Class: Antineoplastic Agents
Chemical Name: N,N,N′,N′,N″,N″-Hexamethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine
Molecular Formula: C9H18N6
CAS Number: 645-05-6
- Experience of Supervising Clinician
Use only under the supervision of a clinician experienced in therapy with antineoplastic agents.1
Uses for Altretamine
Used as a single agent for palliative treatment of ovarian cancer that has persisted or recurred following first-line treatment with combination therapy containing cisplatin and/or an alkylating agent.1 4 5
Has been used as consolidation therapy† in women with complete clinical remission following surgical debulking and first-line chemotherapy (typically platinum and paclitaxel) for stage III ovarian epithelial cancer;12 13 however, no further investigation conducted to date.25 26
Altretamine Dosage and Administration
Consult specialized references for procedures for proper handling and disposal of antineoplastics.1
Manufacturer recommends that total daily dosage be divided into 4 doses (e.g., dose after each meal and a dose at bedtime); however, no pharmacokinetic data to support this dosage schedule.1
Food may decrease rate and extent of absorption of altretamine.14
Calculate dosage according to body surface area.1
Palliative Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent DiseaseOral
260 mg/m2 daily in 4 divided doses for either 14 or 21 consecutive days in a 28-day cycle.1
Dosage Modification for Toxicity
For progressive neurotoxicity, interrupt therapy for ≥14 days.1 Upon resolution of neurologic toxicity, reinitiate at a reduced dosage of 200 mg/m2 daily.1 If neurologic manifestations persist at reduced dosage, discontinue indefinitely.1
For patients experiencing myelosuppression (e.g., WBC count <2000/mm3, granulocyte count <1000/mm3, or platelet count <75,000/mm3), interrupt therapy for ≥14 days.1 Upon resolution of hematologic toxicity, reinitiate at a reduced dosage of 200 mg/m2 daily.1
No special population dosage recommendations at this time.1
Cautions for Altretamine
Known hypersensitivity to altretamine.1
Preexisting severe bone marrow depression.1 (See Hematologic Effects under Cautions.)
Preexisting severe neurologic toxicity.1 (See Nervous System Effects under Cautions.)
Nervous System Effects
Risk of dose-related neurotoxicity, manifested as peripheral neuropathy and CNS manifestations (e.g., mood disorders, disorders of consciousness, ataxia, dizziness, vertigo).1 Neurotoxicity may be reversible upon discontinuance of the drug.1 8
Perform neurologic examinations prior to the initiation of each course and regularly during therapy.1 If manifestations of neurotoxicity occur, discontinue therapy; dosage modification may be required.1 (See Dosage Modification for Toxicity under Dosage and Administration.)
Careful monitoring of neurologic function required during therapy in patients who have received previous treatment with cisplatin and/or alkylating agents, particularly in patients with preexisting cisplatin-induced neuropathies.1
Risk of mild to moderate dose-related myelosuppression, including leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.1 Perform peripheral blood cell counts at least monthly, prior to the initiation of each course of therapy, and as clinically indicated;1 dosage modification may be required.1 (See Dosage Modification for Toxicity under Dosage and Administration.)
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
May cause fetal harm;1 16 17 embryotoxic and teratogenic effects demonstrated in animals.1 Avoid pregnancy during therapy.1 If used during pregnancy or if patient becomes pregnant, apprise of potential fetal hazard.1
Risk of dose-related nausea and vomiting; reported frequently with continuous high-dose therapy.1 If required, administer antiemetic therapy; dose reduction or, rarely, discontinuance of therapy may be required for severe symptoms.1 (See Dosage Modification for Toxicity under Dosage and Administration.) Tolerance to GI symptoms may develop after several weeks of therapy.1
Acute myeloid leukemia reported in one patient.20
Studies not performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential; drugs with similar mechanisms of action have been shown to be carcinogenic.1
Category D.1 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions.)
