Pronunciation: FOE-lik AH-sid
- Tablets 0.4 mg
- Tablets 0.8 mg
- Tablets 1 mg
- Tablets 1 mg
- Injection 5 mg/mL
Required for nucleoprotein synthesis and maintenance of normal erythropoiesis; precursor of tetrahydrofolic acid, which is necessary for transformylation reactions in the biosynthesis of purines and thymidylates of nucleic acids.
T max occurs within 1 h. Absorption occurs primarily in the proximal portion of the small intestine.
Folic acid is metabolized in the liver to 7,8-dihydrofolic acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid.
Up to 90% is excreted in the urine and small amounts in the feces.Serum concentrations
Normal serum levels of folate are about 5 to 15 ng/mL; CSF levels are about 16 to 21 ng/mL; levels below 5 ng/mL indicate folate deficiency and levels below 2 ng/mL usually result in megaloblastic anemia.
Indications and Usage
Megaloblastic anemia caused by folic acid deficiency, as may be seen in tropical or nontropical sprue, and in anemias of nutritional origin, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
Treatment of pernicious anemia and other megaloblastic anemias where vitamin B 12 is deficient (not effective).
Dosage and AdministrationTherapeutic Dose
Adults and children
PO/IV/IM/Subcutaneous Up to 1 mg/day. Resistant cases may require larger doses; except during pregnancy and lactation, do not give therapeutic doses greater than 0.4 mg daily until pernicious anemia has been ruled out. May need to be increased in alcoholism, hemolytic anemia, anticonvulsant therapy, or chronic infection.Maintenance Dose
Adults and children 4 yr of age and older
PO/IV/IM/Subcutaneous 0.4 mg/day.Pregnant and lactating women
0.8 mg/dayChildren younger than 4 yr of age
PO/IV/IM/Subcutaneous Up to 0.3 mg/day.Infants
PO/IV/IM/Subcutaneous 0.1 mg/day.
- Generally used when anemia is exceptionally severe, or if GI absorption may be, or is known to be, impaired.
- For subcutaneous, IM, or IV administration only. Not for intradermal or intra-arterial administration.
- Do not administer if particulate matter, cloudiness, or discoloration noted.
Store injection and OTC tablets at controlled room temperature (59° and 86°F). Store 1 mg tablets at controlled room temperature (68° to 77°F). Protect tablets from light and moisture. Protect injection from light.
Reduced effect caused by folic acid.Sulfasalazine
May reduce absorption of folic acid.
Laboratory Test Interactions
False low serum and red cell folate levels may occur if coadministration with antibiotics (eg, tetracycline) have occurred.
Anaphylaxis; allergic responses have included erythema, skin rash, itching, generalized malaise, and respiratory difficulty caused by bronchospasm.
Category A . Is recommended for women who are contemplating pregnancy or who are pregnant to avoid birth defects caused by folic acid deficiency.
Excreted into breast milk.
Injection is preserved with benzyl alcohol, which has been associated with a fatal gasping syndrome in premature infants.
Folic acid doses higher than 0.1 mg/day may obscure diagnosis of pernicious anemia by alleviating the hematologic manifestations of the disease. Doses higher than 0.1 mg/day should not be used unless anemia caused by vitamin B 12 deficiency has been ruled out or is being adequately treated with cobalamin.
Oral doses of 15 mg daily have produced anorexia, nausea, abdominal distention, flatulence, biter/bad taste, altered sleep patterns, difficulty in concentrating, irritability, over activity, excitement, mental depression, confusion, impaired judgment.
- Advise patient or caregiver that medication will be prepared and administered by a health care professional in a health care setting when oral therapy is not feasible, but that therapy will be switched to oral when it is appropriate.
- OTC Tablets
- Caution patient not to use OTC folic acid unless advised by health care provider.
- Instruct patient using OTC tablets to carefully read package instructions regarding warnings and dosing instructions.
- Prescription Tablets
- Advise patient to take prescribed dose without regard to meals, but to take with food if stomach upset occurs.
- Caution patient not to change or stop taking the dose unless advised by health care provider.
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