Eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide Side Effects
Some side effects of eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.
For the Consumer
Applies to eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide: oral tablet
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction while taking eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
In rare cases, hydrochlorothiazide and eprosartan can cause a condition that results in the breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue, leading to kidney failure. Call your doctor right away if you have unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness especially if you also have fever, unusual tiredness, and dark colored urine.
Call your doctor at once if you have any other serious side effects, such as:
eye pain, vision problems;
feeling like you might pass out;
chest pain, feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;
swelling, rapid weight gain;
urinating more or less than usual, or not at all;
jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes); or
dry mouth, increased thirst, drowsiness, restless feeling, confusion, increased urination, fast heart rate, feeling light-headed, fainting, or seizure (convulsions).
Less serious side effects of eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide may include:
runny or stuffy nose, sore throat; or
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to eprosartan / hydrochlorothiazide: oral tablet
Angiotensin II receptor blockade, unlike ACE inhibition, has no impact on the processing of peptides such as bradykinin and substance P, two peptides able to induce cough.
The incidence of cough was not significantly different and averaged 3.5% and 2.6%, respectively, in patients who were given eprosartan and placebo. In comparative studies, the average incidence of cough among patients enalapril ranged from 6.1% to 12.8%, nearly two to three times the incidence of cough among patients given eprosartan (1.5% to 6.5%).
Respiratory side effects of eprosartan have included upper respiratory tract infection (8%), rhinitis (4%), pharyngitis (4%), cough (4%), asthma (<1%), and epistaxis (<1%). Respiratory side effects associated with HCTZ are rare, and include approximately 30 case reports of acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. These cases are thought to be due to idiosyncrasy or a hypersensitivity mechanism.
Cardiovascular side effects of eprosartan reported in less than 1% of patients have included angina pectoris, bradycardia, abnormal ECG, extrasystoles, atrial fibrillation, hypotension (including orthostatic hypotension), tachycardia, palpitations, and peripheral ischemia. The risk of orthostatic hypotension is greater in patients with intravascular salt or volume depletion. Cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular ectopy and complete AV heart block, are associated with hypokalemia and hyponatremia due to HCTZ. Hypotension has been reported in association with HCTZ-induced pulmonary edema. Orthostatic hypotension may occur and may rarely be associated with syncope, particularly in the elderly.
Endocrine side effects of eprosartan have included increased sweating in less than 1% of patients. Endocrinologic problems associated with thiazide diuretics include glucose intolerance and a potentially deleterious effect on the lipid profile. This may be important in some patients with or who are at risk for diabetes or coronary artery disease. A single case of recurrent parathyroid adenoma is reported, although the association is probably coincidental.
A prospective study of 34 patients who received oral thiazide-type diuretics for 14 years without interruption revealed an increased average fasting blood glucose level after treatment. Withdrawal of thiazide therapy for 7 months in 10 of the patients resulted in average reductions of 10% in the fasting blood glucose and 25% in the 2-hour glucose tolerance test values. A control group was not reported.
Thiazide diuretics may increase serum cholesterol and triglycerides, resulting in increased risk of cholesterol gallstone formation. Reports of bowel strictures associated with thiazide ingestion have been reported in the 1960's although these patients were on a combination HCTZ-potassium product.
Gastrointestinal side effects of eprosartan have included abdominal pain (2%). Anorexia, constipation, dry mouth, esophagitis, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gingivitis, nausea, periodontitis, toothache, and vomiting have been reported in less than 1% of patients. A case of dysgeusia and burning mouth syndrome has been reported. Gastrointestinal side effects associated with HCTZ are unusual, and include case reports of pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis.
In general, eprosartan has been well tolerated. Prior to FDA approval, data have shown that the incidence of adverse drug events (ADEs) associated the use of eprosartan was similar to the incidence of ADEs associated with the use of placebo. The most frequently occurring ADEs associated with the use of eprosartan (but as prevalent among placebo patients) included headache, dizziness, myalgia, sinusitis, diarrhea, bronchitis, dyspepsia, edema, and chest pain. The majority of ADEs were mild to moderate in severity. In placebo-controlled trials, 4% of treated patients discontinued therapy due to an ADE, compared with 6.5% of patients given placebo.
Genitourinary side effects associated with eprosartan have included urinary tract infection (1%). Albuminuria, cystitis, hematuria, micturition frequency, polyuria, renal calculus, and urinary incontinence have been reported in less than 1% of patients.
Hematologic side effects of eprosartan have included anemia and purpura in less than 1% of patients, decrease in hemoglobin of more than 20% (0.1%), leukopenia (0.3%), neutropenia (1.3%), and thrombocytopenia (0.3%). Hematologic side effects associated with HCTZ are rare. Cases of immune-complex hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported.
Hepatic side effects of eprosartan have included minor increases in AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase in less than 1% of patients. One case of elevated ALT >3.5 times ULN has been reported.
