohland RC, Byrd TK, Hamilton M et al. Placental transfer and fetal distribution of fluoxetine in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989; 98:198-205. [PubMed 2785300]
180. Graham PM, Ilett KF. Danger of MAOI therapy after fluoxetine withdrawal. Lancet. 1988; 2:1255-6. [PubMed 2903989]
181. Lin MT. Effects of specific inhibitors of 5- hydroxytryptamine uptake on thermoregulation in rats. J Physiol. 1978; 284:147-54. [PubMed 310457]
182. Kleven MS, Dwoskin LP, Sparber SB. Pharmacological evidence for the existence of multiple functional pools of brain serotonin: analysis of brain perfusate from conscious rats. J Neurochem. 1983; 41:1143-9. [PubMed 6194257]
183. Chung Hwang E, Van Woert MH. p,p′-DDT-induced myoclonus: serotonin and alpha noradrenergic interaction. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1979; 23:257-66. [PubMed 37558]
184. Chung Hwang E, Van Woert MH. p,p′-DDT-induced neurotoxic syndrome: experimental myoclonus. Neurology. 1978; 28:1020-5. [PubMed 311446]
185. Krulich L. The effect of a serotonin uptake inhibitor (Lilly 110140) on the secretion of prolactin in the rat. Life Sci. 1975; 17:1141-4. [PubMed 1081634]
186. Fuller RW. Serotonergic stimulation of pituitary-adrenocortical function in rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1981; 32:118-27. [PubMed 7010191]
187. Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Molloy BB. Pharmacologic evidence for a serotonin neural pathway involved in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function in rats. Life Sci. 1976; 19:337-46. [PubMed 183074]
188. Gibbs DM, Vale W. Effect of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine on corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin secretion into hypophysial portal blood. Brain Res. 1983; 280:176-9. [PubMed 6317143]
189. Petraglia F, Facchinetti F, Martignoni E et al. Serotonergic agonists increase plasma levels of β-endorphin and β-lipotropin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984; 59:1138-42. [IDIS 193738] [PubMed 6092410]
190. Wold JS, Joost RR, Griffing WJ et al. Phospholipid accumulation in rats produced by fluoxetine and chlorphentermine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1976; 37:118-9.
191. Fuller RW, Rathbun RC, Parli CJ. Inhibition of drug metabolism by fluoxetine. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1976; 13:353-6. [PubMed 943818]
192. Bunney WE Jr, Goodwin FK, Murphy DL et al. The “switch process” in manic-depressive illness. II. Relationship to catecholamines, REM sleep, and drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974; 27:304-9.
193. Modell JG. Repeated observations of yawning, clitoral engorgement, and orgasm associated with fluoxetine administration. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:63-5. [IDIS 251942] [PubMed 2785122]
194. Lloyd KG, Thuret F, Pilc A. Upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: a common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985; 235:191-9. [PubMed 2995646]
195. Ferguson JM, Feighner JP. Fluoxetine-induced weight loss in overweight non-depressed humans. Int J Obes. 1987; 11(Suppl 3):163-70. [PubMed 3501992]
196. Corne SJ, Pickering RW, Warner BT. A method for assessing the effects of drugs on the central actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1963; 20:106-20. [PubMed 14023050]
197. Babcock DA, Narver EL, Dement WC et al. Effects of imipramine, chlorimipramine, and fluoxetine on cataplexy in dogs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1976; 5:599-602. [PubMed 1035802]
198. Douglas WW. Histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and their antagonists. In: Gilman AG, Goodman L, Rall TW et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: The Macmillan Company; 1985:605-38.
199. Bowsher DJ, Rowe H, Norid NA et al. Pressor responses to tyramine and norepinephrine after subchronic administration of fluoxetine to man. Life Sci. 1988; 42:2569-75. [PubMed 3260321]
200. Kline SS, Mauro LS, Scala-Barnett DM et al. Serotonin syndrome versus neuroleptic malignant syndrome as a cause of death. Clin Pharm. 1989; 8:510-4. [IDIS 257026] [PubMed 2568897]
201. Hall H, Sallemark M, Wedel I. Acute effects of atypical antidepressants on various receptors in the rat brain. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1984; 54:379-84. [PubMed 6464782]
202. Soliman KF, Gabriel NN. Effect of biogenic amines reuptake inhibition on ethanol induced hypothermia. Gen Pharmacol. 1983; 14:461-3. [PubMed 6618150]
203. Fuller RW, Baker JC. Further evidence for serotonin involvement in thermoregulation following morphine administration from studies with an inhibitor of serotonin uptake. Res Comm Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1974; 8:715-8.
204. Peters JR, Grahame-Smith DG. Human platelet 5HT receptors: characterisation and functional association. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980; 68:243-56. [PubMed 7202490]
205. Montgomery SA, Gabriel R, James D et al. Hypersensitivity to zimelidine without cross reactivity to fluoxetine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):27-9. [PubMed 2521657]
206. Schaffler K. Study on performance and alcohol interaction with the antidepressant fluoxetine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):15-20. [PubMed 2783698]
207. Allen D, Lader M. Interactions of alcohol with amitriptyline, fluoxetine and placebo in normal subjects. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):7-14. [PubMed 2783702]
208. von Bardeleben U, Steiger A, Gerken A et al. Effects of fluoxetine upon pharmacoendocrine and sleep-EEG parameters in normal controls. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):1-5. [PubMed 2536765]
209. von Bardeleben U, Holsboer F, Gerken A et al. Mood elevating effect of fluoxetine in a diagnostically homogeneous inpatient population with major depressive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):31-5. [PubMed 2644337]
210. Poelinger W, Haber H. Fluoxetine 40mg vs maprotiline 75mg in the treatment of out-patients with depressive disorders. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):47-50. [PubMed 2644340]
211. Montgomery SA. The efficacy of fluoxetine as an antidepressant in the short and long term. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):113-9. [PubMed 2644336]
212. Wernicke JF, Bosomworth JC, Ashbrook E. Fluoxetine at 20 mg per day: the recommended and therapeutic dose in the treatment of depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 4(Suppl 1):63-7. [PubMed 2644341]
213. Murphy JM, Waller MB, Gatto GJ et al. Effects of fluoxetine on the intragastric self-administration of ethanol in the alcohol preferring P line of rats. Alcohol. 1988; 5:283-6. [PubMed 3265874]
214. Murphy JM, Waller MB, Gatto GJ et al. Monoamine uptake inhibitors attenuate ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol. 1985; 2:349-52. [PubMed 3925968]
215. Cooper AJ. Guide to the long-term drug treatment of major affective disorder: a review. Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa. 1988; 13:144-8.
216. Anon. How long should antidepressive treatment continue? Drug Ther Bull. 1988; 26:79-80.
217. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations).
218. Vogel GW, Vogel F, McAbee RS et al. Improvement of depression by REM sleep deprivation: new findings and a theory. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980; 37:247-53. [PubMed 7362414]
219. Naranjo CA, Sellers EM, Sanhueza P et al. The serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, reduced alcohol consumption in problem drinkers. Psychopharmacology. 1988; 96(Suppl):311. [PubMed 2906152]
220. Freeman CPL, Hampson M. Fluoxetine as a treatment for bulimia nervosa. Int J Obes. 1987; 11(Suppl 3):171-7. [PubMed 3501993]
221. Jenike MA, Buttolph L, Baer L et al. An open trial of fluoxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:909-11. [IDIS 257879] [PubMed 2787123]
222. USPDI: drug information for the health care professional. Johnson KW, ed. 19th ed. Williston, VT: Micromedex; 1999:1503-7.
