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Asmanex

Generic Name: mometasone furoate
Dosage Form: inhalant

Indications and Usage for Asmanex

Treatment of Asthma

Asmanex® TWISTHALER® is indicated for the maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy in patients 4 years of age and older.

Important Limitations of Use

Asmanex TWISTHALER is NOT indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.

Asmanex TWISTHALER is NOT indicated in children less than 4 years of age.

Asmanex Dosage and Administration

Administer Asmanex TWISTHALER by the orally inhaled route only. Instruct patients to inhale rapidly and deeply. Advise patients to rinse the mouth after inhalation. Individual patients will experience a variable time to onset and degree of symptom relief. Maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after initiation of treatment. After asthma stability has been achieved, it is desirable to titrate to the lowest effective dosage to reduce the possibility of side effects. For patients ≥12 years of age who do not respond adequately to the starting dose after 2 weeks of therapy, higher doses may provide additional asthma control. The safety and efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER when administered in excess of recommended doses have not been established.

Recommended Dosages in Patients 4 Years of Age and Older

The recommended starting doses and highest recommended daily dose for Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment based on prior asthma therapy are provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Recommended Dosages for Asmanex TWISTHALER Treatment
Previous Therapy Recommended Starting Dose Highest Recommended Daily Dose
*
When administered once daily, Asmanex TWISTHALER should be taken only in the evening.
The 440 mcg daily dose may be administered in divided doses of 220 mcg twice daily or as 440 mcg once daily.
For Patients Currently Receiving Chronic Oral Corticosteroid Therapy: Prednisone should be reduced no faster than 2.5 mg/day on a weekly basis, beginning after at least 1 week of Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy. Monitor patients carefully for signs of asthma instability, including serial objective measures of airflow, and for signs of adrenal insufficiency during steroid taper and following discontinuation of oral corticosteroid therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
§
Recommended pediatric dosage is 110 mcg once daily in the evening regardless of prior therapy.
Patients ≥12 years who received bronchodilators alone 220 mcg once daily in the evening* 440 mcg
Patients ≥12 years who received inhaled corticosteroids 220 mcg once daily in the evening* 440 mcg
Patients ≥12 years who received oral corticosteroids 440 mcg twice daily 880 mcg
Children 4-11 years of age§ 110 mcg once daily in the evening* 110 mcg*

Dosage Forms and Strengths

Asmanex TWISTHALER is a dry powder for inhalation that is available in 2 strengths.

Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg delivers 200 mcg mometasone furoate per actuation from the mouthpiece.

Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg delivers 100 mcg mometasone furoate per actuation from the mouthpiece.

Contraindications

Status Asthmaticus

Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy is contraindicated in the primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute episodes of asthma where intensive measures are required.

Hypersensitivity

Asmanex TWISTHALER is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to milk proteins or any ingredients of Asmanex TWISTHALER [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Description (11)].

Warnings and Precautions

Local Effects

In clinical trials, the development of localized infections of the mouth and pharynx with Candida albicans occurred in 195 of 3007 patients treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while remaining on treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy, but at times therapy with the Asmanex TWISTHALER may need to be interrupted. Advise patients to rinse the mouth after inhalation of Asmanex TWISTHALER.

Acute Asthma Episodes

Asmanex TWISTHALER is not a bronchodilator and is not indicated for rapid relief of bronchospasm or other acute episodes of asthma. Instruct patients to contact their physician immediately if episodes of asthma that are not responsive to bronchodilators occur during the course of treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER. During such episodes, patients may require therapy with oral corticosteroids.

Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity reactions including rash, pruritus, angioedema, and anaphylactic reaction have been reported with use of Asmanex TWISTHALER. Discontinue Asmanex TWISTHALER if such reactions occur [see Contraindications (4.2) and Postmarketing Experience (6.2)].

Asmanex TWISTHALER contains small amounts of lactose, which contains trace levels of milk proteins. In postmarketing experience with Asmanex TWISTHALER, anaphylactic reactions in patients with milk protein allergy have been reported [see Contraindications (4.2) and Postmarketing Experience (6.2)].

Immunosuppression

Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases or who are not properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.

Inhaled corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infection of the respiratory tract; untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.

Transferring Patients from Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy

Particular care is needed for patients who are transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to Asmanex TWISTHALER because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available inhaled corticosteroids. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.

Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more per day of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although Asmanex TWISTHALER may improve control of asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of corticosteroid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid activity necessary for coping with these emergencies.

During periods of stress or severe asthma attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physicians for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a medical identification card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or severe asthma attack.

Patients requiring oral corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to Asmanex TWISTHALER. Prednisone reduction can be accomplished by reducing the daily prednisone dose by 2.5 mg on a weekly basis during treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Lung function (FEV1 or PEFR), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of oral corticosteroids. In addition to monitoring asthma signs and symptoms, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.

Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to Asmanex TWISTHALER may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy, e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, and eosinophilic conditions.

During withdrawal from oral corticosteroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.

Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression

Asmanex TWISTHALER will often help control asthma symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically similar oral doses of prednisone. Since individual sensitivity to effects on cortisol production exists, physicians should consider this information when prescribing Asmanex TWISTHALER. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of inadequate adrenal response. It is possible that systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear in a small number of patients, particularly when Asmanex TWISTHALER is administered at higher than recommended doses over prolonged periods of time. If such effects occur, the dosage of Asmanex TWISTHALER should be reduced slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic corticosteroids and for management of asthma.

Reduction in Bone Mineral Density

Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed with long-term administration of products containing inhaled corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate. The clinical significance of small changes in BMD with regard to long-term outcomes is unknown. Patients with major risk factors for decreased bone mineral content, such as prolonged immobilization, family history of osteoporosis, or chronic use of drugs that can reduce bone mass (e.g., anticonvulsants and corticosteroids) should be monitored and treated with established standards of care.

In a 2-year double-blind study in 103 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (baseline FEV1 85%–88% predicted), treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily resulted in significant reductions in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.015 (-1.43%) for the Asmanex TWISTHALER group compared to 0.002 (0.25%) for the placebo group. In another 2-year double-blind study in 87 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (baseline FEV1 82%–83% predicted), treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily demonstrated no statistically significant changes in lumbar spine BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.018 (-1.57%) for the Asmanex TWISTHALER group compared to -0.006 (-0.43%) for the placebo group.

Effect on Growth

Orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Asmanex TWISTHALER, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Asmanex TWISTHALER, titrate each patient's dose to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Glaucoma and Cataracts

In clinical trials, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts have been reported in 8 of 3007 patients following the administration of Asmanex TWISTHALER. Close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.

