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Gemcitabine

Pronunciation

Generic Name: Gemcitabine hydrochloride
Dosage Form: injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution

Indications and Usage for Gemcitabine

Ovarian Cancer

Gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy.

Breast Cancer

Gemcitabine in combination with paclitaxel is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Gemcitabine is indicated in combination with cisplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer.

Pancreatic Cancer

Gemcitabine is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine is indicated for patients previously treated with 5-FU.

Gemcitabine Dosage and Administration

Ovarian Cancer

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of Gemcitabine is 1000 mg/m2 as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin AUC 4 intravenously after Gemcitabine administration on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Refer to carboplatin prescribing information for additional information.

Dose Modifications

Recommended Gemcitabine dose modifications for myelosuppression are described in Table 1 and Table 2 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 1: Dosage Reduction Guidelines for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Ovarian Cancer

Treatment
Day

Absolute granulocyte count
(x 106/L)

 

Platelet count
(x 106/L)

% of full dose

Day 1

≥1500

less than 1500

and

or

≥100,000

less than 100,000

100%

Delay Treatment Cycle

Day 8

≥1500

1000-1499

less than 1000

and

or

or

≥100,000

75,000-99,999

less than 75,000

100

50

Hold

Table 2: Gemcitabine Dose Modification for Myelosuppression in Previous Cycle in Ovarian Cancer

Occurrence

Myelosuppression During Treatment Cycle

Dose Modification

Initial
Occurrence

Absolute granulocyte count less than 500 x 106/L for more than 5 days

Absolute granulocyte count less than 100 x 106/L for more than 3 days

Febrile neutropenia

Platelets less than 25,000 x 106/L

Cycle delay of more than one week due to toxicity

Permanently reduce
Gemcitabine to 800 mg/m2
on Days 1 and 8

Subsequent
Occurrence

If any of the above toxicities occur after the initial dose reduction

Permanently reduce
Gemcitabine dose to 800 mg/m2
on Day 1 only

Breast Cancer

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of Gemcitabine is 1250 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle that includes paclitaxel. Paclitaxel should be administered at 175 mg/m2 on Day 1 as a 3 hour intravenous infusion before Gemcitabine administration.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for Gemcitabine for myelosuppression are described in Table 3 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Table 3: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression on Day of Treatment in Breast Cancer

Treatment Day

Absolute granulocyte count

 

Platelet count 

% of full dose

Day 1

≥1500

less than 1500

and

or

≥100,000

less than 100,000

100%

Hold

Day 8

≥1200

1000-1199

700-999

less than 700

and

or

and

or

greater than 75,000

50,000-75,000

≥50,000

less than 50,000

100%

75%

50%

Hold

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Recommended Dose and Schedule

Every 4-week schedule

The recommended dose of Gemcitabine is 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 after the infusion of Gemcitabine.

Every 3-week schedule

The recommended dose of Gemcitabine is 1250 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes on Days 1 and 8 in combination with cisplatin therapy. Administer cisplatin intravenously at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 after the infusion of Gemcitabine.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for Gemcitabine myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for Gemcitabine recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Pancreatic Cancer

Recommended Dose and Schedule

The recommended dose of Gemcitabine is 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes intravenously. The recommended treatment schedule:

Weeks 1-8: weekly dosing for the first 7 weeks followed by one week rest.
After week 8: weekly dosing on Days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles.

Dose Modifications

Recommended dose modifications for Gemcitabine for myelosuppression are described in Table 4 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Refer to Dosage and Administration (2.5) for recommendations for non-hematologic adverse reactions.

Patients receiving Gemcitabine should be monitored prior to each dose with a complete blood count (CBC), including differential and platelet count. If marrow suppression is detected, therapy should be modified or suspended according to the guidelines in Table 4.

Table 4: Recommended Dose Reductions for Gemcitabine for Myelosuppression in Pancreatic Cancer and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Absolute granulocyte count

(x 106/L)

 

Platelet count

(x 106/L)

% of full dose

≥1000

500-999

less than 500

and

or

or

≥100,000

50,000-99,999

less than 50,000

100

75

Hold

 Dose Modifications for Non-Hematologic Adverse Reactions

Permanently discontinue Gemcitabine for any of the following

Unexplained dyspnea or other evidence of severe pulmonary toxicity
Severe hepatic toxicity
Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
Capillary Leak Syndrome

Withhold Gemcitabine or reduce dose by 50% for other severe (Grade 3 or 4) non-hematological toxicity until resolved. No dose modifications are recommended for alopecia, nausea, or vomiting.