223. Kline MD. Fluoxetine and anorgasmia. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:804-5. [IDIS 255129] [PubMed 2786344]
224. Renyi L. The effect of selective 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitors on 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced ejaculation in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1986; 87:639-48. [PubMed 2939912]
225. Aranow RB, Hudson JI, Pope HG Jr et al. Elevated antidepressant plasma levels after addition of fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:911-3. [IDIS 257880] [PubMed 2787124]
226. Levine R, Hoffman JS, Knepple ED et al. Long-term fluoxetine treatment of a large number of obsessive-compulsive patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:281-3. [IDIS 257454] [PubMed 2504781]
227. Downs JM, Downs AD, Rosenthal TL et al. Increased plasma tricyclic antidepressant concentrations in two patients concurrently treated with fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989; 50:226-7. [IDIS 256111] [PubMed 2785987]
228. Kinney-Parker JL, Smith D, Ingle SF. Fluoxetine and weight: something lost and something gained? Clin Pharm. 1989; 8:727-33.
229. Mitchell JE, Pyle RL, Eckert ED et al. Response to alternative antidepressants in imipramine nonresponders with bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:291-3. [IDIS 257457] [PubMed 2671061]
230. Nakra BRS, Szwabo P, Grossberg GT. Mania induced by fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:1515-6. [IDIS 260049] [PubMed 2817129]
231. McElroy SL, Keck PE Jr, Pope HG Jr et al. Pharmacological treatment of kleptomania and bulimia nervosa. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:358-60. [IDIS 265794] [PubMed 2677062]
232. Clifton PG, Barnfield AMC, Philcox L. A behavioral profile of fluoxetine-induced anorexia. Psychopharmacology. 1989; 97:89-95. [PubMed 2496433]
233. Montgomery SA, Dufour H, Brion S et al. The prophylactic efficacy of fluoxetine in unipolar depression. Br J Psychiatry. 1988; 153(Suppl 3):69-76.
234. Cooper GL. The safety of fluoxetine—an update. Br J Psychiatry. 1988; 153(Suppl 3):77-86.
235. Teicher MH, Glod C, Cole JO. Emergence of intense suicidal preoccupation during fluoxetine treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:207-10. [IDIS 262670] [PubMed 2301661]
236. Masand P, Gupta S, Dewan M. Suicidal ideation related to fluoxetine treatment. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:420. [IDIS 277090] [PubMed 1987466]
237. Anon. In defense of fluoxetine. Int Drug Ther Newsl. 1990; 25:29-30.
238. Teicher MH, Glod CA, Cole JO. Discussion of fluoxetine and suicidal tendencies. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1572. [PubMed 2221177]
239. Dista Products Company. Dear doctor letter regarding possible relationship between therapy with Prozac and suicidal ideation. Indianapolis, IN: Eli Lilly and Company; 1990 Sep 7.
240. Miller RA. Discussion of fluoxetine and suicidal tendencies. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1571. [IDIS 273455] [PubMed 2221176]
241. Tollefson GD. Fluoxetine and suicidal ideation. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1691-2. [IDIS 275575] [PubMed 2244652]
242. Teicher MH, Glod CA, Cole JO. Fluoxetine and suicidal ideation. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1692-3.
243. Damluji NF, Ferguson JM. Paradoxical worsening of depressive symptomatology caused by antidepressants. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988; 8:347-9. [IDIS 246933] [PubMed 3183073]
244. Anon. Fluoxetine (Prozac) revisited. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1990; 32:83-5. [PubMed 2392089]
245. Jones WA. More on “liquid” fluoxetine. Int Drug Ther Newsl. 1990; 25:32.
246. McCormick S, Olin J, Brotman AW. Reversal of fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia by cyproheptadine in two patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:383-4. [IDIS 272903] [PubMed 2211550]
247. Reccoppa L, Welch WA, Ware MR. Acute dystonia and fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:487. [IDIS 275539] [PubMed 2228987]
248. Halman M, Goldbloom DS. Fluoxetine and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 1990; 28:518-21. [PubMed 2223920]
249. Jenike MA. Severe hair loss associated with fluoxetine use. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:392. [IDIS 278596] [PubMed 1992847]
250. Noveske FG, Hahn KR, Flynn RJ. Possible toxicity of combined fluoxetine and lithium. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:1515. [IDIS 260048] [PubMed 2510522]
251. Liebowitz MR, Hollander E, Schneier F et al. Fluoxetine treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open clinical trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989; 9:423-7. [IDIS 261648] [PubMed 2687337]
252. Jenike MA, Baer L, Greist JH. Clomipramine versus fluoxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective comparison of side effects and efficacy. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990; 10:122-4. [IDIS 264931] [PubMed 2140372]
253. Simeon JG, Thatte S, Wiggins D. Treatment of adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder with a clomipramine-fluoxetine combination. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990; 26:285-90. [PubMed 2274627]
254. Marcus MD, Wing RR, Ewing L et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine plus behavior modification in the treatment of obese binge-eaters and non-binge-eaters. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:876-81. [IDIS 269575] [PubMed 2192563]
255. Gwirtsman HE, Guze BH, Yager J et al. Fluoxetine treatment of anorexia nervosa: an open clinical trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:378-82. [IDIS 272902] [PubMed 2102671]
256. Ramirez LC, Rosenstock J, Strowig S et al. Effective treatment of bulimia with fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in a patient with type I diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1990; 88:540-1. [IDIS 266343] [PubMed 2140012]
257. Bouchard RH, Pourcher E, Vincent P. Fluoxetine and extrapyramidal side effects. Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146:352-3.
258. Feder R. Fluoxetine-induced mania. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:524-5. [IDIS 276162] [PubMed 2258369]
259. Metz A, Shader RI. Adverse interactions encountered when using trazodone to treat insomnia associated with fluoxetine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990; 5:191-4. [PubMed 2230063]
260. Basel Pharmaceutical. Tegretol (carbamazepine) chewable tablets and tablets prescribing information. Ardsley, NY; 1991 May.
261. Basel Pharmaceutical. Tegretol (carbamazepine) suspension prescribing information. Ardsley, NY; 1991 May.
262. Grimsley SR, Jann MW, Carter JG et al. Increased carbamazepine plasma concentrations after fluoxetine coadministration. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991; 50:10-5. [IDIS 285572] [PubMed 1855347]
263. Pearson HJ. Interaction of fluoxetine with carbamazepine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:3.
264. Carbamazepine/fluoxetine. In Tatro DS, Olin BR, eds. Drug interaction facts. St. Louis: JB Lipincott Co; 1991 (Apr):174a.
