Ultiva Dosage

Generic name: remifentanil hydrochloride
Dosage form: injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution

The information at Drugs.com is not a substitute for medical advice. ALWAYS consult your doctor or pharmacist.

ULTIVA is for IV use only. Continuous infusions of ULTIVA should be administered only by an infusion device. The injection site should be close to the venous cannula and all IV tubing should be cleared at the time of discontinuation of infusion.

During General Anesthesia

ULTIVA is not recommended as the sole agent in general anesthesia because loss of consciousness cannot be assured and because of a high incidence of apnea, muscle rigidity, and tachycardia. ULTIVA is synergistic with other anesthetics; therefore, clinicians may need to reduce doses of thiopental, propofol, isoflurane, and midazolam by up to 75% with the coadministration of ULTIVA. The administration of ULTIVA must be individualized based on the patient's response.

Table 10 summarizes the recommended doses in adult patients, predominately ASA physical status I, II, or III.

Table 10: Dosing Guidelines in Adults — General Anesthesia and Continuing as an Analgesic into the Postoperative Care Unit or Intensive Care Setting*
Phase Continuous IV Infusion of ULTIVA (mcg/kg/min) Infusion Dose Range of ULTIVA (mcg/kg/min) Supplemental IV Bolus Dose of ULTIVA (mcg/kg)
*
An initial dose of 1 mcg/kg may be administered over 30 to 60 seconds.
Induction of Anesthesia
  (through intubation)
0.5 - 1*
Maintenance of anesthesia with:
  Nitrous oxide (66%) 0.4 0.1 - 2 1
  Isoflurane (0.4 to 1.5 MAC) 0.25 0.05 - 2 1
  Propofol
    (100 to 200 mcg/kg/min)
0.25 0.05 - 2 1
Continuation as an analgesic into the immediate postoperative period 0.1 0.025 - 0.2 not recommended

Table 11 summarizes the recommended doses in pediatric patients, predominantly ASA physical status I, II, or III. In pediatric patients, remifentanil was administered with nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide in combination with halothane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane.

Table 11: Dosing Guidelines in Pediatric Patients — Maintenance of Anesthesia
Phase Continuous IV
Infusion of ULTIVA
(mcg/kg/min)
Infusion Dose
Range of ULTIVA
(mcg/kg/min)
Supplemental IV
Bolus Dose of
ULTIVA(mcg/kg)
*
An initial dose of 1 mcg/kg may be administered over 30 to 60 seconds.
The initial maintenance infusion regimen of Ultiva evaluated in full term pediatric patients from birth to 2 months of age undergoing pyloromyotomy was 0.4 mcg/kg/min, the approved adult regimen for use with N2O. The clearance rate observed in neonates was highly variable and on average was two times higher than in the young healthy adult population. Therefore, while a starting infusion of 0.4 mcg/kg/min may be appropriate for some neonates, an increased infusion rate may be necessary to maintain adequate surgical anesthesia, and additional bolus doses may be required. The individual dose for each patient should be carefully titrated. The use of atropine may blunt the potential for bradycardia that can occur upon administration of Ultiva. (SEE Clinical Pharmacology: Special Populations: Pediatric Patients, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, During Maintenance of Anesthesia).
Boluses of 1 mcg/kg were studied in ASA 1 and 2, full-term patients weighing at least 2500 gm, undergoing pyloromyotomy who received pretreatment with atropine. Some neonates, particularly those receiving supplementation with potent inhalation agents or neuraxial anesthesia, those with significant co-morbidities or undergoing significant fluid shifts, or those who have not been pretreated with atropine, may require smaller bolus doses to avoid hypotension and/or bradycardia.
*Maintenance of anesthesia in patients aged 1 to 12 years old with:         
  Halothane (0.3 to 1.5 MAC) 0.25 0.05 - 1.3 1
  Sevoflurane (0.3 to 1.5 MAC) 0.25 0.05 - 1.3 1
  Isoflurane (0.4 to 1.5 MAC) 0.25 0.05 - 1.3 1
Maintenance of anesthesia for patients from birth to 2 months of age with:         
  Nitrous oxide (70%) 0.4 0.4 - 1.0 1

During Induction of Anesthesia

ULTIVA should be administered at an infusion rate of 0.5 to 1 mcg/kg/min with a hypnotic or volatile agent for the induction of anesthesia. If endotracheal intubation is to occur less than 8 minutes after the start of the infusion of ULTIVA, then an initial dose of 1 mcg/kg may be administered over 30 to 60 seconds.