 Preparation and Administration Precautions

Exercise caution and wear gloves when preparing Gemcitabine solutions. Immediately wash the skin thoroughly or rinse the mucosa with copious amounts of water if Gemcitabine contacts the skin or mucus membranes. Death has occurred in animal studies due to dermal absorption. For further guidance on handling Gemcitabine go to “OSHA Hazardous Drugs” (refer to antineoplastic weblinks including OSHA Technical Manual) at OSHA.

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

 Preparation for Intravenous Infusion Administration

Reconstitute the vials with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection without preservatives.

Add 5 mL to the 200-mg vial or 25 mL to the 1-g vial. These dilutions each yield a Gemcitabine concentration of 38 mg/mL. Complete withdrawal of the vial contents will provide 200 mg or 1 g of Gemcitabine. Prior to administration the appropriate amount of drug must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection. Final concentrations may be as low as 0.1 mg/mL.

Reconstituted Gemcitabine for Injection, USP is a clear, colorless to light straw-colored solution. Inspect visually prior to administration and discard for particulate matter or discoloration.

Gemcitabine solutions are stable for 24 hours at controlled room temperature of 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Discard unused portion. Do not refrigerate as crystallization can occur.

No incompatibilities have been observed with infusion bottles or polyvinyl chloride bags and administration sets.

Dosage Forms and Strengths

Gemcitabine for Injection, USP is a white to off-white lyophilized powder available in sterile single-use vials containing 200 mg or 1 g Gemcitabine.

Contraindications

Gemcitabine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to Gemcitabine.

Warnings and Precautions

 Schedule-dependent Toxicity

In clinical trials evaluating the maximum tolerated dose of Gemcitabine, prolongation of the infusion time beyond 60 minutes or more frequent than weekly dosing resulted in an increased incidence of clinically significant hypotension, severe flu-like symptoms, myelosuppression, and asthenia. The half-life of Gemcitabine for Injection, USP is influenced by the length of the infusion [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

 Myelosuppression

Myelosuppression manifested by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia occurs with Gemcitabine as a single agent and the risks are increased when Gemcitabine is combined with other cytotoxic drugs. In clinical trials, Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 25%, 8%, and 5%, respectively of patients receiving single-agent. The frequencies of Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia varied from 48% to 71%, 8 to 28%, and 5 to 55%, respectively, in patients receiving Gemcitabine in combination with another drug.

 Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure

Pulmonary toxicity, including interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has been reported. In some cases, these pulmonary events can lead to fatal respiratory failure despite discontinuation of therapy. The onset of pulmonary symptoms may occur up to 2 weeks after the last dose of Gemcitabine. Discontinue Gemcitabine in patients who develop unexplained dyspnea, with or without bronchospasm, or have any evidence of pulmonary toxicity [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)].

 Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome to include fatalities from renal failure or the requirement for dialysis can occur in patients treated with Gemcitabine. In clinical trials, HUS was reported in 6 of 2429 patients (0.25%). Most fatal cases of renal failure were due to HUS [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)]. Assess renal function prior to initiation of Gemcitabine and periodically during treatment. Consider the diagnosis of HUS in patients who develops anemia with evidence of microangiopathic hemolysis, elevation of bilirubin or LDH, or reticulocytosis; severe thrombocytopenia; or evidence of renal failure (elevation of serum creatinine or BUN) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Use In Specific Populations (8.6)]. Permanently discontinue Gemcitabine in patients with HUS or severe renal impairment. Renal failure may not be reversible even with discontinuation of therapy.

 Hepatic Toxicity

Drug-induced liver injury, including liver failure and death, has been reported in patients receiving Gemcitabine alone or in combination with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs [see Adverse Reactions (6.1 and 6.2)]. 

Administration of Gemcitabine in patients with concurrent liver metastases or a pre-existing medical history or hepatitis, alcoholism, or liver cirrhosis can lead to exacerbation of the underlying hepatic insufficiency [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. Assess hepatic function prior to initiation of Gemcitabine and periodically during treatment. Discontinue Gemcitabine in patients that develop severe liver injury.

 Embryofetal Toxicity

Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman, based on its mechanism of action. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if a woman becomes pregnant while taking Gemcitabine, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [see Use In Specific Populations (8.1)].

 Exacerbation of Radiation Therapy Toxicity

Gemcitabine is not indicated for use in combination with radiation therapy. Concurrent (given together or ≤ 7 days apart) – Life-threatening mucositis, especially esophagitis and pneumonitis occurred in a trial in which Gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 to patients with non-small cell lung cancer for up to 6 consecutive weeks concurrently with thoracic radiation.

Non-concurrent (given greater than 7 days apart) – Excessive toxicity has not been observed when Gemcitabine is administered more than 7 days before or after radiation. Radiation recall has been reported in patients who receive Gemcitabine after prior radiation.