265. Kincaid RL, McMullin MM, Crookman SB et al. Report of a fluoxetine fatality. J Anal Toxicol. 1990; 14:327-9. [PubMed 2263071]
266. Rohrig TP, Prouty RW. Fluoxetine overdose: a case report. J Anal Toxicol. 1989; 13:305-7. [PubMed 2693835]
267. Achamallah NS, Decker DH. Mania induced by fluoxetine in an adolescent. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1404. [IDIS 288628] [PubMed 1897627]
268. Steiner W. Fluoxetine-induced mania in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1403-4. [IDIS 288627] [PubMed 1897626]
269. Cunningham M, Cunningham K, Lydiard RB. Eye tics and subjective hearing impairment during fluoxetine therapy. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:947-8. [IDIS 269578] [PubMed 2356881]
270. Moore JL, Rodriguez R. Toxicity of fluoxetine overdose. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1089. [IDIS 269593] [PubMed 2375446]
271. Musher JS. Anorgasmia with the use of fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:948. [IDIS 269579] [PubMed 2356882]
272. Neill JR. Penile anesthesia associated with fluoxetine use. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1603. [IDIS 290512] [PubMed 1928483]
273. Browning WN. Exacerbation of symptoms of multiple sclerosis in a patient taking fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:1089. [IDIS 269592] [PubMed 2375445]
274. Lipinski JF, Mallya G, Zimmerman P et al. Fluoxetine-induced akathisia: clinical and theoretical implications. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989; 50:339-42. [IDIS 259063] [PubMed 2549018]
275. Lipinski JF, Mallya G, Zimmerman P et al. Akathisia and fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:212.
276. Falon BA, Liebowitz MR. Fluoxetine and extrapyramidal symptoms in CNS lupus. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991; 11:147-8. [IDIS 280857] [PubMed 2056144]
277. Budman CL, Bruun RD. Persistent dyskinesia in a patient receiving fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1403. [IDIS 288626] [PubMed 1897625]
278. Isenberg KE. Excretion of fluoxetine in human breast milk. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:169. [IDIS 265135] [PubMed 2324084]
279. Vincent A, Douville M, Baruch P. Serum sickness induced by fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1602-3. [IDIS 290511] [PubMed 1928481]
280. Vishwanath BM, Navalgund AA, Cusano W et al. Fluoxetine as a cause of SIADH. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:542-3. [IDIS 279720] [PubMed 2006703]
281. Cohen BJ, Mahelsky M, Adler L. More cases of SIADH with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:948-9. [IDIS 269580] [PubMed 2356883]
282. Mandalos GE, Szarek BL. Dose-related paranoid reaction associated with fluoxetine. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990; 178:57-8. [PubMed 2295892]
283. Sternbach H. The serotonin syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:705-13. [IDIS 282914] [PubMed 2035713]
284. Feighner JP, Boyer WF, Tyler DL et al. Adverse consequences of fluoxetine-MAOI combination. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51:222-5. [IDIS 267347] [PubMed 2347858]
285. Rosenstein DL, Takeshita J, Nelson JC. Fluoxetine-induced elevation and prolongation of tricyclic levels in overdose. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:807. [IDIS 282921] [PubMed 2035725]
286. Extein IL. Recent fluoxetine treatment and complications of tricyclic therapy. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1601-2. [IDIS 290510] [PubMed 1928480]
287. Alessi N, Bos T. Buspirone augmentation of fluoxetine in a depressed child with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1605-6. [IDIS 290517] [PubMed 1928487]
288. Markovitz PJ, Stagno SJ, Calabrese JR. Buspirone augmentation of fluoxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:790-800.
289. Naranjo CA, Kadlec KE, Sanhueza P et al. Fluoxetine differentially alters alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors in problem drinkers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 47:490-8. [IDIS 267307] [PubMed 2328557]
290. FDA Press Office. Talk paper: FDA denies Scientology petition against Prozac. [T91-46.] Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 1991 Aug 1.
291. Wolfe SM, Hellander I. Citizen’s petition for revision of fluoxetine (Prozac) labeling to Dr. David Kessler, Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration. Washington, DC: Public Citizen; 1991 May 23.
292. Anon. No “credible evidence” to conclude that Lilly’s Prozac or other anti-depressants cause or intensify suicidality, FDA advisory committee determines. FDA Rep Prescrip OTC Pharmaceut. 1991; 53(Sep 23):3-4.
293. Teicher MH, Glod CA, Cole JO. Preoccupation with suicide in patients treated with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1091-2. [IDIS 285633] [PubMed 1898490]
294. Hoover CE. Suicidal ideation not associated with fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:543-4. [IDIS 279721] [PubMed 2006704]
295. Chouinard G. Fluoxetine and preoccupation with suicide. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1258-9. [IDIS 287951] [PubMed 1679300]
296. Teicher MH, Glod CA, Cole JO. Fluoxetine and preoccupation with suicide. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1260-2.
297. McGrath BJ, Stoukides CA. Fluoxetine and suicidal ideation. DICP. 1991; 25:607-9. [IDIS 281943] [PubMed 1877271]
298. Dista. Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) capsules and oral solution prescribing information. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 49th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1995:943-7.
299. Nierenberg DW, Semprebon M. The central nervous system serotonin syndrome. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993; 53:84-8. [IDIS 308978] [PubMed 8257462]
300. Mills KC. Serotonin syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 1995; 52:11475-82.
301. Reynolds RD. Serotonin syndrome: what family physicians need to know. Am Fam Physician. 1995; 52:1263-71. [IDIS 354637] [PubMed 7572545]
302. Lappin RI, Auchincloss EL. Treatment of the serotonin syndrome with cyproheptadine. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330:1021-2. [PubMed 8121457]
303. Sporer KA. The serotonin syndrome. Implicated drugs, pathophysiology and management. Drug Saf. 1995; 13:94-104. [PubMed 7576268]
304. Evans ML, Kortas KJ. Potential interaction between isoniazid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1995; 52:2135-6. [IDIS 354730] [PubMed 8535949]
305. Neuvonen PJ, Pohjola-Sintonen S, Tacke U. Five fatal cases of serotonin syndrome after moclobemide-citalopram or moclobemide-clomipramine overdoses. Lancet. 1993; 342:1419. [IDIS 322746] [PubMed 7901695]
306. Spigset O, Mjorndal T, Lovhelm O. Serotonin syndrome caused by a moclobemide-clomipramine interaction. BMJ. 1993; 306:248.
307. Graber MA, Hoehns TB, Perry PJ. Sertraline-phenelzine drug interaction: a serotonin syndrome reaction. Ann Pharmacother. 1994; 28:732-5. [IDIS 332591] [PubMed 7919561]
308. Zornberg GL, Hegarty JD. Adverse interaction between propoxyphene and phenelzine. Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150:1270-1. [IDIS 318142] [PubMed 8328578]
309. Brodribb TR, Downey M, Gilbar PJ. Efficacy and adverse effects of moclobemide. Lancet. 1994; 343:475. [IDIS 325641] [PubMed 7905962]
310. Brannan SK, Talley BJ, Bowden CL. Sertraline and isocarboxazid cause a serotonin syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994; 14:144-5. [IDIS 327530] [PubMed 8195456]
311. Somerset Pharmaceuticals. Eldepryl (selegiline) tablets prescribing information (dated 1994 Sep). In: Physicians’ desk reference. 49th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1995(Supp A):A157-8.
312. Somerset Pharmaceuticals. Eldepryl (selegiline) tablets prescribing information (dated 1993 Jan). In: Physicians’ desk reference. 49th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1995:2430-2.
313. Blume CD. Dear doctor letter regarding use of Eldepryl. Tampa, FL: Somerset Pharmaceuticals; 1994 Nov 14.
314. Deitch MW. Dear doctor letter regarding use of Effexor. Philadelphia, PA: Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories; 1994 Dec 28.
315. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories. Effexor (venlafaxine) tablets prescribing information In: Physicians’ desk reference. 49th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1995:2664-8.