During Maintenance of Anesthesia

After endotracheal intubation, the infusion rate of ULTIVA should be decreased in accordance with the dosing guidelines in Tables 10 (adults) and 11 (pediatric patients). Due to the fast onset and short duration of action of ULTIVA, the rate of administration during anesthesia can be titrated upward in 25% to 100% increments in adult patients or up to 50% increments in pediatric patients, or downward in 25% to 50% decrements every 2 to 5 minutes to attain the desired level of µ-opioid effect. In response to light anesthesia or transient episodes of intense surgical stress, supplemental bolus doses of 1 mcg/kg may be administered every 2 to 5 minutes. At infusion rates >1 mcg/kg/min, increases in the concomitant anesthetic agents should be considered to increase the depth of anesthesia. See Clinical Pharmacology: Special Populations: Pediatric Patients, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table 11 for additional information.

Continuation as an Analgesic into the Immediate Postoperative Period Under the Direct Supervision of an Anesthesia Practitioner

Infusions of ULTIVA may be continued into the immediate postoperative period for select patients for whom later transition to longer acting analgesics may be desired. The use of bolus injections of ULTIVA to treat pain during the postoperative period is not recommended. When used as an IV analgesic in the immediate postoperative period, ULTIVA should be initially administered by continuous infusion at a rate of 0.1 mcg/kg/min. The infusion rate may be adjusted every 5 minutes in 0.025-mcg/kg/min increments to balance the patient's level of analgesia and respiratory rate. Infusion rates greater than 0.2 mcg/kg/min are associated with respiratory depression (respiratory rate less than 8 breaths/min).

Guidelines for Discontinuation

Upon discontinuation of ULTIVA, the IV tubing should be cleared to prevent the inadvertent administration of ULTIVA at a later time.

Due to the rapid offset of action of ULTIVA, no residual analgesic activity will be present within 5 to 10 minutes after discontinuation. For patients undergoing surgical procedures where postoperative pain is generally anticipated, alternative analgesics should be administered prior to discontinuation of ULTIVA. The choice of analgesic should be appropriate for the patient's surgical procedure and the level of follow-up care (see CLINICAL TRIALS).

Analgesic Component of Monitored Anesthesia Care

It is strongly recommended that supplemental oxygen be supplied to the patient whenever ULTIVA is administered.

Table 12 summarizes the recommended doses for monitored anesthesia care in adult patients, predominately ASA physical status I, II, or III. ULTIVA has not been studied for use in children in monitored anesthesia care.

Table 12: Dosing Guidelines in Adults — Monitored Anesthesia Care
Method Timing ULTIVA Alone ULTIVA + 2 mg Midazolam
Single IV Dose Given 90 seconds before local anesthetic 1 mcg/kg over
30 to 60 seconds
0.5 mcg/kg over
30 to 60 seconds
Continuous IV Infusion Beginning 5 minutes before local anesthetic 0.1 mcg/kg/min 0.05 mcg/kg/min
After local anesthetic 0.05 mcg/kg/min
(Range: 0.025 -
0.2 mcg/kg/min)
0.025 mcg/kg/min
(Range: 0.025 -
0.2 mcg/kg/min)
 

Single Dose

A single IV dose of 0.5 to 1 mcg/kg over 30 to 60 seconds of ULTIVA may be given 90 seconds before the placement of the local or regional anesthetic block (see PRECAUTIONS).

Continuous Infusion

When used alone as an IV analgesic component of monitored anesthesia care, ULTIVA should be initially administered by continuous infusion at a rate of 0.1 mcg/kg/min beginning 5 minutes before placement of the local or regional anesthetic block. Because of the risk for hypoventilation, the infusion rate of ULTIVA should be decreased to 0.05 mcg/kg/min following placement of the block. Thereafter, rate adjustments of 0.025 mcg/kg/min at 5-minute intervals may be used to balance the patient's level of analgesia and respiratory rate. Rates greater than 0.2 mcg/kg/min are generally associated with respiratory depression (respiratory rates less than 8 breaths/min). Bolus doses of ULTIVA administered simultaneously with a continuous infusion of ULTIVA to spontaneously breathing patients are not recommended.