Paradoxical Bronchospasm

As with other inhaled asthma medications, bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. If bronchospasm occurs following dosing with Asmanex TWISTHALER, it should be treated immediately with a fast-acting inhaled bronchodilator.

Treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER should be discontinued and alternative therapy instituted.

Adverse Reactions

Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following:

Clinical Studies Experience

The safety data described below reflect exposure to Asmanex TWISTHALER in 2380 patients with asthma exposed for 8 to 12 weeks and 627 patients with asthma exposed for 1 year in a total of 17 clinical trials.

In adult and adolescent patients 12 years of age and older, Asmanex TWISTHALER was studied in 10 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 8 to 12 weeks duration with a total of 1750 patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER. There were also 3 trials with a total of 475 patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER for 1 year. In the 8- to 12-week clinical trials, the population was 12 to 83 years of age; 38% males and 62% females; and 83% Caucasian, 8% black, 6% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=133), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=209), 220 mcg once daily in the evening (n=232), 220 mcg twice daily (n=433), 440 mcg once daily in the morning (n=419), 440 mcg once daily in the evening (n=250), or 440 mcg twice daily (n=74). In 3 long-term safety trials (two 9-month extensions of efficacy trials and one 52-week active-controlled safety trial), 475 patients with asthma (12-83 years of age, 44% males, 56% females, 87% Caucasian, 8% black, 4% Hispanic, and 1% other race/ethnicity) received various doses of Asmanex TWISTHALER for 1 year.

In pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age, Asmanex TWISTHALER was studied in 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 12 weeks duration with a total of 630 patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER and a 52-week, active-controlled safety trial with a total of 152 patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER. In the 12-week clinical trials, the population was 4 to 11 years of age; 63% males and 37% females; and 67% Caucasian, 13% black, 17% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening (n=98), 110 mcg once daily in the morning (n=181), 110 mcg twice daily (n=179), or 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=172). In the long-term active-controlled safety trial (n=152), patients with asthma (4 to 11 years of age, 60% males and 40% females, 84% Caucasian, 11% Black, and 5% Hispanic) received Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily or 220 mcg once daily in the morning for 52 weeks.

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older: The safety results of the 10 trials that were 8 to 12 weeks in duration were pooled because patients with asthma in these studies were previously maintained on bronchodilators and/or inhaled corticosteroids. The safety results of the one 12-week clinical trial in patients with asthma previously treated with oral corticosteroids are presented separately.

In the pooled 8- to 12-week clinical trials, adverse reactions were reported in 70% of patients treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER (n=1750) compared to 65% of patients taking placebo (n=720). Table 2 displays the common adverse reactions (≥3% in any patient group receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER) that occurred more frequently in patients treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER compared to patients treated with placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions with ≥3% Incidence in 10 Controlled Clinical Trials with Asmanex TWISTHALER in Patients 12 Years of Age and Older Previously on Bronchodilators and/or Inhaled Corticosteroids
(%) of Patients
Asmanex TWISTHALER
  Adverse Reaction 220 mcg twice daily
(n=433)
440 mcg once daily
(n=497)
220 mcg once daily in the evening
(n=232)
Placebo
(n=720)
*
Percentages are based on the number of female patients.
Headache 22 17 20 20
Allergic Rhinitis 15 11 14 13
Pharyngitis 11 8 13 7
Upper Respiratory Infection 10 8 15 7
Sinusitis 6 6 5 5
Candidiasis, oral 6 4 4 2
Dysmenorrhea* 9 4 4 4
Musculoskeletal Pain 8 4 4 5
Back Pain 6 3 3 4
Dyspepsia 5 3 3 3
Myalgia 3 2 3 2
Abdominal Pain 3 2 3 2
Nausea 3 1 3 2
Average Duration of Exposure (Days) 81 70 80 62

The following other adverse reactions occurred in these clinical trials with an incidence of at least 1% but less than 3% and were more common on Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy than on placebo:

Body as a Whole: fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain

Gastrointestinal: gastroenteritis, vomiting, anorexia

Hearing, Vestibular: earache

Resistance Mechanism: infection

Respiratory: dysphonia, epistaxis, nasal irritation, respiratory disorder, throat dry

In the 12-week trial in adult asthmatics who previously required oral corticosteroids, the effects of Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy administered as two 220-mcg inhalations twice daily (n=46) were compared with those of placebo (n=43). Adverse reactions, whether considered drug-related or not by the investigators, reported in more than 3 patients in the Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment group, and which occurred more frequently than in placebo were (Asmanex TWISTHALER % vs. placebo %): musculoskeletal pain (22% vs. 14%), oral candidiasis (22% vs. 9%), sinusitis (22% vs. 19%), allergic rhinitis (20% vs. 5%), upper respiratory infection (15% vs. 14%), arthralgia (13% vs. 7%), fatigue (13% vs. 2%), depression (11% vs. 0%), and sinus congestion (9% vs. 0%). In considering these data, an increased duration of exposure for patients on Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment (77 days vs. 58 days on placebo) should be taken into account.

Long-Term Clinical Trials Experience - 12 Years of Age and Older: In 3 long-term safety trials, 475 patients with asthma 12 years of age and older were treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily (n=60), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=41), 220 mcg once daily in the evening (n=40), 440 mcg once daily in the morning (n=44), 440 mcg once daily in the evening (n=41), 440 mcg twice daily (n=62), 880 mcg once daily (n=59), or at variable doses (n=128) for 52 weeks. The safety profile of Asmanex TWISTHALER in the 52-week trials was similar to the findings in the 8- to 12-week clinical trials. In patients previously on inhaled corticosteroids, cataracts were reported in 3 patients (0.9%) treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER, compared to 1 patient (1.7%) treated with the active comparator medication. Increased ocular pressure at the end of the study was observed in 2 patients, both on Asmanex TWISTHALER 880 mcg once daily in the morning. Oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and dysmenorrhea were seen at a higher frequency with long-term administration than in the 8- to 12-week trials.

Pediatric Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age: In the three 12-week clinical trials in pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age, patients with asthma were previously maintained on bronchodilators and/or inhaled corticosteroids. The safety results from 1 trial are described in Table 3 for Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening. The safety results from the other 2 trials showed similar findings.