316. Bhatara VS, Bandettini FC. Possible interaction between sertraline and tranylcypromine. Clin Pharm. 1993; 12:222-5. [IDIS 310301] [PubMed 8491079]
317. Messiha FS. Fluoxetine: Adverse effects and drug-drug interactions. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993; 31:603-30. [IDIS 323333] [PubMed 8254702]
318. Hansen TE, Dieter K, Keepers GA. Interaction of fluoxetine and pentazocine. Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147:949-50. [IDIS 2269581] [PubMed 2356884]
319. Jahr JS, Pisto JD, Gitlin MC et al. The serotonin syndrome in a patient receiving sertraline after an ankle block. Anesth Analg. 1994; 79:189-91. [IDIS 332635] [PubMed 8010436]
320. Dursun SM, Mathew VM, Revelay MA. Toxic serotonin syndrome after fluoxetine plus carbamazepine. Lancet. 1993; 342:442-3.
321. Anon. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Interactions. Fluoxetine (Prozac). In: Hansten PD, Horn JR, eds. Drug interactions & updates. Applied Therapeutics, Inc.; Updates, April 1994:744.
322. Skop BP, Finkelstein JA, Mareth TR et al. The serotonin syndrome associated with paroxetine, and over-the-counter cold remedy, and vascular disease. Am J Emerg Med. 1994; 12:642-44. [IDIS 339472] [PubMed 7945606]
323. Coplan JD, Gorman JM. Detectable levels of fluoxetine metabolites after discontinuation: an unexpected serotonin syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150:837. [IDIS 314308] [PubMed 8480837]
324. Beasley CM, Masica DN, Heiligenstein JH et al. Possible monoamine oxidase inhibitor–serotonin uptake inhibitor interaction: fluoxetine clinical data and preclinical findings. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993; 13:312-20. [IDIS 320450] [PubMed 8227489]
325. Wyeth-Ayerst. Redux (dexfenfluramine hydrochloride) capsules prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA; 1996 April 29.
326. Miller F, Friedman R, Miller F, Tanenbaum J et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute myoglobinuric renal failure: A consequence of the serotonin syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991; 11:277-9. [IDIS 286360] [PubMed 1918432]
327. Jermaine DM. Potential fluoxetine-selegiline interaction. Ann Pharmacother. 1992; 26:1300.
328. Solvay. Luvox (fluvoxamine maleate) tablets prescribing information (dated 1996 Aug). In: Physicians’ desk reference. 51st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1997:2723-7.
329. SmithKline Beecham. Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride) tablets and oral suspension prescribing information. 1999 May.
330. Pfizer. Zoloft (sertraline hydrochloride) tablets and oral concentrate prescribing information. 2000 Jan.
332. Mathew NT, Tietjen GE, Lucker C. Serotonin syndrome complicating migraine pharmacotherapy. Cephalalgia. 1996; 16:323-7. [PubMed 8869767]
333. Glaxo Wellcome. Imitrex (sumatriptan succinate) injection prescribing information. Research Triangle Park, NC; 1996 May.
334. Szabo CP. Fluoxetine and sumatriptan: possibly a counterproductive combination. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995; 56:37-8. [IDIS 342757] [PubMed 7836342]
335. Blier P, Bergeron R. The safety of concomitant use of sumatriptan and antidepressant treatments. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995; 15:106-9. [IDIS 345845] [PubMed 7782482]
336. Diamond S. The use of sumatriptan in patients on monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Neurology. 1995; 45:1039-40. [IDIS 348476] [PubMed 7783861]
337. Wing Y-K, Clifford EM, Sheehan BD et al. Paroxetine treatment and the prolactin response to sumatriptan. Psychopharmacology. 1996; 124:377-9. [PubMed 8739554]
338. Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC: Personal communication.
339. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on sumatriptan succinate 28:92.
340. Janssen Pharmaceutica. Hismanal (astemizole tablets) prescribing information. Titusville, NJ. 1998 Feb.
341. Klausner MA. Dear doctor letter regarding important drug warning of Hismanal (astemizole). Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceutica; 1998 Feb.
342. Hoechst Marion Roussel. Seldane-D (terfenadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride) extended-release tablets prescribing information. Kansas City, MO; 1997 Sep.
343. The United States pharmacopeia, 24th rev, and The national formulary, 19th ed. Rockville, MD: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 2000:738-40.
344. Food and Drug Administration. Prozac (fluoxetine HCl) Pulvules and solution [October 7, 1999: Lilly]. MedWatch drug labeling changes. Rockville, MD; December, 1999. From FDA website.
345. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision). Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157(Suppl 4):1-45.
346. Brown WA, Harrison W. Are patients who are intolerant to one SSRI intolerant to another? Psychopharmacol Bull. 1992; 28:253-6.
347. Liu B, Anderson G, Mittmann N et al. Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants and risk of hip fractures in elderly people. Lancet. 1998; 351:1303-7. [IDIS 406796] [PubMed 9643791]
348. Thapa PB, Gideon P, COst TW et al. Antidepressants and the risk of falls among nursing home residents. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339:875-82. [IDIS 411481] [PubMed 9744971]
349. Small GW, Rabins PV, Barry PB et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders: consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer’s Association, and the American Geriatrics Society. JAMA. 1997; 278:1363-1371. [IDIS 393115] [PubMed 9343469]
350. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias of late life. Am J Psychiatry. 1997; 154(Suppl):1-39.
351. National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. NIH consensus statement: diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. 1991; 9;1-27.
352. Lebowitz BD, Pearson JL, Schneider LS et al. Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. Consensus statement update. JAMA. 1997; 278:1186-90. [IDIS 392714] [PubMed 9326481]
353. Fava M. New approaches to treatment of refractory depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000:61 (Suppl 1):26-32.
354. Nelson JC. Augmentation strategies in depression 2000. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000:61(Suppl 2):13-9.
355. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (revision). Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157(Suppl 1):1-39.
356. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998; 37(Suppl 10):63S-83S. [IDIS 415552] [PubMed 9785729]
357. Agras WS, Rossiter EM, Arnow B et al. Pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia nervosa: a controlled comparison. Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149:82-7. [IDIS 289894] [PubMed 1728190]
358. Herzog DB, Sacks NR. Bulimia nervosa: comparison of treatment responders vs. nonresponders. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1993; 29:121-5. [PubMed 8378505]
359. Peterson CB, Mitchell JE. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatment of eating disorders: a review of research findings. J Clin Psychology. 1999; 55:685-97.
360. Kennedy SH, Eisfeld BS, Dickens SE et al. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction during treatment with moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61:276-81. [IDIS 446521] [PubMed 10830148]
361. Steiner M, Steinberg S, Stewart D et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:1529-34. [IDIS 348225] [PubMed 7739706]
362. Romano S, Judge R, Dillon J et al. The role of fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Clin Ther. 1999; 21:615-33. [IDIS 428159] [PubMed 10363729]
363. Pearlstein TB, Stone AB, Lund SA et al. Comparison of fluoxetine, bupropion, and placebo in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997; 17:261-6. [IDIS 390485] [PubMed 9241004]
364. Su TP, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1997; 16:346-56. [PubMed 9109106]
365. Dear doctor letter regarding the addition of a black box warning to thioridazine (Mellaril) prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; 2000 Jul.
366. Eli Lilly and Company. Sarafem (fluoxetine hydrochloride) capsules prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2002 Jun 12.
