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Ankle Sprain

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:

What is an ankle sprain?

An ankle sprain happens when 1 or more ligaments in your ankle joint stretch or tear. Ligaments are tough tissues that connect bones. Ligaments support your joints and keep your bones in place.

What causes an ankle sprain?

An ankle sprain is usually caused by a direct injury or sudden twisting of the joint. This may happen while playing sports, or may be due to a fall. If you have problems with balance, or have weak muscles or ligaments, you are more likely to sprain your ankle.

What are the signs and symptoms of an ankle sprain?

  • Trouble moving your ankle or foot

  • Pain when you touch or put weight on your ankle

  • Bruised, swollen, or misshapen ankle

How is an ankle sprain diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask you about your injury and examine you. Tell him if you heard a snap or pop when you were injured. Your healthcare provider will check the movement and strength of your joint. You may be asked to move the joint yourself. You may also need any of the following:

  • A joint x-ray is a picture of the bones and tissues in your joints. You may be given contrast liquid as a shot into your joint before the x-ray. This contrast liquid will help your joint show up better on the x-ray. A joint x-ray with contrast liquid is called an arthrogram.

  • An MRI may show the sprain. You may be given contrast liquid to help the pictures show up better. Tell a healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid. Do not enter the MRI room with anything metal. Metal can cause serious injury. Tell a healthcare provider if you have any metal in or on your body.

How is an ankle sprain treated?

  • Support devices, such as a brace, cast, or splint, may be needed to limit your movement and protect your joint. You may need to use crutches to decrease your pain as you move around.

  • NSAIDs , such as ibuprofen, help decrease swelling, pain, and fever. This medicine is available with or without a doctor's order. NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding or kidney problems in certain people. If you take blood thinner medicine, always ask if NSAIDs are safe for you. Always read the medicine label and follow directions. Do not give these medicines to children under 6 months of age without direction from your child's healthcare provider.

  • Acetaminophen decreases pain. It is available without a doctor's order. Ask how much to take and how often to take it. Follow directions. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage if not taken correctly.

  • Prescription pain medicine may be given. Ask how to take this medicine safely.

  • Physical therapy may be recommended. A physical therapist teaches you exercises to help improve movement and strength, and to decrease pain.

  • Surgery may be needed to repair or replace a torn ligament if your sprain does not heal with other treatments. Your healthcare provider may use screws to attach the bones in your ankle together. The screws may help support your ankle and make it stable. Ask your healthcare provider for more information about surgery to treat your ankle sprain.

How can I manage my ankle sprain?

  • Rest your joint so that it can heal. Return to normal activities as directed.

  • Apply ice on your ankle for 15 to 20 minutes every hour or as directed. Use an ice pack, or put crushed ice in a plastic bag. Cover it with a towel. Ice helps prevent tissue damage and decreases swelling and pain.

  • Compress your ankle. Ask if you should wrap an elastic bandage around your injured ligament. An elastic bandage provides support and helps decrease swelling and movement so your joint can heal. Wear as long as directed.

  • Elevate your ankle above the level of your heart as often as you can. This will help decrease swelling and pain. Prop your ankle on pillows or blankets to keep it elevated comfortably.

How can I prevent another ankle sprain?

  • Let your ankle heal. Find out how long your ligament needs to heal. Do not do any physical activity until your healthcare provider says it is okay. If you start activity too soon, you may develop a more serious injury.

  • Take it slow. Slowly increase how often and how long you exercise or train. Sudden increases in how often you train may cause you to overstretch or tear your ligament.

  • Always warm up and stretch before you exercise or play sports.

  • Use the right equipment. Always wear shoes that fit well and are made for the activity that you are doing. You may also use ankle supports, elbow and knee pads, or braces.

When should I seek immediate care?

  • You have severe pain in your ankle.

  • Your foot or toes are cold or numb.

  • Your ankle becomes more weak or unstable (wobbly).

  • You are unable to put any weight on your ankle or foot.

  • Your swelling has increased or returned.

When should I contact my healthcare provider?

  • Your pain does not go away, even after treatment.

  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

Care Agreement

You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

© 2015 Truven Health Analytics Inc. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or Truven Health Analytics.

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