Overall adverse reactions were reported with approximately the same frequency by patients treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER and those receiving placebo. Table 3 displays the common adverse reactions (≥2% in any patient group receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER) that occurred more frequently in patients 4 to 11 years of age treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER compared with placebo-treated patients.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions with ≥2% Incidence in a 12-Week Study with Asmanex TWISTHALER in Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age Previously on Bronchodilators and/or Inhaled Corticosteroids
(%) of Patients
Asmanex TWISTHALER
  Adverse Reaction 110 mcg once daily in the evening
(n=98)
Placebo
(n=99)
Fever 7 5
Allergic Rhinitis 4 3
Abdominal Pain 6 2
Vomiting 3 2
Urinary Tract Infection 2 1
Bruise 2 0
Average Duration of Exposure (Days) 72 68

Long-Term Clinical Trials Experience in Children 4 to 11 Years of Age: In a 52-week, active-controlled, long-term safety trial, 152 patients with asthma 4 to 11 years of age were treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=74) or 220 mcg once daily (n=78). The safety profile for Asmanex TWISTHALER in the 52-week trial was similar to the findings in the 12-week clinical trials.

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of Asmanex TWISTHALER. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Immune System Disorders: Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions including rash, pruritus, angioedema and anaphylactic reaction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Contraindications (4.2)].

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: Asthma aggravation, which may include cough, dyspnea, wheezing and bronchospasm.

Drug Interactions

In clinical studies, the concurrent administration of Asmanex TWISTHALER and other drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma was not associated with any unusual adverse reactions.

Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4

Ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, may increase plasma levels of mometasone furoate during concomitant dosing [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C:

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Asmanex TWISTHALER use in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies in mice, rats, and rabbits revealed evidence of teratogenicity. Asthma is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Poorly controlled asthma during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus. Asmanex TWISTHALER should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

There is a natural increase in corticosteroid production during pregnancy; therefore, most women require a lower exogenous corticosteroid dose and may not need corticosteroid treatment during pregnancy. Infants born to mothers taking substantial oral corticosteroid doses during pregnancy should be monitored for signs of hypoadrenalism.

When administered to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, mometasone furoate increased fetal malformations and decreased fetal growth (measured by lower fetal weights and/or delayed ossification). Dystocia and related complications were also observed when mometasone furoate was administered to rats late in gestation. However, experience with oral corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroid exposure than humans.

In a mouse reproduction study, subcutaneous mometasone furoate produced cleft palate at approximately one-third of the maximum recommended daily human dose (MRHD) for adults on an mcg/m2 basis and decreased fetal survival at approximately 1 times the MRHD. No toxicity was observed at approximately one-tenth of the MRHD.

In a rat reproduction study, mometasone furoate produced umbilical hernia at topical dermal doses approximately 6 times the MRHD and delays in ossification at approximately 3 times the MRHD.

In another study, rats received subcutaneous doses of mometasone throughout pregnancy or late in gestation. Treated animals had prolonged and difficult labor, fewer live births, lower birth weight, and reduced early pup survival at a dose that was approximately 6 times the MRHD for adults on an area under the curve (AUC) basis. Similar effects were not observed at approximately 3 times the MRHD.

In rabbits, mometasone furoate caused multiple malformations (e.g., flexed front paws, gallbladder agenesis, umbilical hernia, hydrocephaly) at topical dermal doses approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis. In an oral study, mometasone furoate increased resorptions and caused cleft palate and/or head malformations (hydrocephaly and domed head) at a dose less than the MRHD for adults based on AUC. At a dose approximately 2 times the MRHD in adults based on AUC, most litters were aborted or resorbed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

Nursing Mothers

Systemic absorption of a single inhaled 400 mcg mometasone dose was less than 1%. It is not known if mometasone furoate is excreted in human milk. Because other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk, caution should be used when Asmanex TWISTHALER is administered to nursing women.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Asmanex TWISTHALER have been established in children 4 years of age and older. Use of Asmanex TWISTHALER in children 12 years of age and older is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials in this patient population [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Use of Asmanex TWISTHALER in pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials of 12 weeks duration in 630 patients 4 to 11 years of age receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER and one 52-week safety trial in 152 patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Controlled clinical studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth in pediatric patients. In these studies, the mean reduction in growth velocity was approximately 1 cm per year (range: 0.3–1.8 per year) and appears to depend upon dose and duration of exposure. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for "catch-up" growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of children and adolescents (4 years of age and older) receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Asmanex TWISTHALER, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry).

A 52-week, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted to assess the potential growth effects of Asmanex TWISTHALER in 187 prepubescent children (131 males and 56 females) 4 to 9 years of age with asthma who were previously maintained on an inhaled beta-agonist. Treatment groups included Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=44), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=50), 110 mcg once daily in the morning (n=48), and placebo (n=45). For each patient, an average growth rate was determined using an individual regression approach. The mean growth rates, expressed as least-squares mean in cm per year, for Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg once daily in the morning, 110 mcg once daily in the morning, and placebo were 5.34, 5.93, 6.15, and 6.44, respectively. The differences from placebo and the corresponding 2-sided 95% CI of growth rates for Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg once daily in the morning, and 110 mcg once daily in the morning were -1.11 (95% CI: -2.34, 0.12), -0.51 (95% CI: -1.69, 0.67), and -0.30 (95% CI: -1.48, 0.89), respectively.

The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of safe and effective noncorticosteroid treatment alternatives. To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Asmanex TWISTHALER, each patient should be titrated to his/her lowest effective dose.

Geriatric Use

A total of 175 patients 65 years of age and over (23 of whom were 75 years of age and older) have been treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER in controlled clinical trials. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Hepatic Impairment

Concentrations of mometasone furoate appear to increase with severity of hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Overdosage

Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Because of low systemic bioavailability and an absence of acute drug-related systemic findings in clinical studies, acute overdose is unlikely to require any treatment other than observation. Single daily doses as high as 1200 mcg per day for 28 days were well tolerated and did not cause a significant reduction in plasma cortisol AUC (94% of placebo AUC). Single oral doses up to 8000 mcg have been studied on human volunteers with no adverse reactions reported.

Asmanex Description

Mometasone furoate, the active component of the Asmanex TWISTHALER product, is a corticosteroid with the chemical name 9,21-dichloro-11(Beta),17-dihydroxy-16(alpha)-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17-(2-furoate) and the following chemical structure:

Mometasone furoate is a white powder with an empirical formula of C27H30Cl2O6, and molecular weight of 521.44 Daltons.

The Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg and 220 mcg products are cap-activated, inhalation-driven, multidose dry powder inhalers containing mometasone furoate and anhydrous lactose (which contains trace amounts of milk proteins).

