Benazepril / hydrochlorothiazide Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Benazepril / hydrochlorothiazide is also known as: Lotensin HCT
Benazepril / hydrochlorothiazide Pregnancy Warnings
Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered during pregnancy. A committee of the National Institutes of Health has recommended that these drugs be avoided during pregnancy. The use of drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with fetal and neonatal injury, including hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, reversible or irreversible renal failure, and death. Oligohydramnios has also been reported, presumably resulting from decreased fetal renal function; oligohydramnios in this setting has been associated with decreased fetal limb contractures, craniofacial deformation, and hypoplastic lung development. Exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has been associated with prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, and patent ductus arteriosus, other structural cardiac malformations, and neurological malformations. Mothers whose embryos and fetuses are exposed to an ACE inhibitor during the first trimester should be informed of the risks. When pregnancy is detected or expected, benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide should be discontinued as soon as possible. The Collaborative Perinatal Project monitored 50,282 mother-child pairs, of whom 233 were exposed to thiazide or related diuretics during the first trimester. An increased risk of malformations was found for thiazide diuretics. Use of thiazides after the first trimester does not seem to carry this risk. Thiazide diuretics may, however pose metabolic risks to the mother and fetus (hyponatremia, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglycemia), and may have a direct effect on smooth muscle, resulting in inhibition of labor. The Michigan Medicaid surveillance study showed no association between some thiazide diuretics and congenital defects (written communication, Franz Rosa, MD, Food and Drug Administration, 1994). This report is a summary of information from two studies, one in which 390 of 104,000 pregnant women from 1980 to 1983, and one in which 567 of 229,000 pregnant women from 1985 to 1992 received HCTZ. In the first study 28 total defects and 6 cardiovascular defects were observed (25 and 4 were expected, respectively). In the second study, 24 total defects and 7 cardiovascular defects were observed (22 and 6 were expected, respectively). Cleft palate was not observed in either study. These data do not support an association between HCTZ and congenital defects. Cases of neonatal thrombocytopenia associated with antepartum administration of thiazide diuretics have been reported.
Benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide has been assigned to pregnancy category D by the FDA. Animal and human data have revealed evidence of embryolethality and teratogenicity associated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Congenital malformations have been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy, while fetal and neonatal toxicity, death, and congenital anomalies have been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Thiazides can cross the placenta, and concentrations reached in the umbilical vein approach those in the maternal plasma. Hydrochlorothiazide, like other diuretics, can cause placental hypoperfusion. Use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice or thrombocytopenia. Since they do not prevent or alter the course of EPH (Edema, Proteinuria, Hypertension) gestosis (pre-eclampsia), these drugs must not be used to treat hypertension in pregnant women. The use of hydrochlorothiazide for other indications (e.g. heart disease) in pregnancy should be avoided. If the patient becomes pregnant, benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide should be discontinued as soon as possible. Benazepril-hydrochlorothiazide use is considered contraindicated during pregnancy.
Benazepril / hydrochlorothiazide Breastfeeding Warnings
Benazepril is excreted in small amounts into human milk. There are no reports of adverse effects in the nursing infant. Hydrochlorothiazide is excreted into human milk in small amounts. Adverse effects on the nursing infant are unlikely. The manufacturer recommends that due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
A breast-fed baby may receive 0.04% and 0.10% of the weight-adjusted maternal benazepril dose as benazepril and benazeprilat, respectively. Use of benazepril during breast-feeding should be undertaken cautiously, taking into account the need of benazepril therapy to the nursing mother. In one case, a peak milk HCTZ concentration of 125 ng/mL was measured between 4 and 12 hours after a dose in a woman who was taking HCTZ 50 mg/day. A simultaneously measured maternal serum HCTZ level was approximately 275 ng/mL. There were no detectable drug levels or electrolyte abnormalities in the baby's blood. The authors calculated that, if a 1-month-old infant takes approximately 600 mL of milk per day, and the mean milk HCTZ level is approximately 80 ng/mL, the infant would be exposed to approximately 0.05 mg of HCTZ daily. This should represent an insignificant amount of HCTZ to the infant such that adverse effects in the nursing infant are unlikely.
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