Metabolic side effects associated with eprosartan have included hypertriglyceridemia (1%); and increased creatine phosphokinase, diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia in less than 1% of patients. Metabolic side effects associated with HCTZ are common, especially when doses greater than 50 mg per day are used. Mild hypokalemia (decrease of 0.5 mEq/L) occurs in up to 50% of patients, and may predispose patients to cardiac arrhythmias. Metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated serum uric acid levels are also relatively common. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) may increase serum cholesterol.
Since HCTZ may increase total serum cholesterol by 11%, LDL lipoprotein cholesterol by 12%, and VLDL lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 50%, and may reduce insulin secretion, it should be used with caution in diabetic patients and in those with hypercholesterolemia. True glucose intolerance may develop in approximately 3% of patients. It is typically reversible within six months after discontinuation of therapy.
Hyperuricemia may be an important consideration in patients with a history of gout. Hypophosphatemia and low serum magnesium concentrations may occur, but are usually clinically insignificant except in malnourished patients.
Musculoskeletal side effects of eprosartan have included arthralgia (2%), arthritis, arthrosis, skeletal pain, tendonitis, leg cramps, and back pain in less than 1% of patients. In addition, rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported during postmarketing experience in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers. Musculoskeletal side effects associated with HCTZ are unusual, and include case reports of myalgias and chills. Preservation of mineral bone density has also been observed in older patients.
Nervous system side effects of eprosartan have included anxiety, ataxia, insomnia, migraine, neuritis, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremor, vertigo, and tinnitus in less than 1% of patients. A nervous system side effect, cerebrovascular insufficiency, has been associated with HCTZ-induced plasma volume contraction.
Ocular side effects associated with eprosartan have included conjunctivitis, abnormal vision, and xerophthalmia in less than 1% of patients.
Ocular side effects have included idiosyncratic reactions to the hydrochlorothiazide component resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma.
Other side effects associated with eprosartan affecting the body as a whole have included viral infection (2%), injury (2%), and fatigue (2%). Alcohol intolerance, asthenia, substernal chest pain, peripheral edema, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, malaise, rigors, pain, herpes simplex, otitis externa, and otitis media have been reported in less than 1% of patients.
Psychiatric side effects of eprosartan have included depression (1%).
Renal side effects of eprosartan have included minor increases in creatinine (0.6%) and BUN (1.3%). The use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in patients whose renal function depends on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (i.e., congestive heart failure) has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely acute renal failure and/or death. Increases in serum creatinine and BUN have been reported with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis. Renal insufficiency, manifest as an increase in serum creatinine and BUN may occur due to HCTZ-induced intravascular volume depletion. Rare cases of interstitial nephritis have been reported.
Although hydrochlorothiazide has been used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a case report in which the drug was believed to have caused this condition has been reported.
Dermatologic side effects reported in less than 1% of patients taking eprosartan have included eczema, furunculosis, pruritus, rash, and maculopapular rash. Dermatologic reactions of HCTZ include case reports of erythema annular centrifugum, acute eczematous dermatitis, and morbilliform and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Thiazides may induce phototoxic dermatitis. In addition, a rare, distinct entity with clinical and laboratory features indistinguishable from those of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is associated with HCTZ.
A 67-year-old woman with hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, depression, and hypertension developed facial erythema, headaches, tremors, confusion and personality changes associated with a new positive ANA and anti-nRNP, and a skin biopsy consistent with lupus erythematosus while taking hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), levothyroxine, and amitriptyline. The eruption resolved upon discontinuation of HCTZ, but she later developed a higher ANA titer associated with symptomatic diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids.
There have been approximately 34 known cases of thiazide-induced pulmonary edema, encompassing 52 episodes of pulmonary edema, as of 1991 (per a 1996 review). In some cases, doses as small as 12.5 mg were associated with the development of pulmonary edema. The average time to onset of this adverse reaction is 44 minutes, women carry a relative risk of 9:1, and the average age is 56 years. The mortality rate is 6%. Some experts consider this side effect grossly underreported.
Hypersensitivity (usually nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash) has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking HCTZ. Rare cases of acute pulmonary edema, interstitial cystitis, and interstitial nephritis, and anaphylaxis have been reported.
There are rare case reports of hydrochlorothiazide-induced immune hemolytic anemia. The following illustrates a fatal case:
A 53-year-old man with hypertension developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and progressive anorexia and weakness associated with scleral icterus, anemia with spherocytosis, dark red urine with proteinuria, bilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria, and elevated lactic dehydrogenase levels 18 months after beginning hydrochlorothiazide and methyldopa. Haptoglobin was less than 50 mg per dl. Direct and indirect Coombs tests were positive. The patient died suddenly; autopsy revealed no obvious cause of death, left ventricular hypertrophy, and mild coronary atherosclerosis.
Immunologic side effects associated with HCTZ are rare, and include case reports of allergic vasculitis and hemolytic anemia. There are numerous case reports of patients developing a rash histologically identical to subacute cutaneous lupus following HCTZ administration.
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