5.8 Capillary Leak Syndrome

Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) with severe consequences has been reported in patients receiving Gemcitabine as a single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Discontinue Gemcitabine if CLS develops during therapy.  

Adverse Reactions

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in another section of the label

Schedule-Dependent Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Pulmonary Toxicity and Respiratory Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Hepatic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Embryo-fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Use in Specific Populations (8.1), and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]
Exacerbation of Radiation Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Capillary Leak Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Single-Agent Use:

The data described below reflect exposure to Gemcitabine as a single agent administered at doses between 800 mg/m2 to 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes intravenously, once weekly, in 979 patients with a variety of malignancies. The most common (≥20%) adverse reactions of single-agent Gemcitabine are nausea/vomiting, anemia, increased ALT, increased AST, neutropenia, increased alkaline phosphatase, proteinuria, fever, hematuria, rash, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, and edema. The most common (≥5%) Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions were neutropenia, nausea/vomiting; increased ALT, increase alkaline phosphatase, anemia, increased AST, and thrombocytopenia. Approximately 10% of the 979 patients discontinued Gemcitabine due to adverse reactions. Adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Gemcitabine in 2% of 979 patients were cardiovascular adverse events (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, arrhythmia, and hypertension) and adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Gemcitabine in less than 1% of the 979 patients were anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, fever, rash, dyspnea, hemorrhage, infection, stomatitis, somnolence, flu-like syndrome, and edema.

Table 5 presents the incidence of adverse reactions reported in 979 patients with various malignancies receiving single-agent Gemcitabine across 5 clinical trials. Table 5 includes all clinical adverse reactions, reported in at least 10% of patients. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Table 5: Selected Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Events in Patients Receiving Single-Agent Gemcitabinea
a   Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b   N=699-974; all patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data.
c    Regardless of causality.
d   For approximately 60% of patients, non-laboratory adverse events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

All Patientsb

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryc

 Hematologic

   Anemia

   Neutropenia

   Thrombocytopenia

 

 

68

63

24

 

 

7

19

4

 

 

1

6

1

 Hepatic

   Increased ALT

   Increased AST

   Increased Alkaline Phosphatase

   Hyperbilirubinemia

 

68

67

55

13

 

8

6

7

2

 

2

2

2

<1

 Renal

   Proteinuria

   Hematuria

   Increased BUN

   Increased Creatinine

 

45

35

16

8

 

<1

<1

0

<1

 

0

0

0

0

Non-laboratoryd

   Nausea and Vomiting

   Fever

   Rash

   Dyspnea

   Diarrhea

   Hemorrhage

   Infection

   Alopecia

   Stomatitis

   Somnolence

   Paresthesias

 

69

41

30

23

19

17

16

15

11

11

10

 

13

2

<1

3

1

<1

1

<1

<1

<1

<1

 

1

0

0

<1

0

<1

<1

0

0

<1

0

Transfusion requirements – Red blood cell transfusions (19%); platelet transfusions (<1%)
Fever – Fever occurred in the absence of clinical infection and frequently in combination with other flu-like symptoms.
Pulmonary – Dyspnea unrelated to underlying disease and sometimes accompanied by bronchospasm.
Edema – Edema (13%), peripheral edema (20%), and generalized edema (<1%); <1% of patients discontinued Gemcitabine due to edema.
Flu-like Symptoms – Characterized by fever, asthenia, anorexia, headache, cough, chills, myalgia, asthenia insomnia, rhinitis, sweating, and/or malaise (19%); <1% of patients discontinued Gemcitabine due to flu-like symptoms
Infection – Sepsis (<1%)
Extravasation – Injection-site reactions (4%)
Allergic – Bronchospasm (<2%); anaphylactoid reactions [see Contraindications (4)].

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer:

Table 6 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of Gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of Gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=262) administered in 28-day cycles as compared to cisplatin alone (n=260) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Patients randomized to Gemcitabine plus cisplatin received a median of 4 cycles of treatment and those randomized to cisplatin received a median of 2 cycles of treatment. In this trial, the requirement for dose adjustments (>90% versus 16%), discontinuation of treatment for adverse reactions (15% versus 8%), and the proportion of patients hospitalized (36% versus 23%) were all higher for patients receiving Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to those receiving cisplatin alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (9/262 versus 2/260), sepsis (4% versus 1%), Grade 3 cardiac dysrhythmias (3% versus <1%) were all higher in the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm compared to the cisplatin alone arm. The two-drug combination was more myelosuppressive with 4 (1.5%) possibly treatment-related deaths, including 3 resulting from myelosuppression with infection and one case of renal failure associated with pancytopenia and infection. No deaths due to treatment were reported on the cisplatin arm.

