Humalog Side Effects

Generic Name: insulin lispro

Note: This page contains information about the side effects of insulin lispro. Some of the dosage forms included on this document may not apply to the brand name Humalog.

Not all side effects for Humalog may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

For the Consumer

Applies to insulin lispro: suspension

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by insulin lispro (the active ingredient contained in Humalog). In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking insulin lispro:

More common
  • Anxious or nervous feeling
  • behavior change similar to being drunk
  • blurred vision
  • cold sweats
  • confusion or difficulty thinking
  • convulsions (seizures)
  • depression
  • dizziness or lightheadedness
  • drowsiness
  • excessive hunger
  • fast heartbeat
  • fever or chills
  • headache
  • irritability or abnormal behavior
  • lower back or side pain
  • nightmares
  • painful or difficult urination
  • restless sleep
  • shakiness
  • slurred speech
  • tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or tongue
  • unconsciousness
Less common
  • Dry, red, hot, or irritated skin
Less common or rare
  • Depression of the skin at the injection site
  • dryness of the mouth
  • fast or weak pulse
  • itching, redness, or swelling at the injection site
  • muscle cramps or pain
  • nausea or vomiting
  • shortness of breath
  • skin rash or itching over the whole body
  • sweating
  • thickening of the skin at the injection site
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • wheezing
Incidence not known
  • Bloating or swelling of the face, arms, hands, lower legs, or feet
  • decreased urine
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • difficulty with swallowing
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  • fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse
  • hives or itching skin
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • redistribution or accumulation of body fat
  • tightness in the chest
  • unusual weight gain or loss

Some of the side effects that can occur with insulin lispro may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common
  • Body aches or pain
  • congestion
  • runny nose
  • sneezing
  • stuffy nose
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • voice changes
Incidence not known
  • Redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to insulin lispro: subcutaneous solution

Cardiovascular

Other cardiovascular risk factors that are accentuated in persons with carbohydrate intolerance and hypertension include abnormalities in platelet function, clotting factors, the fibrinolytic system, and dyslipidemia. The relationship between diabetes, insulin, and these disorders is currently under investigation.

Insulin may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, promoting renal sodium retention, and/or stimulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. It may induce dyslipidemia by promoting hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs).

Insulin may stimulate heart rate in the absence of hypoglycemia.

Cardiovascular side effects have included hyperinsulinemia. Given the high frequency of both microvascular and macrovascular diseases in patients with diabetes, some experts are evaluating insulin as a possible atherogenic agent. Controversy and continued study surround the role of hyperinsulinemia as the precursor of hypertension.

Dermatologic

Dermatologic side effects have included lipohypertrophy (insulin is lipogenic) and lipoatrophy (probably immunologically-mediated). The incidence of lipoatrophy is markedly decreased with the use of purer forms of pork insulin or biosynthetic human insulin and when injection sites are alternated. Without proper hygiene, subcutaneous insulin injections may be complicated by infection.

Endocrine

Endocrine side effects have included hypoglycemia, which has been the most common and serious side effect of insulin, occurring in approximately 16% of type 1 and 10% of type II diabetic patients (the incidence varies greatly depending on the populations studied, types of insulin therapy, etc). Although there are counterregulatory endocrinologic responses to hypoglycemia, some responses are decreased, inefficient, or absent in some patients. Severe hypoglycemia usually presents first as confusion, sweating, or tachycardia, and can result in coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological deficits, and death. Blood or urine glucose monitoring is recommended in patients who are at risk of hypoglycemia or who do not recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The risk for developing hypoglycemia is higher in patients receiving intensive or continuous infusion insulin therapy. The association between insulin and dyslipidemia is currently being evaluated.

Permanent neuropsychological impairment has been associated with recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia.

In one retrospective study of 600 randomly selected patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, the only reliable predictors of severe hypoglycemia were a history of hypoglycemia, a history of hypoglycemia-related injury or convulsion, and the duration of insulin therapy. Those with a history of hypoglycemia had been treated with insulin for 17.4 years, which was significantly longer than the 14.3 years in the insulin-treated patients without a history of hypoglycemia.

Human insulin does not appear to be associated with hypoglycemic episodes more often than animal insulin. Caution is recommended when switching from animal (either bovine or pork) to purified porcine insulin or biosynthetic human insulin, however, because of increased potency or bioavailability.

Gastrointestinal

gastrointestinal side effect have been reported rarely. GI distress tends to resolve with dose reduction.

General

Intensive insulin therapy causes an increase in body fat as a result of the elimination of glycosuria and reduction in 24-hour energy expenditure. The reduction in 24-h energy expenditure is the result of an insulin-associated decrease in triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and nonoxidative glucose and protein metabolism.

General side effects have included weight gain, sometimes presenting as edema associated with abrupt restoration of glucose control in a patient whose control was previously poor. Weight gain may be due to more efficient use of calories during insulin therapy, suggesting additional benefits of dietary and exercise modifications. Patients on intensive insulin therapy may be more likely to experience weight gain.

Hematologic

The effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on hemostasis may explain some of the clinical observations of embolic phenomenon during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Limited data show that diabetics have a significantly lower basal concentration of tissue plasminogen activator.

Hematologic side effects have included an enhanced increase in the concentration of von Willebrand factor due to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Increased von Willebrand factor, combined with hypoglycemia-associated decreased plasma volume and increased plasma viscosity, may predispose patients to reduced peripheral perfusion or embolic phenomenon. A single case of insulin-induced hemolytic anemia has been reported.

Hypersensitivity

A diabetic patient with true allergy to insulin can undergo desensitization. Desensitization kits and protocols are available from some insulin manufacturers.

Hypersensitivity side effects have included both local or systemic reactions. These reactions are becoming rare (less than 1% of patients) due to the use of purer forms of pork insulin or biosynthetic human insulin. Local reactions may present as erythema, swelling, heat, or subcutaneous nodules. They usually occur within the first two weeks of therapy, then disappear. True allergy to insulin is rare, and sensitization is usually associated with specific animal proteins in bovine and less pure forms of porcine insulins.

Immunologic

Immunologic side effects have included the formation of anti-insulin antibodies, particularly when animal insulin formulations were used. The presence of these antibodies causes the elimination half-life of insulin to increase.

Immunologic analysis of anaphylaxis to some insulin preparations in some cases has revealed markedly elevated serum levels of lgE and lgG to protamine, but not to regular insulin.

Metabolic

Metabolic side effects have included reports of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, particularly in patients who are treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Insulin increases the intracellular transport of phosphate, which often results in hypophosphatemia during treatment of DKA.

Rare cases of hypophosphatemia have been associated with the use of glucose, insulin, and potassium infusions during the treatment of myocardial infarction.

Ocular

Ocular side effects have included reports of bilateral presbyopia (blurry vision) during the beginning of therapy. This is thought to be due to changes in the osmotic equilibrium between the lens and the ocular fluids, and is usually self-limited.

Renal

Hypoglycemia is associated with increased plasma dopamine, epinephrine, and plasma renin activity. Acute changes in renal function during insulin-induced hypoglycemia, therefore, may result from direct stimulation of the efferent sympathetic nerves to the kidney and hormonal counterregulatory mechanisms.

Renal side effects have included significantly decreased renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, and significantly increased urinary albumin excretion rate due to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. These changes were usually reversible upon resolution of hypoglycemia.

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