367. Ferslew KE, Hagardorn AN, Harlan GC et al. A fatal drug interaction between clozapine and fluoxetine. J Forensic Sci. 1998; 43:1082-5. [PubMed 9729831]
368. Fluoxetine (Prozac) interactions: risperidone (Risperdal). In: Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug interactions & updates. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics; 1997:296.
369. Fluoxetine (Prozac) interactions: Propranolol (Inderal). In: Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug interactions & updates. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics; 1997:295.
370. Gramaekers JG, Muntjewerff ND, O’Hanlon JF. A comparative study of acute and subchronic effects of doxepin, fluoxetine, and placebo on psychomotor and actual driving performance. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995; 39:397-404. [IDIS 345220] [PubMed 7640146]
371. Ball SE, Ahern D, Scatina J et al. Venlafaxine: in vitro inhibition of CYP2D6 dependent imipramine and desipramine metabolism; comparative studies with selected SSRIs, and effects on human hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 43:619-26. [PubMed 9205822]
372. Harris MG, Benfield P. Fluoxetine: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in older patients with depressive illness. Drugs Aging. 1995; 6:64-84. [PubMed 7696780]
373. Rabkin JG, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. Fluoxetine treatment for depression in patients with HIV and AIDs: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156:101-7. [IDIS 421104] [PubMed 9892304]
374. Jeppesen U, Gram LF, Vistisen K et al. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 by citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996; 51:73-8. [IDIS 373195] [PubMed 8880055]
375. Grimsley SR, Jann MW. Paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine: new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharm. 1992; 11:930-57. [IDIS 303853] [PubMed 1464219]
376. Pigott TA. OCD: where the serotonin selectivity story begins. J Clin Psychiatr. 1996; 57(Suppl. 6):11-20.
377. Chouinard G. Sertraline in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992; 7(Suppl. 2):37-41. [PubMed 1484177]
378. Carpenter LL, McDougle CJ, Epperson CN et al. A risk-benefit assessment of drugs used in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Drug Saf. 1996; 15:116-34. [PubMed 8884163]
379. Sallee FR, DeVane CL, Ferrell RE. Fluoxetine-related death in a child with cytochrome P-450 2D6 genetic deficiency. J child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000; 10:27-34. [PubMed 10755579]
380. Borg S, Brodin K. Antidepressant drugs. In: Dukes MNG, ed. Meyler’ side effects of drugs. 13th ed. New York: Elsevier/North Holland Inc; 1996:35-41.
381. Kabel DI, Petty F. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study of fluoxetine in severe alcohol dependence: adjunctive pharmacotherapy during and after inpatient treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996; 20:780-4. [IDIS 369689] [PubMed 8800399]
382. Slywka S, Hart LL. Fluoxetine in alcoholism. Ann Pharmacotherapy. 1993; 27:1066-7.
383. Schneier FR, Liebowitz MR, Davies SO et al. Fluoxetine in panic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990; 10:119-21. [IDIS 264930] [PubMed 2341585]
384. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (Revision). Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159(Suppl):1-50.
385. Zornberg, GL, Harrison GP. Treatment of depression in bipolar disorder: New directions for research. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993; 13:397-408. [IDIS 323025] [PubMed 8120153]
386. Preskorn SH. Clinically relevant pharmacology of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: an overview with emphasis on pharmacokinetics and effects on oxidative drug metabolism. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997; 32(Suppl 1):1-21. [PubMed 9068931]
387. Hughes CW, Emslie GJ, Crismon ML et al. The Texas children’s medication algorithm project: report of the Texas consensus conference panel on medication treatment of childhood major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999; 38:1442-54. [IDIS 439422] [PubMed 10560232]
388. Ambrosini PJ. A review of pharmacotherapy of major depression in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Ser. 2000; 51:627-33.
389. Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997; 54:1031-7. [IDIS 396287] [PubMed 9366660]
390. Waslick BD, Walsh BT, Greenhill LL et al. Open trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with dysthymic disorder or double depression. J Affect Disord. 1999; 56:227-36. [PubMed 10701482]
391. Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA et al. Fluoxetine in child and adolescent depression: acute and maintenance treatment. Depress Anxiety. 1998; 7:32-9. [PubMed 9592630]
392. Pliszka SR, Greenhill LL, Crismon ML et al. The Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project: Report of the Texas Consensus Conference Panel on Medication Treatment of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Part II: Tactics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000; 39:920-7. [IDIS 449215] [PubMed 10892235]
393. Kara H, Aydin S, Agargun MY et al. The efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind placebo controlled study. J Urol. 1996; 156:1631-2. [IDIS 374964] [PubMed 8863556]
394. Kim SC, Seo KK. Efficacy and safety of fluoxetine, sertraline, and clomipramine in patients with premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol. 1998; 159:425-7. [IDIS 399366] [PubMed 9649255]
395. Rosen RC, Lane R, Menza M. Effects of SSRIs on sexual function: a critical review. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999; 19:67-85. [IDIS 421736] [PubMed 9934946]
396. Novartis. Clozaril (clozapine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 1999 Sept.
397. Ellingrod VL. Pharmacotherapy of primary obsessive-compulsive disorder: review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy. 1998; 18:936-60. [IDIS 416228] [PubMed 9758307]
398. Greist JH, Jefferson JW. Pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1998; 35:64-70.
399. Ozdemir V, Naranjo CA, Shulman RW et al. Determinants of interindividual variability and extent of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 inhibition by paroxetine and fluvoxamine in vivo. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998; 18:198-207. [IDIS 407017] [PubMed 9617978]
400. Anon. Prozac Weekly. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2001; 43:27. [PubMed 11283472]
401. Schmidt ME, Fava M, Robinson JM et al. The efficacy and safety of a new enteric-coated formulation of fluoxetine given once weekly during the continuation treatment of major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61:851-7. [IDIS 456319] [PubMed 11105738]
402. Burke WJ, Hendricks SE, McArthur-Miller D et al. Weekly dosing of fluoxetine for the continuation phase of treatment of major depression: results of a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000; 43:423-7.
403. Claxton A, de Klerk E, Parry M et al. Patient compliance to a new enteric-coated weekly formulation of fluoxetine during continuation treatment of major depressive disorder. 2000; 61:928-32.
404. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1994; 151(Suppl 12):1-29.
405. Cohen LS, Miner C, Brown EW et al. Premenstrual daily fluoxetine for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a placebo-controlled, clinical trial using computerized diaries. Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 100:435-44. [IDIS 486175] [PubMed 12220761]
406. Emslie GJ, Heiligenstein JH, Wagner KD et al. Fluoxetine for acute treatment of depression in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr. 2002; 41:1205-15.
407. Chan RTW, Rey JM, Hazell PL. Clinical practice guidelines for depression in young people: are the treatment recommendations outdated? Med J Aust. 2002; 177:440-3.
408. Geller DA, Hoog SL, Heiligenstein JH et al. Fluoxetine treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr. 2001; 40:773-9.
409. Grados MA, Riddle MA. Pharmacological treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: from theory to practice. J Clin Child Psychol. 2001; 30:67-79. [PubMed 11294079]
410. Romano SJ, Halmi KA, Sarkar NP et al. A placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in continued treatment of bulimia nervosa after successful acute fluoxetine treatment. Am J Psychiatr. 2002; 159:96-102. [IDIS 496832] [PubMed 11772696]
411. Sallee FR, DeVane CL, Ferrell RE. Fluoxetine-related death in a child with cytochrome P-450 2D6 genetic deficiency. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000; 10:27-34. [PubMed 10755579]
412. Bondolfi G, Eap CB, Bertschy G et al. The effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics and safety of risperidone in psychiatric patients. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002; 35:50-6. [PubMed 11985287]
413. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Prozac for pediatric use to treat depression and OCD. FDA Talk Paper. Rockville, MD: FDA; 2002 Jan 3.