Table 6: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Single-Agent Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]a
a   National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) for severity grading.
b   N=217-253; all Gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
c   N=213-248; all cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
d   Regardless of causality.
e   Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Percent transfusions are not CTC-graded events.
f   Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb

Cisplatinc

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryd

 Hematologic

   Anemia

   RBC Transfusione

   Neutropenia

   Thrombocytopenia

   Platelet Transfusionse

   Lymphopenia

 

 

89

39

79

85

21

75

 

 

22

 

22

25

 

25

 

 

3

 

35

25

 

18

 

 

67

13

20

13

<1

51

 

 

6

 

3

3

 

12

 

 

1

 

1

1

 

5

Hepatic

   Increased

Transaminases

   Increased Alkaline
Phosphatase

 

22

 

19

 

 

2

 

1

 

 

1

 

0

 

 

10

 

13

 

 

1

 

0

 

 

0

 

0

 

Renal

   Proteinuria

   Hematuria

   Elevated Creatinine

 

23

15

38

 

0

0

4

 

0

0

<1

 

18

13

31

 

0

0

2

 

0

0

<1

Other Laboratory

   Hyperglycemia

   Hypomagnesemia

   Hypocalcemia

 

30

30

18

 

4

4

2

 

0

3

0

 

23

17

7

 

3

2

0

 

0

0

<1

Non-laboratoryf

   Nausea

   Vomiting

   Alopecia

   Neuro Motor

   Diarrhea

   Neuro Sensory

   Infection

   Fever

   Neuro Cortical

   Neuro Mood

   Local

   Neuro Headache

   Stomatitis

   Hemorrhage

   Hypotension

   Rash

 

93

78

53

35

24

23

18

16

16

16

15

14

14

14

12

11

 

25

11

1

12

2

1

3

0

3

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

 

2

12

0

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

87

71

33

15

13

18

12

5

9

10

6

7

5

4

7

3

 

20

10

0

3

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

 

<1

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 7 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of Gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of Gemcitabine plus cisplatin (n=69) administered in 21-day cycles as compared to etoposide plus cisplatin alone (n=66) in patients receiving first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. A listing of clinically significant adverse reactions is provided following the table.

Patients in the Gemcitabine cisplatin (GC) arm received a median of 5 cycles and those in the etoposide/cisplatin (EC) arm received a median of 4 cycles. The majority of patients receiving more than one cycle of treatment required dose adjustments; 81% in the (GC) arm and 68% in the (EC) arm. The incidence of hospitalizations for treatment-related adverse events was 22% (GC) and 27% in the (EC) arm. The proportion of discontinuation of treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions was higher for patients in the (GC) arm (14% versus 8%). The proportion of patients hospitalized for febrile neutropenia was lower in the (GC) arm (7% versus 12%). There was one death attributed to treatment, a patient with febrile neutropenia and renal failure, which occurred in the Gemcitabine/cisplatin arm.

Table 7: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Etoposide plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLCa
a   Grade based on criteria from the World Health Organization (WHO).
b   N=67-69; all Gemcitabine plus cisplatin patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Gemcitabine at 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days.
c   N=57-63; all cisplatin plus etoposide patients with laboratory or non-laboratory data. Cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide at 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
d   Regardless of causality.
e   WHO grading scale not applicable to proportion of patients with transfusions.
   Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.
g   Pain data were not collected.

Gemcitabine plus Cisplatinb

Etoposide plus Cisplatinc

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryd

 Hematologic

   Anemia

   RBC Transfusionse

   Neutropenia

   Thrombocytopenia

   Platelet Transfusionse

 

 

88

29

88

81

3

22

 

36

39

 

 

 

0

 

28

16

 

 

 

77

21

87

45

8

 

 

13

 

20

8

 

 

 

2

 

56

5

 

 Hepatic

   Increased ALT

   Increased AST

   Increased Alkaline
Phosphatase

   Bilirubin

 

6

3

16

 

0

 

0

0

0

 

0

  

0

0

0

 

0

 

12

11

11

 

0

 

0

0

0

 

0

 

0

0

0

 

0

 Renal

   Proteinuria

   Hematuria

   BUN

   Creatinine

 

12

22

6

2

 

0

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

0

 

5

10

4

2

 

0

0

0

0

 

0

0

0

0

Non-laboratoryf,g

   Nausea and Vomiting

   Fever

   Rash

   Dyspnea

   Diarrhea

   Hemorrhage

   Infection

   Alopecia

   Stomatitis

   Somnolence

   Paresthesias

 

96

6

10

1

14

9

28

77

20

3

38

 

35

0

0

0

1

0

3

13

4

0

0

 

4

0

0

1

1

3

1

0

0

0

0

 

86

3

3

3

13

3

21

92

18

3

16

 

19

0

0

0

0

0

8

51

2

2

2

 

7

0

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

0

Flu-like syndrome: 3% in the Gemcitabine/cisplatin arm versus none in the etoposide/cisplatin arm.
Edema: 12% in the Gemcitabine/cisplatin arm versus 2% in the etoposide/cisplatin arm.