Each actuation of the Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg or 220 mcg inhaler provides a measured dose of approximately 0.75 or 1.5 mg mometasone furoate inhalation powder, containing 110 or 220 mcg of mometasone furoate, respectively. This results in delivery of 100 or 200 mcg mometasone furoate from the mouthpiece, respectively, based on in vitro testing at flow rates of 30 L/min and 60 L/min with constant volume of 2 L. The amount of mometasone furoate emitted from the inhaler in vitro does not differ significantly for flow rates ranging from 28.3 L/min to 70 L/min at a constant volume of 2 L. However, the amount of drug delivered to the lung will depend on patient factors such as inspiratory flow and peak inspiratory flow through the device. In adult and adolescent patients (aged ≥12 years) with varied asthma severity, mean peak inspiratory flow rate through the device was 69 L/min (range: 54–77 L/min). In pediatric patients (aged 5-12 years) diagnosed with asthma, mean peak inspiratory flow rate in the 5- to 8-year-old subgroup was >50 L/min (minimum of 46 L/min) and for the 9- to 12-year-old subgroup was >60 L/min (minimum of 48 L/min).

Asmanex - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Mometasone furoate is a corticosteroid demonstrating potent anti-inflammatory activity. The precise mechanism of corticosteroid action on asthma is not known. Inflammation is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of inhibitory effects on multiple cell types (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and cytokines) involved in inflammation and in the asthmatic response. These anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids may contribute to their efficacy in asthma.

Mometasone furoate has been shown in vitro to exhibit a binding affinity for the human glucocorticoid receptor, which is approximately 12 times that of dexamethasone, 7 times that of triamcinolone acetonide, 5 times that of budesonide, and 1.5 times that of fluticasone. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

Though effective for the treatment of asthma, corticosteroids do not affect asthma symptoms immediately. Maximum improvement in symptoms following inhaled administration of mometasone furoate may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. When corticosteroids are discontinued, asthma stability may persist for several days or longer.

Pharmacodynamics

Adrenal Function: The effects of Asmanex TWISTHALER on adrenal function have been evaluated in 2 clinical studies: 1 in adults 18 years of age and older and 1 in pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age. Both clinical studies were specifically designed to assess the effect of Asmanex TWISTHALER on adrenal function.

In a 29-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 64 adult and adolescent patients 18 years of age and older with asthma, Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily and 880 mcg twice daily (twice the highest recommended daily dose) were compared to both placebo and prednisone 10 mg once daily as a positive control. The 30-minute post-Cosyntropin stimulation serum cortisol concentration on Day 29 was 23.2 mcg/dL for the Asmanex 440 mcg twice daily group (n=16) and 20.8 mcg/dL for the Asmanex 880 mcg twice daily group (n=16), compared to 14.5 mcg/dL for the oral prednisone 10-mg group (n=16) and 25 mcg/dL for the placebo group (n=16). The difference between Asmanex 880 mcg twice daily (twice the maximum recommended dose) and placebo was statistically significant.

In a 29-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial in 50 pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age with asthma, Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg twice daily, and 440 mcg twice daily (2-8 times the highest pediatric daily recommended daily dose) were compared to placebo. HPA-axis function was assessed by 12-hour plasma cortisol AUC and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol concentrations. After 29 days of treatment, the mean changes in plasma cortisol AUC0–12h from baseline were -0.11, -19.5, -21.3, and -3.47 mcg•hr/dL for the treatment groups of Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=12), 220 mcg twice daily (n=12), 440 mcg twice daily (n=11), and placebo (n=7), respectively. The mean differences from placebo in the groups treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg twice daily, and 440 mcg twice daily were 3.4 mcg•hr/dL (95% CI: -14.0, 20.7), -16.0 mcg•hr/dL (95% CI: -33.9, 1.9), and -17.9 mcg•hr/dL (95% CI: -35.8, 0.0), respectively. For 24-hour urinary-free cortisol, after 29 days of treatment, the mean changes from baseline were -1.53, -1.33, -6.70, and -4.68 mcg/day for the groups treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=12), 220 mcg twice daily (n=12), 440 mcg twice daily (n=12), and placebo (n=10), respectively. The mean differences in urinary-free cortisol changes from baseline compared to placebo were 3.1 mcg/day (95% CI: -3.3, 9.6), 3.3 mcg/day (95% CI: -3.0, 9.7), and -2.0 mcg/day (95% CI: -8.6, 4.6) for the groups treated with 110 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg twice daily, and 440 mcg twice daily, respectively.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Following a 1000 mcg inhaled dose of tritiated mometasone furoate inhalation powder to 6 healthy human subjects, plasma concentrations of unchanged mometasone furoate were shown to be very low compared to the total radioactivity in plasma. Following an inhaled single 400 mcg dose of Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment to 24 healthy subjects, plasma concentrations for most subjects were near or below the lower limit of quantitation for the assay (50 pcg/mL). The mean absolute systemic bioavailability of the above single inhaled 400 mcg dose, compared to an intravenous 400 mcg dose of mometasone furoate, was determined to be less than 1%. Following administration of the recommended highest inhaled dose (400 mcg twice daily) to 64 patients for 28 days, concentration-time profiles were discernible, but with large intersubject variability. The coefficient of variation for Cmax and AUC ranged from approximately 50% to 100%. The mean peak plasma concentrations at steady state ranged from approximately 94 to 114 pcg/mL and the mean time to peak levels ranged from approximately 1.0 to 2.5 hours.

Distribution: Based on the study employing a 1000 mcg inhaled dose of tritiated mometasone furoate inhalation powder in humans, no appreciable accumulation of mometasone furoate in the red blood cells was found. Following an intravenous 400 mcg dose of mometasone furoate, the plasma concentrations showed a biphasic decline, with a mean terminal half-life of about 5 hours and the mean steady-state volume of distribution of 152 L. The in vitro protein binding for mometasone furoate was reported to be 98% to 99% (in a concentration range of 5–500 ng/mL).

Metabolism: Studies have shown that mometasone furoate is primarily and extensively metabolized in the liver of all species investigated and undergoes extensive metabolism to multiple metabolites. In vitro studies have confirmed the primary role of CYP 3A4 in the metabolism of this compound; however, no major metabolites were identified.

Excretion: Following an intravenous dosing, the terminal half-life was reported to be about 5 hours. Following the inhaled dose of tritiated 1000 mcg mometasone furoate, the radioactivity is excreted mainly in the feces (a mean of 74%), and to a small extent in the urine (a mean of 8%) up to 7 days. No radioactivity was associated with unchanged mometasone furoate in the urine.

Special Populations:

Hepatic Impairment: Administration of a single inhaled dose of 400 mcg mometasone furoate to subjects with mild (n=4), moderate (n=4), and severe (n=4) hepatic impairment resulted in only 1 or 2 subjects in each group having detectable peak plasma concentrations of mometasone furoate (ranging from 50–105 pcg/mL). The observed peak plasma concentrations appear to increase with severity of hepatic impairment; however, the numbers of detectable levels were few.

Renal Impairment: The effects of renal impairment on mometasone furoate pharmacokinetics have not been adequately investigated.

