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Magnesium Sulfate

Pronunciation

Generic Name: Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate
Dosage Form: injection, solution

Magnesium Sulfate
Injection, USP

Ansyr™ Plastic Syringe

Rx only

Magnesium Sulfate Description

Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile solution of Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate in Water for Injection, USP administered by the intravenous or intramuscular routes as an electrolyte replenisher or anticonvulsant. Must be diluted before I.V. use. May contain sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. The pH is 6.0 (5.5 to 7.0). The 50% concentration has an osmolarity of 4.06 mOsmol/mL (calc.).

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The solution contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer (except for pH adjustment) and is intended only for use as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded with the entire unit.

Magnesium Sulfate, USP heptahydrate is chemically designated MgSO4 • 7H2O with molecular weight of 246.48 and occurs as colorless crystals or white powder freely soluble in water.

The plastic syringe is molded from a specially formulated polypropylene. Water permeates from inside the container at an extremely slow rate which will have an insignificant effect on solution concentration over the expected shelf life. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the syringe material.

Magnesium Sulfate - Clinical Pharmacology

Magnesium (Mg++) is an important cofactor for enzymatic reactions and plays an important role in neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability.

As a nutritional adjunct in hyperalimentation, the precise mechanism of action for magnesium is uncertain. Early symptoms of hypomagnesemia (less than 1.5 mEq/liter) may develop as early as three to four days or within weeks.

Predominant deficiency effects are neurological, e.g., muscle irritability, clonic twitching and tremors. Hypocalcemia and hypokalemia often follow low serum levels of magnesium. While there are large stores of magnesium present intracellularly and in the bones of adults, these stores often are not mobilized sufficiently to maintain plasma levels. Parenteral magnesium therapy repairs the plasma deficit and causes deficiency symptoms and signs to cease.

Magnesium prevents or controls convulsions by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the amount of acetylcholine liberated at the end plate by the motor nerve impulse. Magnesium is said to have a depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS), but it does not adversely affect the woman, fetus or neonate when used as directed in eclampsia or pre-eclampsia. Normal plasma magnesium levels range from 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/liter.

As plasma magnesium rises above 4 mEq/liter, the deep tendon reflexes are first decreased and then disappear as the plasma level approaches 10 mEq/liter. At this level respiratory paralysis may occur. Heart block also may occur at this or lower plasma levels of magnesium. Serum magnesium concentrations in excess of 12 mEq/L may be fatal.

Magnesium acts peripherally to produce vasodilation. With low doses only flushing and sweating occur, but larger doses cause lowering of blood pressure. The central and peripheral effects of magnesium poisoning are antagonized to some extent by intravenous administration of calcium.

Pharmacokinetics

With intravenous administration the onset of anticonvulsant action is immediate and lasts about 30 minutes. Following intramuscular administration the onset of action occurs in about one hour and persists for three to four hours. Effective anticonvulsant serum levels range from 2.5 to 7.5 mEq/liter. Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidneys at a rate proportional to the plasma concentration and glomerular filtration.

Indications and Usage for Magnesium Sulfate

Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP is suitable for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those observed in hypocalcemia. In such cases, the serum magnesium (Mg++) level is usually below the lower limit of normal (1.5 to 2.5 mEq/liter) and the serum calcium (Ca++) level is normal (4.3 to 5.3 mEq/liter) or elevated.

In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), Magnesium Sulfate may be added to the nutrient admixture to correct or prevent hypomagnesemia which can arise during the course of therapy.

Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP is also indicated for the prevention and control of seizures (convulsions) in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, respectively.

Contraindications

Parenteral administration of the drug is contraindicated in patients with heart block or myocardial damage.

Warnings

FETAL HARM: Continuous administration of Magnesium Sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus. These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia. In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported. The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is not known. Magnesium Sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If Magnesium Sulfate is given for treatment of preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that use of Magnesium Sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.

