(gat i FLOKS a sin)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Zymaxid: 0.5% (2.5 mL) [contains benzalkonium chloride, edetate disodium]
Generic: 0.5% (2.5 mL)
Brand Names: U.S.
- Antibiotic, Fluoroquinolone
- Antibiotic, Ophthalmic
Gatifloxacin is a DNA gyrase inhibitor, and also inhibits topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) is an essential bacterial enzyme that maintains the superhelical structure of DNA. DNA gyrase is required for DNA replication and transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and transposition; inhibition is bactericidal.
Ophthalmic: Not measurable (<5 ng/mL)
Use: Labeled Indications
Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis
Zymaxid: There are no contraindications listed in the manufacturer’s labeling.
Zymar [Canadian product]: Hypersensitivity to gatifloxacin, other quinolones, or any component of the formulation
Ophthalmic: Children ≥1 year and Adults: Bacterial conjunctivitis:
Zymar [Canadian product]:
Days 1 and 2: Instill 1 drop into affected eye(s) every 2 hours while awake (maximum: 8 times/day)
Days 3-7: Instill 1 drop into affected eye(s) 4 times/day while awake
Day 1: Instill 1 drop into affected eye(s) every 2 hours while awake (maximum: 8 times/day)
Days 2-7: Instill 1 drop into affected eye(s) 2-4 times/day while awake
Dosage adjustment in renal impairment: No dosage adjustment provided in manufacturer’s labeling. However, dosage adjustment unlikely due to low systemic absorption.
Dosage adjustment in hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment provided in manufacturer’s labeling. However, dosage adjustment unlikely due to low systemic absorption.
For topical ophthalmic use only; avoid touching tip of applicator to eye, fingers, or other surfaces.
Store between 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F); do not freeze.
There are no known significant interactions.
Some quinolones may produce a false-positive urine screening result for opioids using commercially-available immunoassay kits. This has been demonstrated most consistently for levofloxacin and ofloxacin, but other quinolones have shown cross-reactivity in certain assay kits. Confirmation of positive opioid screens by more specific methods should be considered.
1% to 10%:
Dermatologic: Contact dermatitis, erythema
Gastrointestinal: Taste disturbance
Ocular: Conjunctival irritation, discharge, dry eye, edema, irritation, keratitis, lacrimation increased, pain, papillary conjunctivitis, visual acuity decreased
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Angioedema, blepharitis (allergic), chemosis, conjunctival cyst, conjunctival hemorrhage, corneal deposits, corneal disorder, corneal ulcer, dermatitis, dizziness, endophthalmitis, eye redness, iritis, keratoconjunctivitis, macular edema, nausea, paresthesia (oral), photophobia, pruritus, subepithelial opacities, tinnitus, tremor, urticaria, uveitis, vision blurred, throat sore
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred with systemic quinolone therapy. The spectrum of these reactions can vary widely; reactions may present as typical allergic symptoms (eg, itching, urticaria, rash, edema) after a single dose, or may manifest as severe idiosyncratic dermatologic (eg, Stevens-Johnson, toxic epidermal necrolysis), vascular (eg, vasculitis), pulmonary (eg, pneumonitis), renal (eg, nephritis), hepatic (eg, hepatic failure or necrosis), and/or hematologic (eg, anemia, cytopenias) events, usually after multiple doses. Prompt discontinuation of drug should occur if skin rash or other symptoms arise.
• Superinfection: Prolonged use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection.
• Contact lens wearers: Contact lenses should not be worn during treatment of ophthalmic infections.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Ophthalmic solution: For topical ophthalmic use only. Do not inject ophthalmic solution subconjunctivally or introduce directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Signs of infection
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies. Systemic concentrations of gatifloxacin following ophthalmic administration are below the limit of quantification. If ophthalmic agents are needed during pregnancy, the minimum effective dose should be used in combination with punctual occlusion for 3 to 5 minutes after application to decrease potential exposure to the fetus (Samples 1988).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience parageusia. Have patient report immediately to prescriber vision changes, ophthalmalgia, severe eye irritation, or eye or eyelid edema (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
More about gatifloxacin
- Other brands: Tequin