Pediatric: Mometasone furoate pharmacokinetics have not been investigated in the pediatric population [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Gender: The effects of gender on mometasone furoate pharmacokinetics have not been adequately investigated.

Race: The effects of race on mometasone furoate pharmacokinetics have not been adequately investigated.

Drug-Drug Interaction: Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: In a drug interaction study, an inhaled dose of mometasone furoate 400 mcg was given to 24 healthy subjects twice daily for 9 days and ketoconazole 200 mg (as well as placebo) were given twice daily concomitantly on Days 4 to 9. Mometasone furoate plasma concentrations were <150 pcg/mL on Day 3 prior to coadministration of ketoconazole or placebo. Following concomitant administration of ketoconazole, 4 out of 12 subjects in the ketoconazole treatment group (n=12) had peak plasma concentrations of mometasone furoate >200 pcg/mL on Day 9 (211–324 pcg/mL).

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a 2-year carcinogenicity study in Sprague Dawley® rats, mometasone furoate demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumors at inhalation doses up to 67 mcg/kg (approximately 8 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis and 2 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in pediatric patients based on an mcg/m2 basis). In a 19-month carcinogenicity study in Swiss CD-1 mice, mometasone furoate demonstrated no statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumors at inhalation doses up to 160 mcg/kg (approximately 10 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis and 2 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in pediatric patients based on an mcg/m2 basis).

Mometasone furoate increased chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell assay, but did not have this effect in an in vitro Chinese hamster lung cell assay. Mometasone furoate was not mutagenic in the Ames test or mouse lymphoma assay, and was not clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, a rat bone marrow chromosomal aberration assay, or a mouse male germ-cell chromosomal aberration assay. Mometasone furoate also did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in vivo in rat hepatocytes.

In reproductive studies in rats, impairment of fertility was not produced by subcutaneous doses up to 15 mcg/kg (approximately 6 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis).

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

Reproductive Toxicology Studies: In mice, mometasone furoate caused cleft palate at subcutaneous doses of 60 mcg/kg and above (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis). Fetal survival was reduced at 180 mcg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis). No toxicity was observed at 20 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis).

In rats, mometasone furoate produced umbilical hernia at topical dermal doses of 600 mcg/kg and above (approximately 6 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis). A dose of 300 mcg/kg (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis) produced delays in ossification but no malformations.

When rats received subcutaneous doses of mometasone furoate throughout pregnancy or during the later stages of pregnancy, 15 mcg/kg (approximately 6 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis) caused prolonged and difficult labor and reduced the number of live births, birth weight, and early pup survival. Similar effects were not observed at 7.5 mcg/kg (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis).

In rabbits, mometasone furoate caused multiple malformations (e.g., flexed front paws, gallbladder agenesis, umbilical hernia, hydrocephaly) at topical dermal doses of 150 mcg/kg and above (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an mcg/m2 basis). In an oral study, mometasone furoate increased resorptions and caused cleft palate and/or head malformations (hydrocephaly and domed head) at 700 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an area under the curve [AUC] basis). At 2800 mcg/kg (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis) most litters were aborted or resorbed. No toxicity was observed at 140 mcg/kg (less than the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on an AUC basis).

Clinical Studies

Asthma

Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older: The efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER in patients with asthma 12 years and older was evaluated in ten 8- to 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials. These trials included 1750 patients ranging from 12 to 83 years of age; 38% male and 62% female; and 83% Caucasian, 8% black, 6% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=133), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=209), 220 mcg once daily in the evening (n=232), 220 mcg twice daily (n=433), 440 mcg once daily in the morning (n=419), 440 mcg once daily in the evening (n=250), or 440 mcg twice daily (n=74). The results of the clinical trials are presented based upon previous asthma therapy.

Patients ≥12 Years of Age Previously Maintained on Bronchodilators Alone: Asmanex TWISTHALER was studied in three 12-week, double-blind trials in 737 patients with mild to moderate asthma (mean baseline FEV1≅2.6 L, 72% of predicted normal) who were maintained on short-acting beta2-agonists alone. The first 2 trials evaluated doses of 440 mcg administered as 2 inhalations once daily in the morning and 1 of these studies also evaluated 220 mcg twice daily. In both trials, AM predose FEV1 was significantly improved at endpoint (last observation) following treatment with 440 mcg Asmanex TWISTHALER once daily in the morning as compared to placebo (14% vs. 2.5%, respectively, in 1 trial and 16% vs. 5.5% in the other). There was also a significant improvement in AM predose FEV1 at endpoint following treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily. Other measures of lung function (AM and PM PEFR) also showed improvement compared to placebo. Patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment had reduced frequency of beta2-agonist rescue medication use compared to those on placebo (mean reductions at endpoint 2.2 and 0.5 puffs per day, respectively, from a baseline of 4.1 puffs/day). Additionally, fewer patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg once daily experienced asthma worsening than did patients receiving placebo.

In the third trial, 195 asthmatic patients were treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg once daily in the evening or placebo. The AM FEV1 at endpoint was significantly improved compared to placebo (mean change at endpoint 0.43 L or 16.8% vs. 0.16 L or 6%, respectively, see Figure 1). Evening PEF increased 24.96 L/min (7%) from baseline in the Asmanex TWISTHALER group compared to 8.67 L/min (4%) in placebo.

Patients ≥12 Years of Age Previously Maintained on Inhaled Corticosteroids: The efficacy and safety of Asmanex TWISTHALER in doses ranging from 110 mcg twice daily to 440 mcg twice daily was evaluated in 3 trials in 1072 patients previously maintained on inhaled corticosteroids. In the first 2 trials, asthmatic patients (mean baseline FEV1 ~2.6 L, 76% predicted) were previously on either beclomethasone dipropionate [84–1200 mcg/day], flunisolide [100–2000 mcg/day], fluticasone propionate [110–880 mcg/day], or triamcinolone acetonide [300–2400 mcg/day]. The first trial included 307 patients who were treated in an open-label fashion with Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg (110 mcg × 2 inhalations) twice daily for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg once daily in the morning or placebo. The second trial involved 365 patients who continued on their previous dose of inhaled corticosteroids during a 2-week screening period before being switched to Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily, 220 mcg twice daily, 110 mcg twice daily, beclomethasone dipropionate 168 mcg twice daily, or placebo for 12 weeks.

In the first trial, AM predose FEV1 was effectively maintained (-1.4% change from baseline to endpoint) over the 12 weeks in the patients who were randomized to Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg once daily in the morning, while decreasing 10% at endpoint in those switched to placebo. In addition, fewer patients treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER experienced worsening of asthma compared to placebo.

