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Captopril

Pronunciation

Class: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
VA Class: CV800
CAS Number: 62571-86-2
Brands: Capoten, Capozide

Warning(s)

  • May cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality if used during pregnancy.401 402 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions.)

  • If pregnancy is detected, discontinue captopril as soon as possible.115 402

Introduction

Sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor.1 3 4 5

Uses for Captopril

Hypertension

Management of hypertension (alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents).100 115 215 259 316 317

One of several preferred initial therapies in hypertensive patients with heart failure, postmyocardial infarction, high coronary disease risk, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and/or cerebrovascular disease.382

Can be used as monotherapy for initial management of uncomplicated hypertension;115 however, thiazide diuretics are preferred by JNC 7.382

Nephropathy

Stabilization or improvement of effective renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and reduction of proteinuria in hypertensive115 141 142 143 174 187 188 189 281 323 or normotensive115 162 patients with moderately impaired renal function,141 143 174 323 moderate to severe renal disease,141 323 or diabetic nephropathy.141 142 143 187 188 189 268 334

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CHF

Management of symptomatic CHF, usually in conjunction with cardiac glycosides, diuretics, and β-adrenergic blocking agents.115 210 246 247 248 249 250 252 253 254 256 257 292 304 319 320 321 333 377

Left Ventricular Dysfunction after AMI

Treatment of clinically stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) to improve survival following MI and to reduce the incidence of overt heart failure and subsequent hospitalizations for CHF.115 319 321 374

Captopril Dosage and Administration

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer orally 1 hour before meals to maximize absorption.115

Dosage

Pediatric Patients

Hypertension
Oral

Dosage has been reduced in proportion to body weight; titrate carefully.115 Some experts recommend an initial dosage of 0.9–1.5 mg/kg daily (given as 0.3–0.5 mg/kg 3 times daily).398 Increase dosage as necessary to a maximum of 6 mg/kg daily.398

Adults

Hypertension
Oral

Initially, 25 mg 2 or 3 times daily.115 316 382 If BP is not adequately controlled after 1–2 weeks, increase dosage to 50 mg 2 or 3 times daily.115

Lower initial dosages (e.g., 6.25 mg twice daily to 12.5 mg 3 times daily) may be effective in some patients, particularly those already receiving a diuretic.a (See Hypotension under Cautions.)

Usual dosage: Manufacturers recommend 25–150 mg 2 or 3 times daily (usually not necessary to exceed 450 mg daily).115 316 JNC 7 recommends 25–100 mg daily given in 2 divided doses; JNC 7 recommends adding another drug, if needed, rather than continuing to increase dosage.382

If combination therapy is initiated with captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination preparation, captopril 25 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg daily initially;102 259 adjust dosage (generally at 6-week intervals) by administering each drug separately or by advancing the fixed-combination preparation.102 259

Hypertensive Crises
Oral

25 mg 2 or 3 times daily, initiated promptly under close supervision with frequent monitoring of BP.115 May continue previous diuretic therapy, but discontinue other hypotensive agents.115 May increase dosage at intervals of ≤24 hours under continuous supervision until optimum BP response is attained or 450 mg daily is given.115 Adjunctive therapy with other hypotensive agents may be necessary.a

Acute therapy (e.g., 12.5–25 mg, repeated once or twice if necessary at intervals of 30–60 minutes or longer) has been effective231 232 236 259 in adults with hypertensive urgencies231 232 259 and emergencies.233 234 235 236 237 238 259 310

Nephropathy
Diabetic Nephropathy
Oral

25 mg 3 times daily.115 262

CHF
Oral

Manufacturers recommend initial dosage of 25 mg 3 times daily;115 in patients with normal or low BP who may be volume- and/or salt-depleted, initial dosage of 6.25 or 12.5 mg 3 times daily.115 Increase dosage gradually to 50 mg 3 times daily; delay further dosage increases for ≥2 weeks to assess response.115

Some clinicians recommend initial dosage of 6.25 or 12.5 mg 3 times daily, with gradual titration over several weeks to 50 mg 3 times daily, regardless of BP, salt/volume status, or concomitant diuretic therapy.321 333 377 Generally titrate dosage to prespecified target (i.e., ≥150 mg daily) or highest tolerated dosage rather than according to response.333 377

Left Ventricular Dysfunction after AMI
Oral

Manufacturers recommend initiation of therapy ≥3 days post-MI with single dose of 6.25 mg, followed by 12.5 mg 3 times daily.115 Increase dosage over next several days to 25 mg 3 times daily and then over next several weeks (as tolerated) to 50 mg 3 times daily.115

Some clinicians recommend initiation of therapy <24 hours post-MI with initial dose of 6.25 mg, followed by 12.5 mg 2 hours later, 25 mg 10–12 hours later, and then 50 mg twice daily as tolerated.319 Recommended maintenance dosage: 50 mg 3 times daily.115