ALUMINUM TOXICITY: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

Parenteral use in the presence of renal insufficiency may lead to magnesium intoxication. IV use in the eclampsia should be reserved for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions.

Precautions

General

Administer with caution if flushing and sweating occurs. When barbiturates, narcotics or other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics) are to be given in conjunction with magnesium, their dosage should be adjusted with caution because of additive CNS depressant effects of magnesium.

Because magnesium is removed from the body solely by the kidneys, the drug should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment. Urine output should be maintained at a level of 100 mL or more during the four hours preceding each dose. Monitoring serum magnesium levels and the patient’s clinical status is essential to avoid the consequences of overdosage in toxemia. Clinical indications of a safe dosage regimen include the presence of the patellar reflex (knee jerk) and absence of respiratory depression (approximately 16 breaths or more/minute). When repeated doses of the drug are given parenterally, knee jerk reflexes should be tested before each dose and if they are absent, no additional magnesium should be given until they return. Serum magnesium levels usually sufficient to control convulsions range from 3 to 6 mg/100 mL (2.5 to 5 mEq/liter). The strength of the deep tendon reflexes begins to diminish when magnesium levels exceed 4 mEq/liter. Reflexes may be absent at 10 mEq magnesium/liter, where respiratory paralysis is a potential hazard. An injectable calcium salt should be immediately available to counteract the potential hazards of magnesium intoxication in eclampsia.

50% Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less prior to I.V. infusion. Rate of administration should be slow and cautious, to avoid producing hypermagnesemia. The 50% solution also should be diluted to 20% or less for intramuscular injection in infants and children.

Laboratory Tests

Magnesium Sulfate injection should not be given unless hypomagnesemia has been confirmed and the serum concentration of magnesium is monitored. The normal serum level is 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L.

Drug Interactions

CNS Depressants — When barbiturates, narcotics or other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics), or other CNS depressants are to be given in conjunction with magnesium, their dosage should be adjusted with caution because of additive CNS depressant effects of magnesium. CNS depression and peripheral transmission defects produced by magnesium may be antagonized by calcium.

Neuromuscular Blocking Agents — Excessive neuromuscular block has occurred in patients receiving parenteral Magnesium Sulfate and a neuromuscular blocking agent; these drugs should be administered concomitantly with caution.

Cardiac Glycosides — Magnesium Sulfate should be administered with extreme caution in digitalized patients, because serious changes in cardiac conduction which can result in heart block may occur if administration of calcium is required to treat magnesium toxicity.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy CategoryD (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS)

See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS. 

Magnesium Sulfate can cause fetal abnormalities when administered beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women. There are retrospective epidemiological studies and case reports documenting fetal abnormalities such as hypocalcemia, skeletal demineralization, osteopenia and other skeletal abnormalities with continuous maternal administration of Magnesium Sulfate for more than 5 to 7 days.1-10 Magnesium Sulfate injection should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the woman should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

When administered by continuous intravenous infusion (especially for more than 24 hours preceding delivery) to control convulsions in a toxemic woman, the newborn may show signs of magnesium toxicity, including neuromuscular or respiratory depression (See OVERDOSAGE).

Labor and Delivery

Continuous administration of Magnesium Sulfate is an unapproved treatment for preterm labor. The safety and efficacy of such use have not been established. The administration of Magnesium Sulfate outside of its approved indication in pregnant women should be by trained obstetrical personnel in a hospital setting with appropriate obstetrical care facilities.

Nursing Mothers

Since magnesium is distributed into milk during parenteral Magnesium Sulfate administration, the drug should be used with caution in nursing women.

Geriatrics

Geriatric patients often require reduced dosage because of impaired renal function. In patients with severe impairment, dosage should not exceed 20 g in 48 hours. Serum magnesium should be monitored in such patients.

