Dosage Form: injection, solution
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is indicated for diagnostic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the myocardium under rest or pharmacologic stress conditions to evaluate myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected or existing coronary artery disease.
Ammonia N-13 Dosage and Administration
Rest Imaging Study
- Aseptically withdraw Ammonia N13 Injection, USP from its container and administer 10-20 mCi (0.368 – 0.736 GBq) as a bolus through a catheter inserted into a large peripheral vein.
- Start imaging 3 minutes after the injection and acquire images for a total of 10-20 minutes.
Stress Imaging Study
- If a rest imaging study is performed, begin the stress imaging study 40 minutes or more after the first Ammonia N13 Injection, USP to allow sufficient isotope decay.
- Administer a pharmacologic stress-inducing drug in accordance with its labeling.
- Aseptically withdraw Ammonia N13 Injection, USP from its container and administer 10-20 mCi (0.368 – 0.736 GBq) of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP as a bolus at 8 minutes after the administration of the pharmacologic stress-inducing drug.
- Start imaging 3 minutes after the Ammonia N13 Injection, USP and acquire images for a total of 10-20 minutes.
To increase renal clearance of radioactivity and to minimize radiation dose to the bladder, ensure that the patient is well hydrated before the procedure and encourage voiding as soon as a study is completed and as often as possible thereafter for at least one hour.
The converted radiation absorbed doses in rem/mCi are shown in Table 1. These estimates are calculated from the Task Group of Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection.1
|* Upper large intestine; ** Lower large intestine|
|Organ||Adult||15-year old||10-year old||5-year old||1-year old|
- Inspect Ammonia N13 Injection, USP visually for particulate matter and discoloration before administration, whenever solution and container permit.
- Do not administer Ammonia N13 Injection, USP containing particulate matter or discoloration; dispose of these unacceptable or unused preparations in a safe manner, in compliance with applicable regulations.
- Wear waterproof gloves and effective shielding when handling Ammonia N13 Injection, USP.
- Use aseptic technique to maintain sterility during all operations involved in the manipulation and administration of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP. The contents of each vial are sterile and non-pyrogenic.
- Use appropriate safety measures, including shielding, consistent with proper patient management to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient, occupational workers, clinical personnel, and other persons.
- Radiopharmaceuticals should be used by or under the control of physicians who are qualified by specific training and experience in the safe use and handling of radionuclides, and whose experience and training have been approved by the appropriate governmental agency authorized to license the use of radionuclides.
- Before administration of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP, assay the dose in a properly calibrated dose calibrator.
Dosage Forms and Strengths
Glass vial (10 mL) containing 0.138-1.387 GBq (3.75-37.5 mCi/mL) of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP in aqueous 0.9 % sodium chloride solution (approximately 8 mL volume) that is suitable for intravenous administration.
Warnings and Precautions
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP may increase the risk of cancer. Use the smallest dose necessary for imaging and ensure safe handling to protect the patient and health care worker [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
No adverse reactions have been reported for Ammonia N13 Injection, USP based on a review of the published literature, publicly available reference sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting systems. However, the completeness of these sources is not known.
The possibility of interactions of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP with other drugs taken by patients undergoing PET imaging has not been studied.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Ammonia N13 Injection, USP. It is also not known whether Ammonia N13 Injection, USP can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Ammonia N13 Injection, USP should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for radiation exposure to nursing infants from Ammonia N13 Injection, USP, use alternative infant nutrition sources (e.g. stored breast milk or infant formula) for 2 hours (>10 half-lives of radioactive decay for N13 isotope) after administration of the drug or avoid use of the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP has been established in pediatric patients based on known metabolism of ammonia, radiation dosimetry in the pediatric population, and clinical studies in adults [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Ammonia N-13 Description
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is a positron emitting radiopharmaceutical that is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The active ingredient, [13N] ammonia, has the molecular formula of 13NH3 with a molecular weight of 16.02, and has the following chemical structure:
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is provided as a ready to use sterile, pyrogen-free, clear and colorless solution. Each mL of the solution contains between 0.138 GBq to 1.387 GBq (3.75 mCi to 37.5 mCi) of [13N] ammonia, at the end of synthesis (EOS) reference time, in 0.9% aqueous sodium chloride. The pH of the solution is between 4.5 to 7.5. The recommended dose of radioactivity (10-20 mCi) is associated with a theoretical mass dose of 0.5-1.0 picomoles of ammonia.
Nitrogen N13 decays by emitting positron to Carbon C13 (stable) and has a physical half-life of 9.96 minutes. The principal photons useful for imaging are the dual 511 keV gamma photons that are produced and emitted simultaneously in opposite direction when the positron interacts with an electron (Table 2).
|Radiation/Emission||% Per Disintegration||Energy|
|Positron(β+)||100||1190 keV (Max.)|
The specific gamma ray constant (point source air kerma coefficient) for nitrogen N13 is 5.9 R/hr/mCi (1.39 x 10-6 Gy/hr/kBq) at 1 cm. The half-value layer (HVL) of lead (Pb) for 511 keV photons is 4 mm, or 2.9 mm tungsten (W) alloy. Selected coefficients of attenuation are listed in Table 3 as a function of lead shield thickness. For example, the use of 39 mm thickness of lead or 28 mm of tungsten alloy will attenuate the external radiation by a factor of about 1000.
| Shield Thickness |
| Shield Thickness |
(W) Alloy mm
| Coefficient of |
Table 4 lists fractions remaining at selected time intervals from the calibration time. This information may be used to correct for physical decay of the radionuclide.