Prescribing Limits

Pediatric Patients

Hypertension
Oral

Maximum 6 mg/kg daily.398

Adults

Hypertension
Oral

Maximum 450 mg daily.115

Dosage of captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination generally should not exceed captopril 150 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily.102

CHF
Oral

Maximum dosage recommended by manufacturer and some experts is 450 mg daily.115 333 Other experts suggest maximum dosage of 50 mg 3 times daily.377

Special Populations

Renal Impairment

Manufacturers recommend initial dosage of <75 mg daily; increase dosage in small increments at 1- to 2-week intervals.115 After desired therapeutic effect has been attained, slowly reduce dosage to minimum effective level.115

Patients with Clcr 10–50 mL/minute: 75% of usual captopril dosage or administration of usual dose every 12–18 hours suggested by some clinicians.211

Clcr <10 mL/minute: 50% of usual dosage or administration of usual dose every 24 hours suggested by some clinicians.211

Patients undergoing hemodialysis may require supplemental dose after dialysis.211

Fixed-combination captopril/hydrochlorothiazide tablets usually are not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment.102

Geriatric Patients

Hypertension

Usual adult dosages generally have been used; dosages of 6.25–12.5 mg 1–4 times daily used occasionally.175

Volume-and/or Salt-Depleted Patients

Correct volume and/or salt depletion prior to initiation of therapy or initiate therapy under close medical supervision using lower initial dosage.115 116 148 153 (See Dosage: CHF, under Dosage and Administration.)

Cautions for Captopril

Contraindications

  • Known hypersensitivity (e.g. history of angioedema) to captopril or another ACE inhibitor.115 147 325 326 333

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Hematologic Effects

Possible neutropenia or agranulocytosis; risk of neutropenia appears to depend principally on degree of renal impairment and presence of collagen vascular disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma).115

Use with caution and only after careful risk/benefit assessment in patients with collagen vascular disease or those taking drugs known to affect leukocytes or immune response.115

If used in patients with renal impairment, determine complete and differential leukocyte counts prior to initiation of therapy, at about 2-week intervals for the first 3 months of therapy, and periodically thereafter.115 Discontinue therapy if confirmed neutrophil count is <1000/mm3.115

Proteinuria

Proteinuria possible, particularly in patients with prior renal disease and/or those receiving relatively high dosages (>150 mg daily).115 Usually occurs by the 8th month of treatment1 3 46 and subsides or clears within 6 months whether or not therapy is continued;115 however, may persist in some patients.a

Hypotension

Possible excessive hypotension, particularly in volume- and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those treated with diuretics or undergoing dialysis, patients with severe CHF).1 5 17 23 25 31 66 85 115 116 148 154 156

Hypotension may occur in patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension; recommended treatment is fluid volume expansion.115

Transient hypotension is not a contraindication to additional doses; may reinstate therapy cautiously after BP is stabilized (e.g., with volume expansion).115

To minimize potential for hypotension, consider recent antihypertensive therapy, extent of BP elevation, sodium intake, fluid status, and other clinical conditions.a (See Special Populations under Dosage and Administration.) Discontinue other antihypertensive therapy, if possible, 1 week before initiating captopril, except in patients with severe hypertension.115 a Withholding diuretic therapy and/or increasing sodium intake approximately 3–7 days prior to initiation of captopril may minimize potential for severe hypotension.115 116 148 153

Initiate therapy in patients with CHF under close medical supervision; monitor closely for first 2 weeks following initiation of captopril or any increase in captopril or diuretic dosage.115

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality

Possible fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when used during pregnancy.102 115 239 240 241 402 (See Boxed Warning.) Such potential risks occur throughout pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters.402

Also may increase the risk of major congenital malformations when administered during the first trimester of pregnancy.401 402

Discontinue as soon as possible when pregnancy is detected, unless continued use is considered lifesaving.402 Nearly all women can be transferred successfully to alternative therapy for the remainder of their pregnancy.239

Hepatic Effects

Clinical syndrome that usually is manifested initially by cholestatic jaundice and may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis (occasionally fatal) reported rarely with ACE inhibitors.102 115 370

If jaundice or marked elevation of liver enzymes occurs, discontinue drug and monitor patient.115

Sensitivity Reactions

Anaphylactoid reactions and/or angioedema possible; if associated with laryngeal edema, may be fatal.115 333 Immediate medical intervention (e.g., epinephrine) for involvement of tongue, glottis, or larynx.115 Intestinal angioedema possible; consider in differential diagnosis of patients who develop abdominal pain.115

Anaphylactoid reactions reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors while undergoing LDL apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption115 275 276 277 or following initiation of hemodialysis that utilized high-flux membrane.102 115 242 243 244

