DexamethasoneThis page contains information on Dexamethasone for veterinary use.
The information provided typically includes the following:
- Dexamethasone Indications
- Warnings and cautions for Dexamethasone
- Direction and dosage information for Dexamethasone
DexamethasoneThis treatment applies to the following species:
Veterinary 2mg per mL
ANADA #200-312, Approved by FDA
Dexamethasone CautionFederal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
DescriptionDexamethasone Solution is a synthetic analogue of prednisolone, having similar but more potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic action and diversified hormonal and metabolic effects. Modification of the basic corticoid structure as achieved in Dexamethasone offers enhanced anti-inflammatory effect compared to older corticosteroids. The dosage of Dexamethasone required is markedly lower than that of prednisone and prednisolone.
Dexamethasone is not species-specific; however, the veterinarian should read the sections on INDICATIONS, DOSAGE, SIDE EFFECTS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS, and WARNINGS before this drug is used.
Dexamethasone is intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. Each mL contains 2mg dexamethasone, 500mg polyethylene glycol 400, 9mg benzyl alcohol, 1.8mg methylparaben and 0.2mg propylparaben as preservatives, 4.75% alcohol, HCl to adjust pH to approximately 4.9, water for injection q.s.
Experimental StudiesExperimental animal studies on dexamethasone have revealed it possesses greater anti-inflammatory activity than many steroids. Veterinary clinical evidence indicates dexamethasone has approximately 20 times the anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone and 70 to 80 times that of hydrocortisone. Thymus involution studies show dexamethasone possesses 25 times the activity of prednisolone. In reference to mineralocorticoid activity, dexamethasone does not cause significant sodium or water retention. Metabolic balance studies show that animals on controlled and limited protein intake will exhibit nitrogen losses on exceedingly high dosages.
Dexamethasone IndicationsDexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of primary bovine ketosis and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the bovine and equine.
As supportive therapy, Dexamethasone may be used in the management of various rheumatic, allergic, dermatologic, and other diseases known to be responsive to anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. Dexamethasone may be used intravenously as supportive therapy when an immediate hormonal response is required.
Bovine Ketosis - Dexamethasone is offered for the treatment of primary ketosis. The glucogenic effects of Dexamethasone, when administered intramuscularly, are generally noted within the first 6 to 12 hours. When Dexamethasone is used intravenously, the effects may be noted sooner. Blood sugar levels rise normal levels rapidly and generally rise to above normal levels within 12 to 24 hours. Acetone bodies are reduced to normal concentrations usually within 24 hours. The physical attitude of animals treated with Dexamethasone brightens and appetite improves, usually within 12 hours. Milk production, which is suppressed as a compensatory reaction in this condition, begins to increase. In some instances, it may even surpass previous peaks. The recovery process usually takes from 3 to 7 days.
Supportive Therapy - Dexamethasone may be used as supportive therapy in mastitis, metritis, traumatic gastritis, and pyelonephritis, while appropriate primary therapy is administered. In these cases, the corticosteroid combats accompanying stress and enhances the feeling of general well-being.
Dexamethasone may also be used as supportive therapy in inflammatory conditions such as arthritic conditions, snake bite, acute mastitis, shipping fever, pneumonia, laminitis, and retained placenta.
Equine - Dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal inflammations, such as bursitis, carpitis, osselets, tendonitis, myositis, and sprains. If boney changes exist in any of these conditions, joints, or accessory structures, a response to Dexamethasone cannot be expected. In addition, Dexamethasone may be used as supportive therapy in fatigue, heat exhaustion, influenza, laminitis, and retained placenta provided that the primary cause is determined and corrected.
Administration And DosageTherapy with Dexamethasone, as with any other potent corticosteroid, should be individualized according to the severity of the condition being treated, anticipated duration of steroid therapy, and animal's threshold or tolerance for steroid excess.
Treatment may be changed over to Dexamethasone from any other glucocorticoid with proper reduction or adjustment of dosage.
Bovine: Dexamethasone: 5 - 20 mg intravenously or intramuscularly.
Equine: Dexamethasone: 2.5 - 5 mg intravenously or intramuscularly.
ContraindicationsExcept for emergency therapy, do not use in animals with chronic nephritis and hyper-corticalism (Cushing's Syndrome). Existence of congestive heart failure, diabetes, and osteoporosis are relative contraindications. Do not use in viral infections during the viremic stage.
PrecautionsAnimals receiving Dexamethasone should be under close observation. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be masked and it may be necessary to stop treatment until a further diagnosis is made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss, and weight gain.
Dexamethasone may be administered to animals with acute or chronic bacterial infections providing the infections are controlled with appropriate antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents.
Doses greater than those recommended in horses may produce transient drowsiness or lethargy in some horses. The lethargy usually abates in 24 hours.
Use of corticosteroids, depending on the dose, duration, and specific steroid, may result in inhibition of endogenous steroid production following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently withdrawn from systemic corticosteroid treatments, therapy with a rapidly acting corticosteroid should be considered in unusually stressful situations.
WarningsClinical and experimental data have demonstrated that corticosteroids administered orally or parenterally to animals may induce the first stage of parturition when administered during the last trimester of pregnancy and may precipitate premature parturition followed by dystocia, fetal death, retained placenta, and metritis.
Additionally, corticosteroids administered to dogs, rabbits, and rodents during pregnancy have produced cleft palate. Other congenital anomalies including deformed forelegs, phocomelia, and anasarca have been reported in offspring of dogs which received corticosteroids during pregnancy.
A Withdrawal Period Has Not Been Established For This Product In Pre-ruminating Calves. Do Not Use In Calves To Be Processed For Veal.
Side EffectsSide effects, such as SAP and SGPT enzyme elevations, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, and polyuria have occurred following the use of synthetic corticosteroids in dogs. Vomiting and diarrhea (occasionally bloody) have been observed in cats and dogs. Cushing's syndrome in dogs has been reported in association with prolonged or repeated steroid therapy.
Corticosteroids reportedly cause laminitis in horses.
How SuppliedDexamethasone, 2mg per mL, 100mL multiple dose vial.
StorageStore between 2° and 30°C (36° and 86°F).
For Animal Use Only
Keep Out Of Reach Of Children
Distributed by: MWI, Meridian, ID 83680
Manufactured by: Bimeda-MTC Animal Health Inc., Cambridge, Ontario, Canada N3C 2W4
Bimeda-MTC Animal Health Inc. is a Division of Cross Vetpharm Group Ltd.
Distributed by MWI Veterinary Supply
651 S. STRATFORD DRIVE, SUITE 100, MERIDIAN, ID, 83642
|Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Dexamethasone information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the Dexamethasone product label or package insert.|
Copyright © 2014 North American Compendiums. Updated: 2013-12-23