Ammonia N-13 - Clinical Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is a radiolabeled analog of ammonia that is distributed to all organs of the body after intravenous administration. It is extracted from the blood in the coronary capillaries into the myocardial cells where it is metabolized to glutamine N13 and retained in the cells. The presence of ammonia N13 and glutamine N13 in the myocardium allows for PET imaging of the myocardium.
Following intravenous injection, ammonia N13 enters the myocardium through the coronary arteries. The PET technique measures myocardial blood flow based on the assumption of a three-compartmental disposition of intravenous ammonia N13 in the myocardium. In this model, the value of the rate constant, which represents the delivery of blood to myocardium, and the fraction of ammonia N13 extracted into the myocardial cells, is a measure of myocardial blood flow. Optimal PET imaging of the myocardium is generally achieved between 10 to 20 minutes after administration.
Following intravenous injection, Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is cleared from the blood with a biologic half-life of about 2.84 minutes (effective half-life of about 2.21 minutes). In the myocardium, its biologic half-life has been estimated to be less than 2 minutes (effective half-life less than 1.67 minutes).
The mass dose of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is very small as compared to the normal range of ammonia in the blood (0.72-3.30 mg) in a healthy adult man [see Description (11.1)].
Plasma protein binding of ammonia N13 or its N13 metabolites has not been studied.
Ammonia N13 undergoes a five-enzyme step metabolism in the liver to yield urea N13 (the main circulating metabolite). It is also metabolized to glutamine N13 (the main metabolite in tissues) by glutamine synthesis in the skeletal muscles, liver, brain, myocardium, and other organs. Other metabolites of ammonia N13 include small amounts of N13 amino acid anions (acidic amino acids) in the forms of glutamate N13 or aspartate N13.
Ammonia N13 is eliminated from the body by urinary excretion mainly as urea N13.
The pharmacokinetics of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP have not been studied in renally impaired, hepatically impaired, or pediatric patients.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Ammonia N13 Injection, USP. Genotoxicity assays and impairment of male and female fertility studies with Ammonia N13 Injection, USP have not been performed.
In a descriptive, prospective, blinded image interpretation study2 of adult patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, myocardial perfusion deficits in stress and rest PET images obtained with Ammonia N13 (N=111) or Rubidium 82 (N=82) were compared to changes in stenosis flow reserve (SFR) as determined by coronary angiography. The principal outcome of the study was the evaluation of PET defect severity relative to SFR.
PET perfusion defects at rest and stress for seven cardiac regions (anterior, apical, anteroseptal, posteroseptal, anterolateral, posterolateral, and inferior walls) were graded on a 0 to 5 scale defined as normal (0), possible (1), probable (2), mild (3), moderate (4), and severe (5) defects. Coronary angiograms were used to measure absolute and relative stenosis dimensions and to calculate stenosis flow reserve defined as the maximum value of flow at maximum coronary vasodilatation relative to rest flow under standardized hemodynamic conditions. SFR scores ranged from 0 (total occlusion) to 5 (normal).
With increasing impairment of flow reserve, the subjective PET defect severity increased. A PET defect score of 2 or higher was positively correlated with flow reserve impairment (SFR<3).
- Annals of the ICRP. Publication 53. Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals. New York: Pergamon Press, 1988.
- Demer, L.L.K.L.Gould, R.A.Goldstein, R.L.Kirkeeide, N.A.Mullani, R.W. Smalling, A.Nishikawa, and M.E.Merhige. Assessment of coronary artery disease severity by PET: Comparison with quantitative arteriography in 193 patients. Circulation 1989; 79: 825-35.
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP is packaged in 10 mL multiple dose glass vial containing between 1.11–11.1 GBq (30–300 mCi/mL) of [13N] ammonia, at the end of synthesis (EOS) reference time, in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution in approximately 8 mL volume. The recommended dose of radioactivity (10-20 mCi) is associated with a theoretical mass dose of 0.5-1.0 picomoles of Ammonia.
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F).Use the solution within 60 minutes of the End of Synthesis (EOS) calibration.
Patient Counseling Information
Instruct patients to drink plenty of water or other fluids (as tolerated) in the 4 hours before their PET study.
Instruct patients to void after completion of each image acquisition session and as often as possible for one hour after the PET scan ends.
Cardinal Health 414, LLC
7000 Cardinal Place
Dublin, OH 43017
Cardinal Health 414, LLC
7000 Cardinal Place
Dublin, OH 43017
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - CARTON LABEL
NDC # 65857-200-10 Multiple-Dose Vial
Ammonia N13 Injection, USP
3.75 mCi/mL to 37.5 mCi/mL @ EOS*
Activity @ EOS*: Total:________mCi Volume:__________mL
Sterile, Non - pyrogenic Diagnostic - For Intravenous Use Only
Calibration (EOS*) Time:____________ Exp. Date/Time:_____/_____/_____
Calibration Date:_____/_____/_____ Lot #:__________________
(Expires 60 minutes after EOS*)
Each mL Contains:
0.138 GBq to 1.387 GBq (3.75 mCi/mL to 37.5
mCi/mL) of no-carrier added Ammonia N13 @
EOS* in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
Do not use if cloudy or if it contains particulate
*EOS = End of Synthesis
Store at 25°C (77°F) (see insert)
Store upright in a shielded container.
Aseptically withdraw and handle doses.
[13N] Half-Life = 9.96 minutes.
Calculate correct dosage from date and time of
Manufactured and Distributed by:
Cardinal Health 414, LLC
7000 Cardinal Place, Dublin, OH 43017
|AMMONIA N13 |
ammonia n13 injection
|Labeler - Cardinal Health 414, LLC (069410546)|
|Cardinal Health 418, LLC||149029253||ANALYSIS(65857-200)|