Life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions reported in at least 2 patients receiving ACE inhibitors while undergoing desensitization treatment with hymenoptera venom.102 155 278

Not recommended in patients with a history of angioedema associated with or unrelated to ACE inhibitors.a

General Precautions

Renal Effects

Transient increases in BUN and Scr possible, especially in patients with preexisting renal impairment, sodium depletion, or hypovolemia; patients with renovascular hypertension, particularly those with bilateral renal-artery stenosis or those with renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney;5 86 115 117 122 123 124 207 208 209 333 372 or patients with chronic or severe hypertension in whom the glomerular filtration rate may decrease transiently.1 115

Possible increases in BUN and Scr in patients with CHF;115 206 333 rapidity of onset and magnitude may depend in part on degree of sodium depletion.148 156 206 372

Closely monitor renal function following initiation of therapy in such patients.86 87 115 117 122 123 124 333 372 Some patients may require dosage reduction or discontinuance of ACE inhibitor or diuretic and/or adequate sodium repletion.115 156 206 207 209

Hyperkalemia

Possible hyperkalemia,5 7 38 69 70 85 115 122 125 126 162 163 164 177 especially in patients with impaired renal function, CHF, or diabetes mellitus and those receiving drugs that can increase serum potassium concentration (e.g., potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes).38 85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 333 372 (See Interactions.)

Monitor serum potassium concentration carefully in these patients.126 162 163

Cough

Persistent and nonproductive cough; resolves after drug discontinuance.102 115 333

Valvular Stenosis

Possible risk of decreased coronary perfusion in patients with aortic stenosis when treated with captopril.a 115

Use of Fixed Combinations

When used in fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide, consider the cautions, precautions, and contraindications associated with hydrochlorothiazide.102

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category C (1st trimester); Category D (2nd and 3rd trimesters).115 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions and see Boxed Warning.)

Lactation

Distributed into milk.115 Discontinue nursing or the drug.115

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established; however, captopril has been used in children.115 Manufacturer states that captopril should be used only when other measures for controlling BP have not been effective.115

Possible excessive, prolonged, and unpredictable decreases in BP and associated complications (e.g., oliguria, seizures) in infants.115

Renal Impairment

Systemic exposure to captopril may be increased.115 (See Special Populations under Pharmacokinetics.) Initial dosage adjustment recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.115 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Deterioration of renal function may occur.115 211 Possible increased risk of neutropenia/agranulocytosis,115 proteinuria,115 and hyperkalemia.115 (See Warnings and General Precautions under Cautions.)

Use of captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination usually is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.102

Blacks

BP reduction may be smaller in black patients compared with nonblack patients;115 139 177 178 179 180 181 351 however, no apparent population difference during combined therapy with ACE inhibitor and thiazide diuretic.179 193 194 217 218 219 316 Use in combination with a diuretic.179 193 194 217 218 219 316

Higher incidence of angioedema reported with ACE inhibitors in blacks compared with other races.102 115 325 326 327 351 379 380

Common Adverse Effects

Rash, pruritus, cough, dysgeusia, proteinuria, tachycardia, chest pain, palpitations.115

Interactions for Captopril

Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Adrenergic neuron blocking agents (guanethidine)

Possible increased hypotensive effect115

Use with caution115

Antacids

Decreased rate and extent of captopril absorption197 201

Clinical importance is uncertain197 201

Antidiabetic agents, oral

Possible hypoglycemia in diabetic patients101

Consider risk of hypoglycemia if used concomitantly101

Allopurinol

Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely115

β-adrenergic blocking agents

Increased (but less than additive) hypotensive effect115

Cimetidine

Neuropathy reporteda

Further documentation of interaction necessarya

Digoxin

Possible increased serum digoxin concentrations in patients with CHF198 199 200

Monitor serum digoxin concentration;198 200 reduction of digoxin dosage not required upon initiation of captopril198

Diuretics

Possible additive hypotensive effectsa

Pharmacokinetic interaction with furosemide unlikely115

Adjust dosage carefullya (see Dosage under Dosage and Administration)

Diuretics, potassium-sparing (amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene)

Possible hyperkalemia, especially in patients with renal impairment162 329 331 335

Use cautiously and only if hypokalemia is documented; monitor serum potassium carefully;85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 discontinue or reduce dosage of potassium-sparing diuretic as necessary85 126 148 162 163

Insulin

Possible hypoglycemia in diabetic patients101

Consider risk of hypoglycemia101

Lithium

Possible increased serum lithium concentrations, particularly in patients receiving concomitant diuretic therapy115

Use with caution; monitor serum lithium concentrations frequently115

NSAIAs

Possible decreased antihypertensive response to captopril;283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 333 364 potential for acute reduction of renal function;285 291 possible attenuation of hemodynamic actions of ACE inhibitors in patients with CHF333 364