Safety and efficacy not established.1
Safety and efficacy in geriatric patients not studied.26
Common Adverse Effects
Nausea, vomiting, peripheral sensory neuropathy, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, increased serum creatinine/BUN.1
Interactions for Altretamine
MAO inhibitors (antidepressants)
Potentially severe orthostatic hypotension1
Concomitant administration not recommended1
Readily absorbed from GI tract, with peak plasma concentrations attained within 0.5–3 hours.1
Food may delay and decrease extent of absorption.14
Not known if distributed into milk.1
Plasma Protein Binding
Rapidly and extensively metabolized in the GI tract and liver;1 19 oxidative N-demethylation occurs to form active hydroxymethyl derivatives, principally pentamethylmelamine and tetramethylmelamine.1 2 3 19
Effect of hepatic and/or renal impairment on elimination not established.1
Ascites does not appear to alter pharmacokinetics.28
25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).1
Efficacy established for certain ovarian tumors resistant to classic alkylating agents.1
Advice to Patients
Risk of nausea, vomiting, myelosuppression, and neurotoxicity.1
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed; necessity for clinicians to advise women to avoid pregnancy during therapy.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2013. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.
Hexalen 50MG Capsules (EISAI): 100/$1,168.04 or 300/$3,253.93
This report on medications is for your information only, and is not considered individual patient advice. Because of the changing nature of drug information, please consult your physician or pharmacist about specific clinical use.
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com represent that the information provided hereunder was formulated with a reasonable standard of care, and in conformity with professional standards in the field. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com make no representations or warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such information and specifically disclaims all such warranties. Users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy are complex medical decisions requiring the independent, informed decision of an appropriate health care professional, and the information is provided for informational purposes only. The entire monograph for a drug should be reviewed for a thorough understanding of the drug's actions, uses and side effects. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com do not endorse or recommend the use of any drug. The information is not a substitute for medical care.
AHFS Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2013, Selected Revisions June 1, 2009. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. MGI Pharma. Hexalen (altretamine) capsules prescribing information. Bloomington, MN; 2003 Nov.
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5. Ovarian epithelial cancer. From: PDQ. Physician data query (database). Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2007 Dec 21.
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16. Food and Drug Administration. Labeling and prescription drug advertising; content and format for labeling for human prescription drugs. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 202. Final Rule. [Docket No. 75N-0066] Fed Regist. 1979; 44:37434-67.
17. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Subpart B—Labeling requirements for prescription drugs and/or insulin. (21 CFR Ch. 1 (4-1-87 Ed.)). 1987:18-24.
18. Wiernik PH, Yeap B, Vogl SE et al. Hexamethylmelamine and low or moderate dose cisplatin with or without pyridoxine for treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer Invest. 1992; 10:1-9. [PubMed 1735009]
19. Damia G, D’Incalci M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of altretamine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995; 28:439-48. [PubMed 7656502]
20. Grubb BP, Thant M. Acute myelocytic leukemia in a patient treated with hexamethylmelamine. Am J Med Sci. 1986; 292:393-4. [PubMed 3099573]
21. Hande K, Combs G, Swingle R et al. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on the metabolism and toxicity of hexamethylmelamine. Cancer Treat Rep. 1986; 70:1443-5. [PubMed 3098418]
22. Paolini A, D’Incalci M. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on the metabolism and antitumor activity of hexamethylmelamine. Cancer Treat Rep. 1986; 70:513-6. [PubMed 3084083]
23. D’Incalci M, Bolis G, Mangioni C et al. Variable oral absorption of hexamethylmelamine in man. Cancer Treat Rep. 1978; 62:2117-9.
24. Muggia F, Norris K Jr. Hexamethylmelamine in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: how active? Gynecol Oncol. 1992; 47:279-81.
25. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations).
26. MGI Pharma. Bloomington, MN: Personal communication.
27. D’Incalci M, Farina P, Sessa C et al. Hexamethylmelamine distribution in patients with ovarian and other pelvic cancers. Cancer Treat Rep. 1982; 66:231-5.
28. D’Incalci M, Beggiolin G, Sessa C et al. Influence of ascites on the pharmacokinetics of hexamethylmelamine and N-demethylated metabolites in ovarian cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1981; 17:1331-5.