Breast Cancer

Table 8 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of Gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm, reported in a randomized trial of Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel (n=262) compared to paclitaxel alone (n=259) for the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in women who received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in the adjuvant/neo-adjuvant setting or for whom anthracyclines were contraindicated [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

The requirement for dose reduction of paclitaxel were higher for patients in the Gemcitabine/paclitaxel arm (5% versus 2%). The number of paclitaxel doses omitted (<1%), the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (7% versus 5%), and the number of treatment-related deaths (1 patient in each arm) were similar between the two arms.

Table 8: Per-Patient Incidence of Selected Adverse Reactions from Comparative Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Single-Agent Paclitaxel in Breast Cancera Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
a   Severity grade based on National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0
b   Regardless of causality.
c   Non-laboratory events were graded only if assessed to be possibly drug-related.

Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel

(N=262)

Paclitaxel

(N=259)

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryb

   Hematologic

        Anemia

        Neutropenia

        Thrombocytopenia

 

 

69

69

26

 

 

6

31

5

 

 

1

17

<1

 

 

51

31

7

 

 

3

4

<1

 

 

<1

7

<1

   Hepatobiliary

        Increased ALT

        Increased AST

 

18

16

 

5

2

 

<1

0

 

6

5

 

<1

<1

 

0

0

Non-laboratoryc

        Alopecia

        Neuropathy-sensory

        Nausea

        Fatigue

        Vomiting

        Diarrhea

        Anorexia

        Neuropathy-motor

        Stomatitis/pharyngitis

        Fever

        Rash/desquamation

 

90

64

50

40

29

20

17

15

13

13

11

 

14

5

1

6

2

3

0

2

1

<1

<1

 

4

<1

0

<1

0

0

0

<1

<1

0

<1

 

92

58

31

28

15

13

12

10

8

3

5

 

19

3

2

1

2

2

<1

<1

<1

0

0

 

3

0

0

<1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

The following clinically relevant, Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions occurred with a higher incidence in the Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel arm compared with the paclitaxel arm: febrile neutropenia (5.0% versus 1.2%) and dyspnea (1.9% versus 0).

Ovarian Cancer

Table 9 presents the incidence of selected adverse reactions, occurring in ≥10% of Gemcitabine-treated patients and at a higher incidence in the Gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm, reported in a randomized trial of Gemcitabine plus carboplatin (n=175) compared to carboplatin alone (n=174) for the second-line treatment of ovarian cancer in women with disease that had relapsed more than 6 months following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional clinically significant adverse reactions, occurring in less than 10% of patients, are provided following Table 9.

The proportion of patients with dose adjustments for carboplatin (1.8% versus 3.8%), doses of carboplatin omitted (0.2% versus 0), and discontinuing treatment for treatment-related adverse reactions (10.9% versus 9.8%), were similar between arms. Dose adjustment for Gemcitabine occurred in 10.4% of patients and Gemcitabine dose was omitted in 13.7% of patients in the Gemcitabine/carboplatin arm.

Table 9: Per-Patient Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer Occurring at Higher Incidence in Gemcitabine-Treated Patients [Between Arm Difference of ≥5% (All Grades) or ≥2% (Grades 3-4)]
a    Grade based on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) Version 2.0.
b    Regardless of causality.
c    Percent of patients receiving transfusions. Transfusions are not CTC-graded events. Blood transfusions included both packed red blood cells and whole blood.

 

Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin
(N=175)

Carboplatin
(N=174)

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

All Grades

Grade 3

Grade 4

Laboratoryb

  Hematologic

    Neutropenia

    Anemia

    Thrombocytopenia

    RBC Transfusionsc
    Platelet Transfusionsc



90
86
78
38
9



42
22
30



29
6
5



58
75
57
15
3



11
9
10



1
2
1

Non-laboratoryb
    Nausea 

    Alopecia

    Vomiting
    Constipation
    Fatigue
    Diarrhea

    Stomatitis/pharyngitis


69
49
46
42
40
25
22

6
0
6
6
3
3
<1

0
0
0
1
<1
0
0

61
17
36
37
32
14
13

3
0
2
3
5
<1
0

0
0
<1
0
0
0
0

Hematopoietic growth factors were administered more frequently in the Gemcitabine-containing arm: granulocyte growth factors (23.6% and 10.1%) and erythropoietic agents (7.3% and 3.9%).

