Levothyroxine use while Breastfeeding
Drugs containing Levothyroxine: Synthroid, Levoxyl, Tirosint, Eltroxin, Levothroid, Euthyrox, Unithroid, L Thyroxine Roche, Levothyrox, Oroxine, Show all 15 »Eutroxsig, Levo-T, Levotabs, Evotrox, Levotec
Levothyroxine Levels and Effects while Breastfeeding
Summary of Use during Lactation
Levothyroxine (T4) is a normal component of human milk. Limited data on exogenous replacement doses of levothyroxine during breastfeeding indicate no adverse effects in infants. If levothyroxine is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Levothyroxine is recommended treatment for postpartum thyroiditis and tapering of the dose should be avoided when a woman is breastfeeding. Levothyroxine dosage requirement may be increased in the postpartum period compared to prepregnancy requirements patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Milk levels of thyroid hormones have not been measured after exogenous administration in humans. Levothyroxine is a normal component of human milk. Although somewhat controversial, it appears that levothyroxine passes into milk poorly.
Maternal Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
Infant Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
Effects in Breastfed Infants
Effects of exogenous thyroid hormone administration to mothers on their infant have not been reported. One case of apparent mitigation of cretinism in hypothyroid infants by breastfeeding has been reported, but the amounts of thyroid hormones in milk are not optimal, and this result has been disputed. The thyroid hormone content of human milk from the mothers of very preterm infants appears not to be sufficient to affect the infants' thyroid status. The amounts of thyroid hormones in milk are apparently not sufficient to interfere with diagnosis of hypothyroidism.
In a telephone follow-up study, 5 nursing mothers reported taking levothyroxine (dosage unspecified). The mothers reported no adverse reactions in their infants.
One mother with who had undergone a thyroidectomy was taking levothyroxine 100 mcg daily as well as calcium carbonate and calcitriol. Her breastfed infant was reportedly "thriving" at 3 months of age.
Possible Effects on Lactation
Adequate thyroid hormone serum levels are required for normal lactation. Replacing deficient thyroid levels should improve milk production caused by hypothyroidism. Supraphysiologic doses would not be expected to further improve lactation.
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9. Letarte J, Guyda H, Dussault JH et al. Lack of protective effect of breast-feeding in congenital hypothyroidism: report of 12 cases. Pediatrics. 1980;65:703-5. PMID: 7367075
10. van Wassenaer AG, Stulp MR, Valianpour F et al. The quantity of thyroid hormone in human milk is too low to influence plasma thyroid hormone levels in the very preterm infant. Clin Endocrinol. 2002;56:621-7. PMID: 12030913
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13. Caplan RH, Wickus GG. Reduced calcitriol requirements for treating hypoparathyroidism during lactation. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1993;38:914-8. PMID: 8277494
CAS Registry Number
- Thyroid Hormones
LactMed Record Number
Information from the National Library of Medicine's LactMed Database.
Last Revision Date
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