Adverse Reactions

The adverse effects of parenterally administered magnesium usually are the result of magnesium intoxication. These include flushing, sweating, hypotension, depressed reflexes, flaccid paralysis, hypothermia, circulatory collapse, cardiac and central nervous system depression proceeding to respiratory paralysis. Hypocalcemia with signs of tetany secondary to Magnesium Sulfate therapy for eclampsia has been reported.

Overdosage

Magnesium intoxication is manifested by a sharp drop in blood pressure and respiratory paralysis. Disappearance of the patellar reflex is a useful clinical sign to detect the onset of magnesium intoxication. In the event of overdosage, artificial ventilation must be provided until a calcium salt can be injected intravenously to antagonize the effects of magnesium.

For Treatment of Overdose

Artificial respiration is often required. Intravenous calcium, 10 to 20 mL of a 5% solution (diluted if desirable with isotonic sodium chloride for injection) is used to counteract effects of hypermagnesemia. Subcutaneous physostigmine, 0.5 to 1 mg may be helpful.

Hypermagnesemia in the newborn may require resuscitation and assisted ventilation via endotracheal intubation or intermittent positive pressure ventilation as well as intravenous calcium.

Magnesium Sulfate Dosage and Administration

Dosage of Magnesium Sulfate must be carefully adjusted according to individual requirements and response, and administration of the drug should be discontinued as soon as the desired effect is obtained.

Both intravenous and intramuscular administration are appropriate. Intramuscular administration of the undiluted 50% solution results in therapeutic plasma levels in 60 minutes, whereas I.V. doses will provide a therapeutic level almost immediately. The rate of I.V. injection should generally not exceed 150 mg/minute (1.5 mL of a 10% concentration or its equivalent), except in severe eclampsia with seizures (see below). Continuous maternal administration of Magnesium Sulfate in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days can cause fetal abnormalities.

Solutions for intravenous infusion must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less prior to administration. The diluents commonly used are 5% Dextrose Injection, USP and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. Deep intramuscular injection of the undiluted (50%) solution is appropriate for adults, but the solution should be diluted to a 20% or less concentration prior to such injection in children.

In Magnesium Deficiency

In the treatment of mild magnesium deficiency, the usual adult dose is 1 g, equivalent to 8.12 mEq of magnesium (2 mL of the 50% solution) injected intramuscularly every six hours for four doses (equivalent to a total of 32.5 mEq of magnesium per 24 hours). For severe hypomagnesemia, as much as 250 mg (approximately 2 mEq) per kg of body weight (0.5 mL of the 50% solution) may be given intramuscularly within a period of four hours if necessary. Alternatively, 5 g, (approximately 40 mEq) can be added to one liter of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for slow intravenous infusion over a three-hour period. In the treatment of deficiency states, caution must be observed to prevent exceeding the renal excretory capacity.

In Hyperalimentation

In total parenteral nutrition, maintenance requirements for magnesium are not precisely known. The maintenance dose used in adults ranges from 8 to 24 mEq (1 to 3 g) daily; for infants, the range is 2 to 10 mEq (0.25 to 1.25 g) daily.

In Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia

In severe pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, the total initial dose is 10 to 14 g of Magnesium Sulfate. Intravenously, a dose of 4 to 5 g in 250 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP may be infused. Simultaneously, intramuscular doses of up to 10 g (5 g or 10 mL of the undiluted 50% solution in each buttock) are given. Alternatively, the initial intravenous dose of 4 g may be given by diluting the 50% solution to a 10 or 20% concentration; the diluted fluid (40 mL of a 10% solution or 20 mL of a 20% solution) may then be injected intravenously over a period of three to four minutes. Subsequently, 4 to 5 g (8 to 10 mL of the 50% solution) are injected intramuscularly into alternate buttocks every four hours as needed, depending on the continuing presence of the patellar reflex and adequate respiratory function. Alternatively, after the initial I.V. dose, some clinicians administer 1 to 2 g/hour by constant I.V. infusion. Therapy should continue until paroxysms cease. A serum magnesium level of 6 mg/100 mL is considered optimal for control of seizures. A total daily (24 hr) dose of 30 to 40 g should not be exceeded. In the presence of severe renal insufficiency, the maximum dosage of Magnesium Sulfate is 20 grams/48 hours and frequent serum magnesium concentrations must be obtained. Continuous use of Magnesium Sulfate in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days can cause fetal abnormalities.

