Codeine / guaifenesin Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Codeine / guaifenesin is also known as: Allfen CD, Allfen CDX, Bitex Liquid, Cheracol with Codeine, Cheratussin AC, Codar GF, Dex-Tuss, Diabetic Tussin C, Gani-Tuss NR, Guaiatussin AC, Guaifen AC, Guaitussin AC, Guiatuss AC, Guiatussin with Codeine, Halotussin AC, Iophen, Iophen-C NR, M-Clear, M-Clear WC, Mar-cof CG, Relcof C, Robafen AC, Robichem AC, Robitussin-AC, Tussi-Organidin NR
Codeine / guaifenesin Pregnancy Warnings
The Collaborative Perinatal Project reported 197 first-trimester exposures to guaifenesin. Fourteen malformations were reported for a relative risk not significantly different from 1.0. In a review of 229,101 deliveries to Michigan Medicaid patients, 141 first-trimester exposures to guaifenesin and 349 exposures anytime during pregnancy were recorded. A total of 9 birth defects were reported with first trimester exposure (6 expected) and included 2 cardiovascular defects. These data do not support an association between guaifenesin and birth defects. (written communication, Franz Rosa, MD, Food and Drug Administration, 1994)
Codeine-guaifenesin has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. Codeine is the only narcotic analgesic which has shown a statistically significant association with teratogenicity (involving respiratory tract malformations) at the time of this writing. Like other narcotics, codeine rapidly crosses the placenta. Neonatal codeine withdrawal has occurred even in infants whose mothers were taking codeine at cough suppressant doses for as little as ten days prior to delivery. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Codeine-guaifenesin is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs risk.
Codeine / guaifenesin Breastfeeding Warnings
The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory regarding a very rare, but serious, side effect. This may occur in nursing infants whose mothers are taking codeine and are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. When codeine enters the body and is metabolized, it changes to morphine, which relieves pain. Many factors affect codeine metabolism, including a person's genetic make-up. Some people have a variation in a liver enzyme and may change codeine to morphine more rapidly and completely than other people. Nursing mothers taking codeine may also have higher morphine levels in their breast milk. These higher levels of morphine in breast milk may lead to life-threatening or fatal side effects in nursing babies. In most cases, it is not known if someone is an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine. When prescribing codeine-containing drugs to nursing mothers, it is recommended that the lowest effective dose be used for the shortest period of time. It is also recommended that the mother-infant pairs be closely monitored. There is an FDA cleared test for determining a patient's CYP450 2D6 genotype. The test is not routinely used in clinical practice but is available through a number of different laboratories. The results of this test predict that a person can convert codeine to morphine at a faster rate than average, resulting in higher morphine levels in the blood. When levels of morphine are too high, patients have an increased risk of adverse events.
Codeine is excreted into human milk in small amounts. The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory about a very rare, but serious, side effect in nursing infants whose mothers are taking codeine and are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. Several small series and one small retrospective study suggest that codeine may be causative in episodes of apnea, bradycardia and cyanosis in the first week of life. Codeine is nevertheless considered compatible with breast-feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics. There are no data on the excretion of guaifenesin into human milk. However, guaifenesin is generally accepted as compatible with breast-feeding.
References for pregnancy information
- Bracken MB, Holford TR "Exposure to prescribed drugs in pregnancy and association with congenital malformations." Obstet Gynecol 58 (1981): 336-44
- Koren G, Pastuszak A, Ito S "Drugs in pregnancy." N Engl J Med 338 (1998): 1128-37
- Heinonen O, Slone D, Shapiro S; Kaufman DW ed. "Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy." Littleton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc. (1977): 297
- "Product Information. Humabid (guaifenesin)." Medeva Pharmaceuticals, Rochester, NY.
- Mangurten HH, Benawra R "Neonatal codeine withdrawal in infants of nonaddicted mothers." Pediatrics 65 (1980): 159-60
References for breastfeeding information
- Roberts RJ, Blumer JL, Gorman RL, et al "American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs: Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 84 (1989): 924-36
- Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50
- Findlay JW, DeAngelis RL, Kearney MF, et al "Analgesic drugs in breast milk and plasma." Clin Pharmacol Ther 29 (1981): 625-33
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