The following clinically relevant, Grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the Gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm: dyspnea (3.4% versus 2.9%), febrile neutropenia (1.1% versus 0), hemorrhagic event (2.3% versus 1.1%), motor neuropathy (1.1% versus 0.6%), and rash/desquamation (0.6% versus 0).

Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Gemcitabine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular - Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, Arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias

Vascular Disorders - Peripheral vasculitis, gangrene, and capillary leak syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

Skin – Cellulitis, severe skin reactions, including desquamation and bullous skin eruptions

Hepatic – Hepatic failure, hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Pulmonary - Interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Drug Interactions

No drug interaction studies have been conducted.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Risk Summary

Gemcitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on its mechanism of action, Gemcitabine is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects. Gemcitabine was teratogenic, embryotoxic, and fetotoxic in mice and rabbits. If Gemcitabine is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking Gemcitabine, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.

Animal Data

Gemcitabine is embryotoxic causing fetal malformations (cleft palate, incomplete ossification) at doses of 1.5 mg/kg/day in mice (approximately 0.005 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Gemcitabine is fetotoxic causing fetal malformations (fused pulmonary artery, absence of gall bladder) at doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day in rabbits (about 0.002 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Embryotoxicity was characterized by decreased fetal viability, reduced live litter sizes, and developmental delays [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Gemcitabine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Gemcitabine have not been established in pediatric patients. The safety and pharmacokinetics of Gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial in pediatric patients with refractory leukemia. The maximum tolerated dose was 10 mg/m2/min for 360 minutes three times weekly followed by a one-week rest period. The safety and activity of Gemcitabine were evaluated in a trial of pediatric patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (22 patients) and acute myelogenous leukemia (10 patients) at a dose of 10 mg/m2/min administered over 360 minutes three times weekly followed by a one-week rest period. Toxicities observed included bone marrow suppression, febrile neutropenia, elevation of serum transaminases, nausea, and rash/desquamation. No meaningful clinical activity was observed in this trial.

Geriatric Use

In clinical studies of Gemcitabine, enrolling 979 patients with various cancers who received Gemcitabine as a single agent, no overall differences in safety were observed between patients aged 65 and older and younger patients, with the exception of a higher rate of Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia in older patients as compared to younger patients. In a randomized trial in women with ovarian cancer, 175 women received Gemcitabine plus carboplatin, of which 29% were age 65 years or older. Similar effectiveness was observed between older and younger women. There was significantly higher Grade 3–4 neutropenia in women 65 years of age or older.

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by age, however there are no recommended dose adjustments based on patients’ age [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Renal Impairment

No clinical studies have been conducted with Gemcitabine in patients with decreased renal function.

Hepatic Impairment

No clinical studies have been conducted with Gemcitabine in patients with decreased hepatic function.

Gender

Gemcitabine clearance is affected by gender [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In single-agent studies of Gemcitabine, women, especially older women, were more likely not to proceed to a subsequent cycle and to experience Grade 3–4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Overdosage

Myelosuppression, paresthesias, and severe rash were the principal toxicities seen when a single dose as high as 5700 mg/m2 was administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 2 weeks to several patients in a dose-escalation study.

Gemcitabine Description

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor that exhibits antitumor activity. Gemcitabine HCl is 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorocytidine monohydrochloride (β-isomer).

The structural formula is as follows:

The empirical formula for Gemcitabine HCl is C9H11F2N3O4 • HCl. It has a molecular weight of 299.66.

Gemcitabine HCl is a white to off-white solid. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol and polar organic solvents.

The clinical formulation is supplied in a sterile form for intravenous use only. Vials of Gemcitabine for Injection, USP contain either 200 mg or 1 g of Gemcitabine HCl (expressed as free base) formulated with mannitol (200 mg or 1 g, respectively) and sodium acetate (12.5 mg or 62.5 mg, respectively) as a sterile lyophilized powder. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.

Gemcitabine - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Gemcitabine kills cells undergoing DNA synthesis and blocks the progression of cells through the G1/S-phase boundary. Gemcitabine is metabolized by nucleoside kinases to diphosphate (dFdCDP) and triphosphate (dFdCTP) nucleosides. Gemcitabine diphosphate inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reactions that generate deoxynucleoside triphosphates for DNA synthesis, resulting in reductions in deoxynucleotide concentrations, including dCTP. Gemcitabine triphosphate competes with dCTP for incorporation into DNA. The reduction in the intracellular concentration of dCTP by the action of the diphosphate enhances the incorporation of Gemcitabine triphosphate into DNA (self-potentiation). After the Gemcitabine nucleotide is incorporated into DNA, only one additional nucleotide is added to the growing DNA strands, which eventually results in the initiation of apoptotic cell death.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption and Distribution

The pharmacokinetics of Gemcitabine were examined in 353 patients, with various solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using data from patients treated for varying durations of therapy given weekly with periodic rest weeks and using both short infusions (<70 minutes) and long infusions (70 to 285 minutes). The total Gemcitabine dose varied from 500 to 3600 mg/m2.