In the second trial, AM predose FEV1 was significantly increased at endpoint when patients were switched to Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily (7% increase) or 440 mcg twice daily (6.2% increase) as compared to a decrease of 7% when switched to placebo. Additionally, beta2-agonist rescue medication use was decreased for patients who received Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment relative to those on placebo (mean reduction from baseline to endpoint 1.1 puffs/day vs. increase of 0.7 puffs/day). Fewer patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment experienced asthma worsening than did patients receiving placebo.

The third trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of Asmanex TWISTHALER compared to placebo in 400 asthmatic patients (mean FEV1 67% predicted at baseline) previously maintained on beclomethasone dipropionate (hydrofluoroalkane [HFA] or chlorofluorocarbon [CFC]) 168–600 mcg/day, budesonide 200–1200 mcg/day, flunisolide 500–2000 mcg/day, fluticasone propionate 88–880 mcg/day, or triamcinolone acetonide 400–1600 mcg/day. Following a 28-day inhaled corticosteroid dose-reduction phase, patients were randomized to Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg once daily in the evening, 220 mcg once daily in the evening, 220 mcg twice daily, or placebo. At endpoint, patients who received Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg once daily in the evening, 440 mcg once daily in the evening, or 220 mcg twice daily had a significant improvement in AM FEV1 [0.41 L (19%), 0.49 L (22%), and 0.51 L (24%) in the 220 mcg once daily in the evening, 440 mcg once daily in the evening, and 220 mcg twice daily treatment group, respectively] compared to placebo [0.16 L (8%)] (see Figure 2). Evening PEF increased 15.65 L/min (4.1%) with the 220 mcg once daily in the evening dose, 39.26 L/min (10.7%) with the 440 mcg once daily in the evening dose, and 36.7 L/min (10.8%) with the 220 mcg twice daily dose, respectively, compared to a 1.4 L/min (1%) increase with placebo. Patients receiving all doses of Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment had reduced frequency of beta-agonist rescue medication use compared to those on placebo (mean reductions at endpoint of 1.4–1.8 puffs/day from a baseline of more than 3 puffs/day compared to an increase in use by 0.5 puffs/day for placebo). In addition, fewer patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER experienced asthma worsening than did those on placebo.

Patients ≥12 Years of Age Previously Maintained on Oral Corticosteroids: The efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg and 880 mcg twice daily was evaluated in one 12-week, double-blind trial in patients previously maintained on oral corticosteroids. A total of 132 patients requiring oral prednisone (baseline mean daily oral prednisone requirement approximately 12 mg; baseline FEV1 of 1.8 L, 59% of predicted normal), most of whom were also on inhaled corticosteroids (baseline inhaled steroid: beclomethasone dipropionate [168–840 mcg/day], budesonide [800–1600 mcg/day], flunisolide [1000–2000 mcg/day], fluticasone propionate [440–1760 mcg/day], or triamcinolone acetonide [400–2400 mcg/day]) were studied. Patients who received Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily had a significant reduction in their oral prednisone (46%) as compared to placebo (164% increase in oral prednisone dose). Additionally, 40% of patients on Asmanex TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily were able to completely discontinue their use of prednisone, whereas 60% of patients on placebo had an increase in daily prednisone use. Patients on Asmanex TWISTHALER had significant improvement in lung function (14% increase) compared to a 12% decrease in FEV1 in the placebo group. Additionally, mean rescue beta2-agonist use was reduced to approximately 3 puffs/day from a baseline of 4–5 puffs/day with Asmanex TWISTHALER treatment, compared to an increase of 0.3 puffs/day on placebo. Patients who received Asmanex TWISTHALER 880 mcg twice daily experienced no additional benefit beyond that seen with 440 mcg twice daily.

Pediatric Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age: The efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER in patients with asthma 4 to 11 years of age was evaluated in three 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials. These trials included 630 patients receiving Asmanex TWISTHALER, ranging from 4 to 11 years of age; 63% male and 37% female; and 67% Caucasian, 13% black, 17% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening (n=98), 110 mcg once daily in the morning (n=181), 110 mcg twice daily (n=179), or 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=172). The results for 1 clinical trial are described below. The other 2 clinical trials support the efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER.

A 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of 296 patients 4 to 11 years of age with asthma of at least 6 months duration (mean % predicted FEV1 at baseline ranging from 77.3%–79.7%) was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of the Asmanex TWISTHALER in the treatment of asthma. Patients were treated with Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening (n=98) or placebo (n=99) for 12 weeks. Assessment of efficacy was based upon morning predose FEV1. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline to endpoint in percent-predicted FEV1. For the primary endpoint, improvement in the Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening treatment group (4.73) was statistically significant compared to placebo (-1.77). Figure 3 displays the results for % predicted FEV1 change from baseline at endpoint.

In this study, secondary endpoints of morning and evening peak expiratory flow and rescue medication use were supportive of efficacy of Asmanex TWISTHALER.

How Supplied/Storage and Handling

The Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg product is comprised of an assembled plastic cap–activated dosing mechanism with dose counter, drug-product storage unit, drug-product formulation (135 mg for the 14 and 30 inhalation units and 240 mg for the 60 and 120 inhalation units), and mouthpiece, covered by a white screw cap that bears the product label. The body of the inhaler is white and the turning grip is pink with a clear plastic window indicating the number of doses remaining. The inhaler will not deliver subsequent doses once the counter reaches zero ("00").

The Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg product is comprised of an assembled plastic cap–activated dosing mechanism with dose counter, drug-product storage unit, drug-product formulation (135 mg), and mouthpiece, covered by a white screw cap that bears the product label. The body of the inhaler is white and the turning grip is gray with a clear plastic window indicating the number of doses remaining. The inhaler will not deliver subsequent doses once the counter reaches zero ("00").

The Asmanex TWISTHALER product is available as:

Asmanex TWISTHALER 220 mcg, which delivers 200 mcg mometasone furoate from the mouthpiece: 14 inhalation units (Institutional Use Only; NDC# 0085-1341-04 and NDC# 0085-1341-06); 30 inhalation units (NDC# 0085-1341-03 and NDC# 0085-1341-07); 60 inhalation units (for more than 1 inhalation daily; NDC# 0085-1341-02); or 120 inhalation units (for more than 2 inhalations daily; NDC# 0085-1341-01).

Asmanex TWISTHALER 110 mcg, which delivers 100 mcg mometasone furoate from the mouthpiece: 7 inhalation units (Institutional Use Only; NDC# 0085-1461-07); 30 inhalation units (NDC# 0085-1461-02).

Each inhaler is supplied in a protective foil pouch with Patient's Instructions for Use.

Store in a dry place at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Discard the inhaler 45 days after opening the foil pouch or when dose counter reads "00", whichever comes first.