Other Uses

In counteracting the muscle-stimulating effects of barium poisoning, the usual dose of Magnesium Sulfate is 1 to 2 g given I.V.

For controlling seizures associated with epilepsy, glomerulonephritis or hypothyroidism, the usual adult dose is 1 g administered I.M. or I.V.

In paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, magnesium should be used only if simpler measures have failed and there is no evidence of myocardial damage. The usual dose is 3 to 4 g (30 to 40 mL of a 10% solution) administered I.V. over 30 seconds with extreme caution.

For reduction of cerebral edema, 2.5 g (25 mL of a 10% solution) is given I.V.

Incompatibilities

Magnesium Sulfate in solution may result in a precipitate formation when mixed with solutions containing:

            Alcohol (in high                                Heavy Metals
               concentrations)                              Hydrocortisone sodium
            Alkali carbonates and                              succinate
               bicarbonates                                  Phosphates
            Alkali hydroxides                              Polymixin B sulfate
            Arsenates                                         Procaine hydrochloride
            Barium                                             Salicylates
            Calcium                                           Strontium
            Clindamycin phosphate                     Tartrates

The potential incompatibility will often be influenced by the changes in the concentration of reactants and the pH of the solutions.

It has been reported that magnesium may reduce the antibiotic activity of streptomycin, tetracycline and tobramycin when given together.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

How is Magnesium Sulfate Supplied

Magnesium Sulfate Injection, USP is supplied in single-dose containers as follows:

NDC No.

Container

Total

Amount

Concentration

mEq

Mg++/mL

0409-1754-10

AnsyrTM

Plastic Syringe

5 g/10 mL

50%

4 mEq/mL

Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

REFERENCES

  1. Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y. Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(3):187-91. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
  2. Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK et al. Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J. Perinatol. 2006; 26(6):371-4.
  3. Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, et al. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of Magnesium Sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scan. 2006;85(9):1099-103.
  4. Malaeb SN, Rassi A, Haddad MC. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labor. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18.
  5. Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, et al. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8.
  6. Schanler RJ, Smith LG, Burns PA. Effects of long-term maternal intravenous Magnesium Sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41.
  7. Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL. Magnesium Sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthrop. 1994;14(2):249-53.
  8. Holcomb WL, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH. Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities; a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78(4):611-4.
  9. Cumming WA, Thomas VJ. Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. Am J Roentgenol. 1989; 152(5):1071-2.
  10. Lamm CL, Norton KL, Murphy RJ. Congenital rickets associated with Magnesium Sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988; 113(6):1078-82.
  11. McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, et al. Effects of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 56(5): 595-600.
  12. Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, et al. The effects of maternal Magnesium Sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J. Perinatol. 1998;18(6 pt 1):449-54.

Revised: 4/2014

                                                                              EN-3512

Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

CA-2302 


Magnesium Sulfate 
Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate injection, solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0409-1754
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS, INTRAMUSCULAR DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Magnesium Sulfate HEPTAHYDRATE (MAGNESIUM CATION) Magnesium Sulfate HEPTAHYDRATE 500 mg  in 1 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
WATER  
SULFURIC ACID  
SODIUM HYDROXIDE  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0409-1754-10 10 CARTON in 1 CONTAINER
1 1 SYRINGE, PLASTIC in 1 CARTON
1 10 mL in 1 SYRINGE, PLASTIC
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA075151 04/25/2000
Labeler - Hospira, Inc. (141588017)
Revised: 05/2014
 
Hospira, Inc.
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