The volume of distribution was increased with infusion length. Volume of distribution of Gemcitabine was 50 L/m2 following infusions lasting <70 minutes. For long infusions, the volume of distribution rose to 370 L/m2.

Gemcitabine pharmacokinetics are linear and are described by a 2-compartment model. Population pharmacokinetic analyses of combined single and multiple dose studies showed that the volume of distribution of Gemcitabine was significantly influenced by duration of infusion and gender. Gemcitabine plasma protein binding is negligible.

Metabolism

Gemcitabine disposition was studied in 5 patients who received a single 1000 mg/m2/30 minute infusion of radiolabeled drug. Within one (1) week, 92% to 98% of the dose was recovered, almost entirely in the urine. Gemcitabine (<10%) and the inactive uracil metabolite, 2´-deoxy-2´,2´-difluorouridine (dFdU), accounted for 99% of the excreted dose. The metabolite dFdU is also found in plasma.

The active metabolite, Gemcitabine triphosphate, can be extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The half-life of the terminal phase for Gemcitabine triphosphate from mononuclear cells ranges from 1.7 to 19.4 hours.

Elimination

Clearance of Gemcitabine was affected by age and gender. The lower clearance in women and the elderly results in higher concentrations of Gemcitabine for any given dose. Differences in either clearance or volume of distribution based on patient characteristics or the duration of infusion result in changes in half-life and plasma concentrations. Table 10 shows plasma clearance and half-life of Gemcitabine following short infusions for typical patients by age and gender.

Table 10: Gemcitabine Clearance and Half-Life for the “Typical” Patient
a   Half-life for patients receiving <70 minute infusion.

Age

Clearance
Men
(L/hr/m2)

Clearance
Women
(L/hr/m2)

Half-Lifea
Men
(min)

Half-Life
Women
(min)

29

92.2

69.4

42

49

45

75.7

57.0

48

57

65

55.1

41.5

61

73

79

40.7

30.7

79

94

Gemcitabine half-life for short infusions ranged from 42 to 94 minutes, and the value for long infusions varied from 245 to 638 minutes, depending on age and gender, reflecting a greatly increased volume of distribution with longer infusions.

Drug Interactions

When Gemcitabine (1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 on Day 1) were administered in NSCLC patients, the clearance of Gemcitabine on Day 1 was 128 L/hr/m2 and on Day 8 was 107 L/hr/m2. Analysis of data from metastatic breast cancer patients shows that, on average, Gemcitabine has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics (clearance and half-life) of paclitaxel and paclitaxel has little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of Gemcitabine. Data from NSCLC patients demonstrate that Gemcitabine and carboplatin given in combination does not alter the pharmacokinetics of Gemcitabine or carboplatin compared to administration of either single agent. However, due to wide confidence intervals and small sample size, interpatient variability may be observed.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Gemcitabine have not been conducted. Gemcitabine was mutagenic in an in vitro mouse lymphoma (L5178Y) assay and was clastogenic in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Gemcitabine IP doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day (about 1/700 the human dose on a mg/m2 basis) in male mice had an effect on fertility with moderate to severe hypospermatogenesis, decreased fertility, and decreased implantations. In female mice, fertility was not affected but maternal toxicities were observed at 1.5 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/200 the human dose on a mg/m2 basis) and fetotoxicity or embryolethality was observed at 0.25 mg/kg/day administered intravenously (about 1/1300 the human dose on a mg/m2 basis).

Clinical Studies

Ovarian Cancer

The safety and efficacy of Gemcitabine was studied in a randomized trial of 356 women with advanced ovarian cancer that had relapsed at least 6 months after first-line platinum-based therapy. Patients were randomized to receive either Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and carboplatin AUC 4 administered after Gemcitabine infusion on Day 1 of each cycle (n=178) or to carboplatin AUC 5 administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=178). The primary efficacy outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS).

Patient characteristics are shown in Table 11. The addition of Gemcitabine to carboplatin resulted in statistically significant improvements in PFS and overall response rate as shown in Table 12 and Figure 1. Approximately 75% of patients in each arm received additional chemotherapy for disease progression; 13 of 120 patients in the carboplatin alone arm received Gemcitabine for treatment of disease progression. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the treatment arms.