Patient Counseling Information

See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Patient Information).

Oral Candidiasis

Patients should be advised that localized infections with Candida albicans occurred in the mouth and pharynx in some patients. If oropharyngeal candidiasis develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while still continuing with Asmanex TWISTHALER therapy, but at times therapy with Asmanex TWISTHALER may need to be temporarily interrupted under close medical supervision. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Acute Asthma Episodes

Patients should be advised that Asmanex TWISTHALER is not a bronchodilator and should not be used to treat status asthmaticus or to relieve acute asthma symptoms. Acute asthma symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity reactions including rash, pruritus, angioedema and anaphylactic reaction have been reported with use of Asmanex TWISTHALER. Discontinue Asmanex TWISTHALER if such reactions occur [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions 5.3, and Postmarketing Experience (6.2)].

Asmanex TWISTHALER contains small amounts of lactose, which contains trace levels of milk proteins. In postmarketing experience with Asmanex TWISTHALER, anaphylactic reactions in patients with milk protein allergy have been reported [see Contraindications (4.2) and Postmarketing Experience (6.2)].

Immunosuppression

Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis; fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression

Patients should be advised that Asmanex TWISTHALER may cause systemic corticosteroid effects of hypercorticism and adrenal suppression. Additionally, patients should be instructed that deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids. Patients should taper slowly from systemic corticosteroids if transferring to Asmanex TWISTHALER [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Reduction in Bone Mineral Density

Patients who are at an increased risk for decreased BMD should be advised that the use of corticosteroids may pose an additional risk and should be monitored and, where appropriate, be treated for this condition [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Reduced Growth Velocity

Patients should be informed that orally inhaled corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate inhalation powder, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Physicians should closely follow the growth of children and adolescents taking corticosteroids by any route [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Use Daily for Best Effect

Patients should be advised to use Asmanex TWISTHALER at regular intervals, since its effectiveness depends on regular use. Maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. If symptoms do not improve in that time frame or if the condition worsens, patients should be instructed to contact their physician.

Instructions for Use

Patients should be instructed to record the date of pouch opening on the cap label and discard the inhaler 45 days after opening the foil pouch or when the dose counter reads "00" and the final dose has been inhaled, whichever comes first. The inhaler should be held upright while removing the cap. The medication should be taken as directed, breathing rapidly and deeply, and patients should not breathe out through the inhaler. The mouthpiece should be wiped dry and the cap replaced immediately following each inhalation and rotated fully until the click is heard. Rinsing of mouth after inhalation is advised. Patients should store the unit as instructed. The dose counter displays the doses remaining. When the dose counter indicates zero, the cap will lock and the unit must be discarded. Patients should be advised that if the dose counter is not working correctly, the unit should not be used and it should be brought to their physician or pharmacist.

Manufactured for: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of
MERCK & CO., INC., Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA

Manufactured by:
MSD International GmbH (Singapore Branch)
Singapore 638030, Singapore
Or
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of
Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA

U.S. Patent Nos. 5,687,710; 5,829,434; 6,240,918; and 6,503,537.

Copyright © 2008, 2011 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.
All rights reserved.

Revised: 01/2013

032088-AS-PwIH-USPI.14

Patient Information

Asmanex® TWISTHALER® 220 mcg (mometasone furoate inhalation powder)
Asmanex® TWISTHALER® 110 mcg (mometasone furoate inhalation powder)

FOR ORAL INHALATION ONLY

Please read this leaflet carefully before taking Asmanex® TWISTHALER®.

This leaflet does not contain the complete information about this medication. If you have any questions about Asmanex TWISTHALER, ask your health care provider or pharmacist.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT Asmanex TWISTHALER

  • Your health care provider has prescribed Asmanex TWISTHALER for you or your child. It contains a medicine called mometasone furoate, which is a man-made corticosteroid. This medicine is used as maintenance treatment that helps prevent and control asthma symptoms.
  • Asmanex TWISTHALER is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for sudden symptoms of shortness of breath. Use an inhaled short-acting bronchodilator such as albuterol to relieve sudden symptoms of shortness of breath.
  • Your health care provider may prescribe bronchodilators such as albuterol for emergency relief if an acute asthma attack occurs.
  • Use your Asmanex TWISTHALER regularly and at the same time each day, as prescribed by your health care provider. You or your child may not get the most benefit for 1 to 2 weeks or longer after starting Asmanex. If you or your child's symptoms do not improve in that time frame or if your condition gets worse, contact your health care provider.
  • The cap is needed to use the Asmanex TWISTHALER. Do not twist the mouthpiece with your hand. When the cap is removed from the TWISTHALER, the dose counter will count down by one, and show the number of doses available after this use.
  • The inhaler delivers your medicine as a very fine powder that you or your child may not taste, smell, or feel. Do not take or give extra doses unless your health care provider has told you to.
  • It is important to replace the cap after each inhalation to protect the inhaler from moisture.
  • Do not use the inhaler if you notice that it is not working correctly. Take it to your health care provider or pharmacist.

WHO SHOULD NOT USE Asmanex TWISTHALER

Do not use Asmanex TWISTHALER:

  • To treat sudden, severe symptoms of asthma.
  • If you have an allergy to milk proteins. Ask your health care provider if you are not sure.

HOW TO USE Asmanex TWISTHALER OR GIVE TO YOUR CHILD

  • Remove the Asmanex TWISTHALER from its foil pouch and write the date on the cap label.
  • Throw away the inhaler 45 days after this date or when the dose counter reads "00", indicating the final dose has been inhaled, whichever comes first.
  • Follow steps 1 and 2 below each time you inhale a dose from your Asmanex TWISTHALER.

Inhaler Parts:

See Figures 1 and 2 below to become familiar with the inhaler parts.

Step 1: Open inhaler

Hold the inhaler straight up (upright position) with the colored portion (the base) on the bottom (see Figure 3 below). It is important that you remove the cap of the TWISTHALER while it is in this upright position to make sure that you get the right amount of medicine with each dose.

Holding the colored base, twist the cap in a counterclockwise direction to remove it (see Figure 3 below). As you lift off the cap, the dose counter on the base will count down by one. Removing the cap loads the TWISTHALER with the medicine that you are now ready to inhale.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE that the indented arrow (located on the white portion of the TWISTHALER, directly above the colored base) is pointing to the dose counter (see Figure 2).

Step 2: Inhale dose

Breathe out fully. Then bring the TWISTHALER up to your mouth or your child's mouth with the mouthpiece facing toward you or your child. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth or your child's mouth, holding it in a horizontal (on its side) position as shown below (see Figure 4). Firmly close your lips around the mouthpiece and take in a fast, deep breath. Since the medicine is a very fine powder, you may not be able to taste, smell, or feel it after inhalation. Do not cover the ventilation holes while inhaling the dose.