Individualization of Dosage

Use in Geriatric Patients

The starting doses of ULTIVA should be decreased by 50% in elderly patients (>65 years). ULTIVA should then be cautiously titrated to effect.

Use in Pediatric Patients

See Table 11 for dosing recommendations for use of ULTIVA in pediatric patients from birth to 12 years of age for maintenance of anesthesia. SEE Clinical Pharmacology: Special Populations: Pediatric Patients, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table 11 and During Maintenance of Anesthesia for additional information.

ULTIVA has not been studied in pediatric patients for use in the immediate postoperative period or for use as a component of monitored anesthesia care.

Use in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

Table 13 summarizes the recommended doses for induction, maintenance, and continuation as an analgesic into the ICU in adult patients, predominantly ASA physical status III or IV. To avoid hypotension during the induction phase, it is important to consider the concomitant medication regimens described in the CLINICAL TRIALS: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery subsection.

Table 13: Dosing Recommendations* — Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Phase Continuous IV
Infusion of ULTIVA
(mcg/kg/min)
Infusion Dose
Range of ULTIVA
(mcg/kg/min)
Supplemental
IV Bolus Dose of
ULTIVA (mcg/kg)
*
See CLINICAL TRIALS: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery subsection for concomitant medication regimens.
Induction of Anesthesia
(through intubation)
1
Maintenance of Anesthesia 1 0.125 - 4 0.5 - 1
Continuation as an
analgesic into ICU
1 0.05 - 1  
Use in Obese Patients

The starting doses of ULTIVA should be based on ideal body weight (IBW) in obese patients (greater than 30% over their IBW).

Preanesthetic Medication

The need for premedication and the choice of anesthetic agents must be individualized. In clinical studies, patients who received ULTIVA frequently received a benzodiazepine premedication.

Preparation for Administration

To reconstitute solution, add 1 mL of diluent per mg of remifentanil. Shake well to dissolve. When reconstituted as directed, the solution contains approximately 1 mg of remifentanil activity per 1 mL. ULTIVA should be diluted to a recommended final concentration of 20, 25, 50, or 250 mcg/mL prior to administration (see Table 14). ULTIVA should not be administered without dilution.

Table 14: Reconstitution and Dilution of ULTIVA
Final Concentration Amount of ULTIVA in Each Vial Final Volume After Reconstitution and Dilution
20 mcg/mL 1 mg 50 mL
2 mg 100 mL  
5 mg 250 mL  
25 mcg/mL 1 mg 40 mL
2 mg 80 mL  
5 mg 200 mL  
50 mcg/mL 1 mg 20 mL
2 mg 40 mL  
5 mg 100 mL  
250 mcg/mL 5 mg 20 mL

Continuous IV infusions of ULTIVA should be administered only by an infusion device. Infusion rates of ULTIVA can be individualized for each patient using Table 15:

Table 15: IV Infusion Rates of ULTIVA (mL/kg/h)
Drug Delivery Rate
(mcg/kg/min)
Infusion Delivery Rate (mL/kg/h)
20 mcg/mL 25 mcg/mL 50 mcg/mL 250 mcg/mL
0.0125 0.038 0.03 0.015 not recommended
0.025 0.075 0.06 0.03 not recommended
0.05 0.15 0.12 0.06 0.012
0.075 0.23 0.18 0.09 0.018
0.1 0.3 0.24 0.12 0.024
0.15 0.45 0.36 0.18 0.036
0.2 0.6 0.48 0.24 0.048
0.25 0.75 0.6 0.3 0.06
0.5 1.5 1.2 0.6 0.12
0.75 2.25 1.8 0.9 0.18
1.0 3.0 2.4 1.2 0.24
1.25 3.75 3.0 1.5 0.3
1.5 4.5 3.6 1.8 0.36
1.75 5.25 4.2 2.1 0.42
2.0 6.0 4.8 2.4 0.48

When ULTIVA is used as an analgesic component of monitored analgesia care, a final concentration of 25 mcg/mL is recommended. When ULTIVA is used for pediatric patients 1 year of age and older, a final concentration of 20 or 25 mcg/mL is recommended. Table 16 is a guideline for milliliter-per-hour delivery for a solution of 20 mcg/mL with an infusion device.