Monitor BP carefully and be alert for evidence of impaired renal function;285 if interaction is suspected, discontinue NSAIA or modify captopril dosage or use another hypotensive agent285 286

Potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes

Possible hyperkalemia, especially in patients with renal impairment162

Use cautiously and only if hypokalemia is documented; monitor serum potassium carefully;85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 discontinue or reduce dosage of potassium supplement as necessary85 126 148 162 163

Probenecid

Possible increased blood concentrations of captopril and its metabolites203 204 205 213

Test for urine acetone

Possible false-positive results with sodium nitroprusside reagent54 115

Vasodilating agents (e.g., hydralazine, nitrates, prazosin)

Possible increased hypotensive effect115

If possible, discontinue vasodilating agent before starting captopril; if vasodilating agent is resumed during captopril therapy, administer with caution and possibly at a lower dosage115

Captopril Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Rapidly absorbed following oral administration in fasting individuals,19 20 84 115 with peak blood concentration attained in 1 hour.19 Approximately 60–75% of an oral dose is absorbed.19 20 84 115

Onset

Hypotensive effect may be apparent within 15 minutes5 6 16 23 and usually is maximal in 1–2 hours after a single oral dose.1 3 10 15 16 17 21 24 29 Several weeks of therapy may be required before full effect on BP is achieved.1 3 5 16 21 28

Duration

Duration of action generally is 2–6 hours but appears to increase with increasing doses.a

Food

Food may decrease absorption of captopril by up to 25–40%;1 3 115 191 195 196 197 202 effect may not be clinically important.191 192 195

Distribution

Extent

Appears to be rapidly distributed into most body tissues, except CNS.1 5

Crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.115

Plasma Protein Binding

25–30%1 3 22 (mainly albumin).3

Elimination

Metabolism

About half the absorbed dose is rapidly metabolized.3 5 19 Captopril and its metabolites may undergo reversible interconversions.3

Elimination Route

Excreted in urine (95%) as unchanged drug (40–50%) and metabolites.3 19 20 22 115

Half-life

<2 hours.115

Special Populations

Elimination half-life is about 20–40 hours in patients with Clcr <20 mL/minute 3 and up to 6.5 days in anuric patients.5 22

Stability

Storage

Oral

Tablets

Tight containers at ≤30°C.115

Tablets (Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide)

Tight containers at ≤30°C.102

Actions

  • Suppresses the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.1

Advice to Patients

  • Risk of angioedema, anaphylactoid reactions, or other sensitivity reactions.115 Importance of reporting sensitivity reactions (e.g., edema of face, eyes, lips, tongue, or extremities; hoarseness; swallowing or breathing with difficulty) immediately to clinician and of discontinuing the drug.115

  • Importance of reporting signs of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever).115

  • Risk of hypotension.115 Importance of informing clinicians promptly if lightheadedness or fainting occurs.115

  • Importance of adequate fluid intake; risk of volume depletion with excessive perspiration, dehydration, vomiting, or diarrhea.115

  • Importance of not discontinuing or interrupting therapy unless instructed by a clinician.115

  • Risks of use during pregnancy.115 401 402 (See Boxed Warning.)

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs (including salt substitutes containing potassium) as well as any concomitant illnesses.115

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.115

  • Importance of taking 1 hour before meals.115

  • Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.115 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Captopril

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets

12.5 mg*

Capoten (scored)

Par

25 mg*

Capoten (scored)

Par

50 mg*

Capoten (scored)

Par

100 mg*

Capoten (scored)

Par

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets

25 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg*

Capozide (scored)

Par

Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets

Endo, Mylan, Sandoz, Teva

25 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg*

Capozide (scored)

Par

Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets

Endo, Mylan, Sandoz, Teva

50 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg*

Capozide (scored)

Par

Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets

Endo, Mylan, Sandoz, Teva

50 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg*

Capozide (scored)

Par

Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets

Endo, Mylan, Sandoz, Teva

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2014. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

Captopril 100MG Tablets (WEST-WARD): 90/$19.99 or 180/$29.97

Captopril 12.5MG Tablets (WEST-WARD): 100/$12.99 or 200/$18.98

Captopril 25MG Tablets (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 90/$13.99 or 180/$26.99

Captopril 50MG Tablets (WEST-WARD): 100/$16.99 or 200/$22.97

Captopril-Hydrochlorothiazide 25-15MG Tablets (MYLAN): 90/$47.99 or 270/$114.97

Captopril-Hydrochlorothiazide 25-25MG Tablets (MYLAN): 90/$44.99 or 270/$125.99

Captopril-Hydrochlorothiazide 50-15MG Tablets (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 60/$53.99 or 180/$154.98

Captopril-Hydrochlorothiazide 50-25MG Tablets (MYLAN): 60/$54.99 or 180/$155.97

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions April 1, 2008. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

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