Remove the TWISTHALER from your mouth and hold your breath for about 10 seconds, or as long as you comfortably can.

IMPORTANT: DO NOT BREATHE OUT (EXHALE) INTO THE INHALER.

After you take your medicine, it is important that you wipe the mouthpiece dry, if needed, and then REPLACE THE CAP, firmly closing the TWISTHALER right away (see Figures 5 and 6 below).

Be sure that the indented arrow is in line with the dose counter. Put the cap back onto the inhaler and turn it in a clockwise direction, as you gently press down. You'll hear a "click" to let you know that the cap is fully closed. This is the only way to be sure that your next dose is loaded the right way.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO REPEAT STEPS 1 AND 2 EACH TIME YOU INHALE.

Rinse your mouth after using.

STORING YOUR INHALER

  • Keep your inhaler clean and dry at all times. If the mouthpiece needs cleaning, gently wipe the mouthpiece with a dry cloth or tissue as needed. Do not wash the inhaler. Avoid contact with any liquids.
  • Store in a dry place at 25°C (77°F) [may range between 15–30°C (59–86°F)].
  • Keep your inhaler out of the reach of children.

HOW TO KNOW WHEN YOUR INHALER IS EMPTY

The inhaler has a dose counter on the colored base, which shows the number of doses left to use. As you lift off the cap to take your dose, the dose counter on the base will count down by one (if you began with the dose counter reading "30" this will cause the dose counter to now read "29"). Read the numbers from top to bottom.

When the unit reads "01" this indicates the last remaining dose. After dose "01" the counter will read "00". When you replace the cap, the unit will lock and then must be thrown away. Start using a new Asmanex TWISTHALER as instructed by your health care provider.

POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS WITH Asmanex TWISTHALER

Serious Side Effects may include:

  • Fungal infections in the mouth and throat. Patients who use inhaled steroid medicines for asthma may develop a fungal infection of the mouth. Rinse your mouth after using Asmanex TWISTHALER.
  • Worsening asthma or sudden asthma attacks
  • Serious allergic reactions. Call your health care provider or get emergency medical care if you get any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including:
    • Rash
    • Swelling of the face, mouth and tongue
    • Breathing problems
  • Possible increased risk of infection due to a weakened immune system with using steroid medicines. Tell your health care provider if you or your child have or had TB, are exposed to anyone with chickenpox or measles, or about any other infections you or your child had before or while using Asmanex TWISTHALER.
  • Adrenal insufficiency (your adrenal gland cannot produce enough steroids since you were on oral steroid medicine). If you or your child took steroids by mouth and are having them decreased (tapered) or you are being switched to Asmanex TWISTHALER, you should be followed closely by your health care professional.
    Death can occur. Tell your health care professional right away about any symptoms such as feeling tired or exhausted, weakness, nausea, vomiting, or symptoms of low blood pressure (such as dizziness or faintness). If you or your child is under stress, such as with surgery, after surgery or trauma, you may need steroids by mouth again.
  • Decreased bone mass (bone mineral density). Patients who use inhaled steroid medicines for a long time may have an increased risk of decreased bone mass, which can affect bone strength. Talk with your health care provider about any questions about bone health.

The most common side effects with Asmanex TWISTHALER include: headache, nasal allergy symptoms, sore throat, upper respiratory tract infection, sinus infection, fungal infections in the mouth, painful menstrual periods, muscle and bone pain, back pain, and upset stomach.

Tell your health care professional about any side effects that bother you or do not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects with Asmanex TWISTHALER. For more information, ask your health care professional.

Manufactured for: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of
MERCK & CO., INC., Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA

Manufactured by:
MSD International GmbH (Singapore Branch)
Singapore 638030, Singapore
Or
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of
Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA

U.S. Patent Nos. 5,687,710; 5,829,434; 6,240,918; and 6,503,537.

Copyright © 2008, 2011 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.
All rights reserved.

Revised: 01/2013

032088-AS-PwIH-PPI.9

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 220 mcg - 120 Dose Carton

NDC 0085-1341-01

For Oral Inhalation
Rx only

Asmanex®
Twisthaler®
mometasone furoate inhalation powder
220 mcg per actuation

120 Metered Doses
(For more than 2 inhalations daily)

Discard Twisthaler inhaler 45 days after
opening foil pouch or when dose counter
reads "00", whichever comes first.

Attention Pharmacist: Detach Patient's
Instructions for Use and dispense with inhaler

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 110 mcg - 30 Dose Carton

NDC 0085-1461-02

For Oral Inhalation
Rx only

Asmanex®
Twisthaler®
mometasone furoate inhalation powder
110 mcg per actuation

Usual Dose for 4 to 11 years of age is 110 mcg

30 Metered Doses

Discard Twisthaler inhaler 45 days after
opening foil pouch or when dose counter
reads "00", whichever comes first.

Attention Pharmacist: Detach Patient's
Instructions for Use and dispense with inhaler

Asmanex 
mometasone furoate inhalant
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0085-1341
Route of Administration RESPIRATORY (INHALATION) DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Mometasone Furoate (Mometasone) Mometasone Furoate 220 ug
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
Anhydrous Lactose  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0085-1341-04 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
1 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
1 14 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
2 NDC:0085-1341-06 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
2 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
2 14 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
3 NDC:0085-1341-03 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
3 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
3 30 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
4 NDC:0085-1341-07 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
4 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
4 30 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
5 NDC:0085-1341-02 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
5 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
5 60 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
6 NDC:0085-1341-01 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
6 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
6 120 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
7 NDC:0085-1341-05 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
7 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
7 14 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA021067 03/30/2005
Asmanex 
mometasone furoate inhalant
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0085-1461
Route of Administration RESPIRATORY (INHALATION) DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Mometasone Furoate (Mometasone) Mometasone Furoate 110 ug
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
Anhydrous Lactose  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0085-1461-06 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
1 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
1 7 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
2 NDC:0085-1461-07 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
2 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
2 7 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
3 NDC:0085-1461-02 1 POUCH in 1 CARTON
3 1 INHALER in 1 POUCH
3 30 INHALANT in 1 INHALER
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA021067 03/30/2005
Labeler - Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (001317601)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. 010185964 MANUFACTURE(0085-1341, 0085-1461)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
MSD International GmbH (Singapore Branch) 659186902 MANUFACTURE(0085-1341, 0085-1461)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. 101740835 PACK(0085-1341, 0085-1461), LABEL(0085-1341, 0085-1461)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
MSD International GmbH (Singapore Branch) 595320830 API MANUFACTURE(0085-1341, 0085-1461)
Revised: 01/2013
 
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

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