414. Tollefson GD, Rampey AH, Potvin JH et al. A multicenter investigation of fixed-dose fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994; 51:559-67. [IDIS 331988] [PubMed 8031229]
415. Greist JH, Jefferson JW, Kobak KA et al. Efficacy and tolerability of serotonin transport inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995; 52:53-60. [IDIS 341152] [PubMed 7811162]
416. Pigott TA, Pato MT, Bernstein SE et al. Controlled comparisons of clomipramine and fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990; 47:926-32.x [IDIS 273622] [PubMed 2222131]
417. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. (text revision) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000; 456-63:
418. Michelson D, Allgulander C, Dantendorfer K et al. Efficacy of usual antidepressant dosing regimens of fluoxetine in panic disorder: randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2001; 179:514-8. [IDIS 473471] [PubMed 11731354]
419. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1998; 155(Suppl):1-34.
420. Montgomery SA, McIntyre A, Osterheider M et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in patients with DSM-III-R obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1993; 3:143-52. [PubMed 8364350]
421. Lopez-Ibor JJ Jr., Saiz J, Cottraux J et al. Double-blind comparison of fluoxetine versus clomipramine in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1996; 6:111-8.
422. Christenson GA, Mackenzie TB, Mitchell JE et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study of fluoxetine in trichotillomania. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148:1566-71. [IDIS 290507] [PubMed 1928474]
423. Streichenwein SM, Thornby JI. A long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of the efficacy of fluoxetine for trichotillomania. Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152:1192-6. [IDIS 351004] [PubMed 7625469]
424. Sheehan DV, Harnett-Sheehan K. The role of SSRIs in panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996; 57(Suppl.10):51-8; discussion 59-60. [IDIS 377784] [PubMed 8917132]
425. Davidson JR. The long-term treatment of panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998; 59(Suppl. 8):17-21; discussion: 22-3. [IDIS 408262] [PubMed 9707158]
426. Baldwin DS, Birttwwistle J. The side effect burden associated with drug treatment of panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998; 59(Suppl. 8):39-44; discussion: 45-6. [IDIS 408265] [PubMed 9707161]
427. Gorman JM. The use of newer antidepressants for panic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997; 58(Suppl. 14):54-8; discussion 59.
428. Westenberg HG. Developments in the drug treatment of panic disorder: what is the place of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? J Affect Dis. 1996; 40:85-93.
429. deh Boer JA. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder: differential efficacy from a clinical standpoint. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998; 59:30-6; discussion 37-8.
430. Treatment of panic disorder. NIH Consensus Statement Online 1991 Sep 25-27; 9(2):1- 24.
431. Ballenger MC, Davidson JRT, Lecrubier Y et al. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998; 59(Suppl 8):47-54
432. Wilens TE, Cohen L, Biederman J et al. Fluoxetine pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2002; 22:568-75. [IDIS 490824] [PubMed 12454556]
433. Palmer CJ, Yates WR, Trotter L. Childhood trichotillomania: successful treatment with fluoxetine following an SSRI failure. Psychosomatics. 1999; 40:526-8. [PubMed 10581985]
434. Winchel RM, Jones JS, Stanley B et al. Clinical characteristics of trichotillomania and its response to fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992; 53:304-8. [IDIS 302297] [PubMed 1517191]
435. Michelson D, Pollack M, Lydiard RB et al. Continuing treatment of panic disorder after acute response: randomised, placebo-controlled trial with fluoxetine. The Fluoxetine Panic Disorder Study Group. Br J Psychiatry. 1999; 174:213-8. [IDIS 427601] [PubMed 10448445]
436. Lecrubier Y, Judge R. Long-term evaluation of paroxetine, clomipramine and placebo in panic disorder: Collaborative Paroxetine Panic Study Investigators. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1997; 95:153-60. [PubMed 9065681]
437. Michelson D, Lydiard RB, Pollack M et al. Outcome assessment and clinical improvement in panic disorder: evidence from a randomized controlled trial of fluoxetine and placebo. Am J Psychiatry. 1998: 155:1570-7.
438. van Minnen A, Hoogduin KA, Keijsers GP et al. Treatment of trichotillomania with behavioral therapy or fluoxetine: a randomized, waiting-list controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60:517-22. [PubMed 12742873]
439. Sheikha SH, Wagner KD, Wagner RF Jr. Fluoxetine treatment of trichotillomania and depression in a prepubertal child. Cutis. 1993; 51:50-2. [PubMed 8419112]
440. Koran LM, Ringold A, Hewlett W. Fluoxetine for trichotillomania: an open clinical trial. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1992; 28:145-9. [PubMed 1513916]
441. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998; 37(Suppl. 10S):27S-45S. [PubMed 9785727]
442. Anon. FDA statement regarding the anti-depressant Paxil for pediatric population. FDA Talk Paper. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 2003 Jun 30. T03-43.
443. Food and Drug Administration. Questions and answers on Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride). From: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research web site. 2003 Jun 23.
444. Calabrese JR, Londborg PD, Shelton MD et al. Citalopram treatment of fluoxetine-intolerant patients. J Clin Psychiatry.2003; 64:562-7.
445. Anon. FDA issues public health advisory entitled: Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder (MDD). FDA Talk Paper. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 2003 Oct 27. From the FDA website.
446. Anon. Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder (MDD). FDA Public Health Advisory. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 2003 Oct 27. From the FDA website.
447. Anon. SSRIs safe for children? Med Lett Drugs Ther.2003; 45:53-4.
448. Eli Lilly & Co. Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine HCl capsules) prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2011 Aug.
449. Barak Y, Kimhi R, Weizman R. Is selectivity for serotonin uptake associated with a reduced emergence of manic episodes in depressed patients? Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000; 15:53-6.
450. Peet M. Induction of mania with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Psychiatr. 1994; 164:549-50.
451. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on citalopram 28:16.04.20.
452. de Abajo FJ, García Rodríguez LA, Montero D. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case control study. Br Med J. 1999; 319:1106-9. [PubMed 10531103]
453. Shuster J. SSRIs and upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Cutaneous reactions to psychotropic drugs; atrial fibrillation and anabolic steroids; accidental olanzapine overdose in a child. Hosp Pharm. 2000; 35:29-30,32.
454. Skop BP, Brown TM. Potential vascular and bleeding complications of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Psychosomatics. 1996; 37:12-6. [PubMed 8600488]
455. Boettcher M, Peoples J, Proujansky R et al. Rectal bleeding with use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Pediatr Gastroenterol. 1999; 29:522. Abstract No. 133.
456. Goldberg RJ. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: infrequent medical adverse effects. Arch Fam Med. 1998; 7:78-84. [PubMed 9443704]
457. Alderman CP, Seshadri P, Ben Tovim DI. Effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors on hemostasis. Ann Pharmacother. 1996; 30:1232-4. [IDIS 375311] [PubMed 8913401]
458. Tielens JA. Vitamin C for paroxetine- and fluvoxamine-associated bleeding. Am J Psychiatr.1997; 154:883-4.
459. Montejo AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA et al. Incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant agents: a prospective multicenter study of 1022 outpatients. Spanish Working Group for the Study of Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatr.2001;62(Suppl 3):10-21.