Table 16: IV Infusion Rates of ULTIVA (mL/h) for a 20-mcg/mL Solution
Infusion Rate
(mcg/kg/min)
Patient Weight (kg)
5 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.0125 0.188 0.375 0.75 1.125 1.5 1.875 2.25
0.025 0.375 0.75 1.5 2.25 3.0 3.75 4.5
0.05 0.75 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0
0.075 1.125 2.25 4.5 6.75 9.0 11.25 13.5
0.1 1.5 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0
0.15 2.25 4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 27.0
0.2 3.0 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 36.0
0.25 3.75 7.5 15.0 22.5 30.0 37.5 45.0
0.3 4.5 9.0 18.0 27.0 36.0 45.0 54.0
0.35 5.25 10.5 21.0 31.5 42.0 52.5 63.0
0.4 6.0 12.0 24.0 36.0 48.0 60.0 72.0

Table 17 is a guideline for milliliter-per-hour delivery for a solution of 25 mcg/mL with an infusion device.

Table 17: IV Infusion Rates of ULTIVA (mL/h) for a 25-mcg/mL Solution
Infusion Rate
(mcg/kg/min)
Patient Weight (kg)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0.0125 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
0.025 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 6.0
0.05 1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0 7.2 8.4 9.6 10.8 12.0
0.075 1.8 3.6 5.4 7.2 9.0 10.8 12.6 14.4 16.2 18.0
0.1 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.6 12.0 14.4 16.8 19.2 21.6 24.0
0.15 3.6 7.2 10.8 14.4 18.0 21.6 25.2 28.8 32.4 36.0
0.2 4.8 9.6 14.4 19.2 24.0 28.8 33.6 38.4 43.2 48.0

Table 18 is a guideline for milliliter-per-hour delivery for a solution of 50 mcg/mL with an infusion device.

Table 18: IV Infusion Rates of ULTIVA (mL/h) for a 50-mcg/mL Solution
Infusion Rate
(mcg/kg/min)
Patient Weight (kg)
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0.025 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
0.05 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 6.0
0.075 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9.0
0.1 3.6 4.8 6.0 7.2 8.4 9.6 10.8 12.0
0.15 5.4 7.2 9.0 10.8 12.6 14.4 16.2 18.0
0.2 7.2 9.6 12.0 14.4 16.8 19.2 21.6 24.0
0.25 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0
0.5 18.0 24.0 30.0 36.0 42.0 48.0 54.0 60.0
0.75 27.0 36.0 45.0 54.0 63.0 72.0 81.0 90.0
1.0 36.0 48.0 60.0 72.0 84.0 96.0 108.0 120.0
1.25 45.0 60.0 75.0 90.0 105.0 120.0 135.0 150.0
1.5 54.0 72.0 90.0 108.0 126.0 144.0 162.0 180.0
1.75 63.0 84.0 105.0 126.0 147.0 168.0 189.0 210.0
2.0 72.0 96.0 120.0 144.0 168.0 192.0 216.0 240.0

Table 19 is a guideline for milliliter-per-hour delivery for a solution of 250 mcg/mL with an infusion device.

Table 19: IV Infusion Rates of ULTIVA (mL/h) for a 250-mcg/mL Solution
Infusion Rate
(mcg/kg/min)
Patient Weight (kg)
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0.1 0.72 0.96 1.20 1.44 1.68 1.92 2.16 2.40
0.15 1.08 1.44 1.80 2.16 2.52 2.88 3.24 3.60
0.2 1.44 1.92 2.40 2.88 3.36 3.84 4.32 4.80
0.25 1.80 2.40 3.00 3.60 4.20 4.80 5.40 6.00
0.5 3.60 4.80 6.00 7.20 8.40 9.60 10.80 12.00
0.75 5.40 7.20 9.00 10.80 12.60 14.40 16.20 18.00
1.0 7.20 9.60 12.00 14.40 16.80 19.20 21.60 24.00
1.25 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 21.00 24.00 27.00 30.00
1.5 10.80 14.40 18.00 21.60 25.20 28.80 32.40 36.00
1.75 12.60 16.80 21.00 25.20 29.40 33.60 37.80 42.00
2.0 14.40 19.20 24.00 28.80 33.60 38.40 43.20 48.00
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