460. Landen M, Eriksson E, Agren H et al. Effect of buspirone on sexual dysfunction in depressed patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol . 1999; 19:268-71. [IDIS 428398] [PubMed 10350034]
461. Nordeng H, Lindemann R, Perminov KV et al. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome after in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acta Paediatr. 2001; 90:288-91. [PubMed 11332169]
462. Dahl ML, Olhager E, Ahlner J. Paroxetine withdrawal syndrome in a neonate. Br J Psychiatr. 1997; 171:391-2. Letter.
463. Catalano G, Catalano MC, Epstein MA et al. QTc interval prolongation associated with citalopram overdose: a case report and literature review. Clin Neuropharmacol.2001; 24:158-62.
464. Fu K, Konrad RJ, Hardy RW et al. An unusual multiple drug intoxication case involving citalopram. J Anal Toxicol. 2000; 24:648-50. [PubMed 11043674]
465. Rothenhausler HB, Hoberl C, Ehrentrout S et al. Suicide attempt by pure citalopram overdose causing long-lasting severe sinus bradycardia, hypotension and syncopes: successful therapy with a temporary pacemaker. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001; 33:150-2.
466. Hojer J, Personne M, Skagius AS et al. Serotonin syndrome. Several cases of this often overlooked diagnosis. Lakartidningen. 2002; 99:2054-5, 2058-60. [Swedish; with English abstract.] [PubMed 12082784]
467. Personne M, Sjoberg G, Persson H. Citalopram overdose—review of cases treated in Swedish hospitals. Clin Toxicol.1997; 35:237-40.
468. Barbey JT, Roose SP. SSRI safety in overdose. J Clin Psychiatry.1998; 59(Suppl. 5):42-8.
469. Kaminski CA, Robbins MS, Weibley RE. Sertraline intoxication in a child. Ann Emerg Med. 1994; 23:1371-4. [IDIS 330839] [PubMed 8198316]
470. Food and Drug Administration. Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults: class revisions to product labeling. Rockville, MD; 2007 May 2. From the FDA web site.
471. Food and Drug Administration. FDA news: FDA proposes new warnings about suicidal thinking, behavior in young adults who take antidepressant medications. Rockville, MD; 2007 May 2. From the FDA web site.
472. Anon. FDA statement on recommendations of the psychopharmacologic drugs and pediatric advisory committees. Rockville, MD; 2004 Sep 16. From the FDA website.
473. American Psychiatric Association (APA). APA responds to FDA’s new warning on antidepressants. Arlington, VA; 2004 Oct. 15. From the APA website.
474. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). AACAP responds to the new FDA warnings on pediatric antidepressant medications. Washington, D.C; 2004 Oct 15. From the AACAP website.
475. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Children, antidepressants and a black box warning. Washington, D.C; 2004 Oct. 15. From the AAP website.
476. Food and Drug Administration. Revisions to medication guide: antidepressant medicines, depression and other serious mental illnesses and suicidal thoughts or actions. Rockville, MD; 2007 May 2. From the FDA web site.
477. Gate Pharmaceuticals. Orap (pimozide) tablets prescribing information. Sellersville, PA; 2005 Aug.
478. Ahmed I, Dagincourt PG, Miller LG et al. Possible interaction between fluoxetine and pimozide causing sinus bradycardia. Can J Psychiatry. 1993; 38:62-3. [PubMed 8448725]
479. Hansen-Grant S, Silk KR, Guthrie S. Fluoxetine-pimozide interaction. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Nov; 150:1751-2. (IDIS 321569)
480. Sanz EJ, De-Las-Cuevas C, Kiuru A et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women and neonatal withdrawal syndrome: a database analysis. Lancet. 2005; 365:482-7. [IDIS 527994] [PubMed 15705457]
481. Nordeng H, Lindemann R, Perminov KV et al. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome after in utero exposure to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Acta Paediatr. 2001; 90:288-91. [PubMed 11332169]
482. Dahl ML, Olhager E, Ahlner J. Paroxetine withdrawal syndrome in a neonate. Br J Psychiatr. 1997; 171:391-2.
483. Kulin NA, Pastuszak A, Sage SR et al. Pregnancy outcome following maternal use of the new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a prospective controlled multicenter study. JAMA. 1998; 279:609-10. [IDIS 400524] [PubMed 9486756]
484. Dear healthcare professional letter regarding changing the Pregnancy subsection of the Precautions section in the labels for Paxil (paroxetine HCl) and Paxil (paroxetine HCl) CR. Philadelphia, PA: GlaxoSmithKline; 2005 Sep.
485. Hendrick V, Smith LM, Suri R et al. Birth outcomes after prenatal exposure to antidepressant medication. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 188:812-5. [IDIS 495579] [PubMed 12634662]
486. SmithKlineBeecham Pharmaceuticals. Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride) tablets and oral suspension prescribing information. 2005 Sep.
487. Dalton SO, Johansen C, Mellemkjaer L et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163:59-64. [IDIS 494375] [PubMed 12523917]
488. van Walraven C, Mamdani MM, Wells PS et al. Inhibition of serotonin reuptake by antidepressants and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly patients: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2001; 323:655-8. [PubMed 11566827]
489. Morag I, Batash D, Keidar R et al. Paroxetine use throughout pregnancy: does it pose any risk to the neonate? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004; 42:97-100.
490. Haddad PM, Pal BR, Clarke P et al. Neonatal symptoms following maternal paroxetine treatment: serotonin toxicity or paroxetine discontinuation syndrome? J Psychopharmacol. 2005; 19:554-7.
491. Moses-Kolko EL, Bogen D, Perel J et al. Neonatal signs after late in utero exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors: literature review and implications for clinical applications. JAMA. 2005; 292:2372-85.
492. Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: combined use of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists (triptans), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may result in life-threatening serotonin syndrome. Rockville, MD; 2006 Jul 19. From the FDA website.
493. US Food and Drug Administration. Drug Safety Communication: Serious CNS reactions possible when linezolid (Zyvox) is given to patients taking certain psychiatric medications. 2011 Jul 26. From FDA website.
494. US Food and Drug Administration. Drug Safety Communication: Updated information about the drug interaction between linezolid (Zyvox) and serotonergic psychiatric medications. 2011 Oct 20. From FDA website.
495. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. Fluoxetine tablets USP prescribing information. Sellersville, PA: 2012 Jul.
496. Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: paroxetine. Rockville, MD; 2005 Dec 8. From the FDA website.
497. Dear healthcare professional letter regarding further revisions to the labels for Paxil (paroxetine HCl) and Paxil (paroxetine HCl) CR in the pregnancy precautions and warnings section. Philadelphia, PA: GlaxoSmithKline; 2005 Dec.
498. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (3rd ed.). From the APA website.
501. Abbott Laboratories. Meridia (sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) capsules prescribing information. North Chicago, IL; 2006 Aug.
502. Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Celexa (citalopram hydrobromide) tablets and oral solution prescribing information. St. Louis, MO; 2006 Sep.
503. Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Lexapro (escitalopram oxalate) tablets/oral solution prescribing information. St. Louis, MO; 2006 Sep.
504. Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR et al for the STAR*D Study Team. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1243-52. [PubMed 16554526]
505. Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR et al. for the STAR*D Study Team. Bupropion-SR, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1231-42. [PubMed 16554525]
506. Rubinow DR. Treatment strategies after SSRI failure—good news and bad news. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1305-7. [PubMed 16554533]
507. Tohen M, Vieta E, Calabrese J et al. Efficacy of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60:1079-88. [PubMed 14609883]
508. Corya SA, Perlis RH, Keck PE. A 24-week open-label extension study of olanzapine-fluoxetine combination and olanzapine monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006; 67: 798-806.
509. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002:277-81.
510. Heikkinen T, Ekblad U, Kero P et al. Citalopram in pregnancy and lactation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 72:184-91. [IDIS 486091] [PubMed 12189365]
511. Clark DB, Andrus MR, Byrd DC. Drug interactions between linezolid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: case report involving sertraline and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 26:269-76. [PubMed 16466332]
512. Bridge JA, Iyengar S, Salary CB et al. Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2007; 297:1683-96. [PubMed 17440145]
513. Eli Lilly and Company. Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride) delayed-release capsules prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2007 Jun 28.
514. The American Psychiatric Association. APA welcomes FDA antidepressant label changes saying that untreated depression is greatest risk factor for suicide. Arlington, VA; 2007 May 2. Press release.
515. Wyeth Laboratories Inc. Pristiq (desvenlafaxine succinate) extended-release tablets prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA; 2009 Feb.
516. Rabins PV, Blacker D, Rovner BW et al. and the APA Work Group on Alzheimer’s Disease and other Dementias. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, second edition. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164(Suppl 12):5-56.
517. Eli Lilly and Company. Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) Pulvules and delayed-release capsules prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2009 Jun 23.
518. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352:1112-20. [PubMed 15784664]
519. Stevens DL. Association between selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, second-generation antipsychotics, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2008; 42:1290-7. [PubMed 18628446]
520. Ames D, Wirshing WC. Ecstasy, the serotonin syndrome, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome--a possible link?. JAMA. 1993; 269:869-70. [PubMed 8426445]
521. Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Celexa (citalopram hydrobromide) tablets and oral solution prescribing information. St. Louis, MO; 2009 Jan.
522. Raskind MA, Peskind ER. Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Med Clin North Am. 2001; 85:803-17. [PubMed 11349485]
523. Flint AJ, van Reekum R. The pharmacologic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a guide for the general psychiatrist. Can J Psychiatry. 1998; 43:689-97. [PubMed 9773218]
524. Wilkinson TJ, Begg EJ, Winter AC et al. Incidence and risk factors for hyponatremia following treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine in elderly people. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 47:211-7. [IDIS 424778] [PubMed 10190657]
525. ten Holt WL, van Iperen CE, Schrijver G et al. Severe hyponatremia during therapy with fluoxetine. Arch Intern Med. 1996; 156:681-2. [PubMed 8629882]
526. Duggal HS, Kithas J. Possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome with aripiprazole and fluoxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162:397-8. [PubMed 15677611]
527. Hull M, Kottlors M, Braune S. Prolonged coma caused by low sodium and hypo-osmolarity during treatment with citalopram. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002; 22:337-8. [IDIS 481146] [PubMed 12006908]
528. Odeh M, Beny A, Oliven A. Severe symptomatic hyponatremia during citalopram therapy. Am J Med Sci. 2001; 321:159-60. [IDIS 459269] [PubMed 11217819]
529. Eli Lilly & Co. Symbyax (olanzapine and fluoxetine HCl capsules) prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2009 Mar.
530. Eli Lilly and Company. Sarafem (fluoxetine hydrochloride) capsules prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2009 May 4.
531. Eli Lilly and Company. Sarafem (fluoxetine hydrochloride) tablets prescribing information. Indianapolis, IN; 2009 Jun.
532. Taragano FE, Lyketsos CG, Mangone CA et al. A double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose trial of fluoxetine vs. amitriptyline in the treatment of major depression complicating Alzheimer’s disease. Psychosomatics. 1997; 38:246-52. [PubMed 9136253]
533. Gossen D, de Suray J-M, Vandenhende F et al. Influence of fluoxetine on olanzapine pharmacokinetics. AAPS PharmSci. 2002; 4:article 11. [PubMed 12102620]
534. Pfizer. Zyvox (linezolid) injection, tablets, and for oral suspension prescribing information. New York, NY: 2008 Jul.
535. Steinberg M, Morin AK. Mild serotonin syndrome associated with concurrent linezolid and fluoxetine. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2007; 264:59-62.
536. Taylor JJ, Wilson JW, Estes LL et al. Linezolid and serotonergic drug interactions: a retrospective survey. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 43:180-7. [PubMed 16779744]
537. Sola CL, Bostwick JM, Hart DA et al. Anticipating linezolid-SSRI interactions in the general hospital setting: an MAOI in disguise. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006; 81:330-4. [PubMed 16529136]
538. Hachem RY, Hicks K, Huen A et al. Myelosuppression and serotonin syndrome associated with concurrent use of linezolid and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 37:e8-11. [IDIS 512019] [PubMed 12830431]
539. Müller D, Weinmann W, Hermanns-Clausen M. Chinese slimming capsules containing sibutramine sold over the internet: a case series. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009; 106:218-22. [PubMed 19471631]
540. Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Viibryd (vilazodone hydrochloride) tablets prescribing information. St Louis, MO; 2011 Apr.
541. Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Celexa (citalopram hydrobromide) tablets and oral solution prescribing information. St. Louis, MO; 2012 Mar.
542. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. Fluoxetine oral solution USP prescribing information. Sellersville, PA: 2012 Jun.
600. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant use during pregnancy and reports of a rare heart and lung condition in newborn babies. 2011 Dec 14. From the FDA website.
602. Chambers CD, Hernandez-Diaz S, Van Marter LJ et al. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. New Engl J Med. 2006; 354:579-87. [PubMed 16467545]
603. Källén B, Olausson PO. Maternal use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2008; 17:801-6.
604. Wichman CL, Moore KM, Lang TR et al. Congenital heart disease associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during pregnancy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009; 84:23-7.
605. Andrade SE, McPhillips H, Loren D et al. Antidepressant medication use and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009; 18:246-52.
606. Wilson KL, Zelig CM, Harvey JP et al. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is associated with mode of delivery and not with maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Perinatol. 2011; 28:19-24. [PubMed 20607643]
607. US Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: treatment challenges of depression in pregnancy and the possibility of persistent hypertension in newborns. Rockville, MD; 2006 Jul 19. From the FDA website.
608. Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stewart DE et al. The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 114:703-13.
609. Cohen LS, Altshuler LL, Harlow BL et al. Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. JAMA. 2006; 295:499-507. [PubMed 16449615]
610. Kieler H, Artama M, Engeland A et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn: population based cohort study from the five Nordic countries. Br Med J. 2012; 344:d8012. [PubMed 22240235]
a. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision). Am J Psychiatr. 2010; 157(Suppl 4):1-45.
More Fluoxetine Hydrochloride resources
- Fluoxetine Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Prozac Consumer Overview
- Prozac Weekly Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Prozac Weekly delayed-release capsules MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Sarafem MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Sarafem Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Selfemra Prescribing Information (FDA)
- fluoxetine Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
- fluoxetine MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
Compare Fluoxetine Hydrochloride with other medications
- Anxiety and Stress
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder
- Hot Flashes
- Intermittent Explosive Disorder
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- PANDAS Syndrome
- Panic Disorder
- Postpartum Depression
- Premature Ejaculation
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
- Schizoaffective Disorder