Table 11: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer - Baseline Demographics and Clinical Characteristics
a   5 patients on Gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 4 patients on carboplatin arm with no baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status
b   2 patients on Gemcitabine plus carboplatin arm and 1 on carboplatin arm had platinum-free interval <6 months.

 

Gemcitabine/Carboplatin

Carboplatin

Number of randomized patients

178

178

Median age, years
  Range

59
36 to 78

58
21 to 81

Baseline ECOG performance status 0-1a

94%

95%

Disease Status

   Evaluable
   Bidimensionally measurable

8%
92%

3%
96%

Platinum-free intervalb 

   6-12 months
   >12 months

40%
59%

40%
60%

First-line therapy
   Platinum-taxane combination
   Platinum-non-taxane combination
   Platinum monotherapy

70%
29%
1%

71%
28%
1%

Table 12: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer - Efficacy Outcomes
a    CI=confidence interval
b    Complete response
c    Partial response plus partial response, non-measurable disease
d    Log Rank, unadjusted
e    Chi Square
f     Independently reviewed cohort - Gemcitabine/Carboplatin (n=121), carboplatin (n=101); independent reviewers unable to measure disease detected by sonography or physical exam

 

Gemcitabine/Carboplatin
(N=178)

Carboplatin
(N=178)

Progression-free Survival

   Median (95% CIa) months

8.6 (8.0, 9.7)

5.8 (5.2, 7.1)

   Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

0.72 (0.57, 0.90)

  p-valueb

p=0.0038

Overall Survival

   Median (95% CI) months

18.0 (16.2, 20.3)

17.3 (15.2, 19.3)

   Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

0.98 (0.78, 1.24)

    p-valueb

p=0.8977

Investigator Reviewed

Overall Response Rate

47.2%

30.9%

   p-valuee

p=0.0016

   CRd   
   PR plus PRNMe

14.6%
32.6%

6.2%
24.7%

   Independently Reviewed 
   Overall Response Rate   

46.3%

35.6%

   p-valuee 

p=0.11

   CRd     
   PR plus PRNMe

9.1%
37.2%

4.0%
31.7%

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Progression Free Survival in Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Carboplatin in Ovarian Cancer (N=356)

Breast Cancer

The safety and efficacy of Gemcitabine were evaluated in a multi-national, randomized, open-label trial conducted in women receiving initial treatment for metastatic breast cancer in women who have received prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy unless clinically contraindicated. Patients were randomized to receive Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 administered prior to Gemcitabine on Day 1 of each cycle (n=267) or to receive paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 was administered on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle (n=262). The primary efficacy outcome measure was time to documented disease progression.

A total of 529 patients were enrolled; 267 were randomized to Gemcitabine and paclitaxel and 262 to paclitaxel alone. Demographic and baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms (see Table 13). Efficacy results are presented in Table 13 and Figure 2. The addition of Gemcitabine to paclitaxel resulted in statistically significant improvement in time to documented disease progression and overall response rate compared to paclitaxel alone. There was no significant difference in overall survival.

Table 13: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel in Breast Cancer
a    Karnofsky Performance Status.
b   These represent reconciliation of investigator and Independent Review Committee assessments according to a predefined algorithm.
c    Based on the ITT population.

 

Gemcitabine/Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel

Number of patients

267

262

Demographic/Entry Characteristics
    Median age (years)
    Range

53
26 to 83

52
26 to 75

Metastatic disease

97%

97%

Baseline KPSa ≥90

70%

74%

Number of tumor sites
    1-2
    ≥3

57%
43%

59%
41%

Visceral disease

73%

73%

Prior anthracycline

97%

96%

Efficacy Outcomes

 

 

Time to Documented Disease Progressionb

 

 

    Median in months
    (95% CI)

5.2
(4.2, 5.6)

2.9
(2.6, 3.7)

    Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

0.650 (0.524, 0.805)

    p-value

p<0.0001

Overall Survivalc

 

 

    Median Survival in months 
    (95% CI)

18.6
(16.5, 20.7)

15.8
(14.1, 17.3)

   Hazard Ratio (95% CI)

0.86 (0.71, 1.04)

   p-value

Not Significant

Overall Response Rate
    (95% CI)

    p-value

40.8%
(34.9, 46.7)

22.1%
(17.1, 27.2)

p<0.0001

Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier Curve of Time to Documented Disease Progression in Gemcitabine plus Paclitaxel versus Paclitaxel Breast Cancer Study (N=529)

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

The safety and efficacy of Gemcitabine was evaluated in two randomized, multicenter trials.

28-Day Schedule

A multinational, randomized trial compared Gemcitabine plus cisplatin to cisplatin alone in the treatment of patients with inoperable Stage IIIA, IIIB, or IV NSCLC who had not received prior chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 administered on Day 1 of each cycle or to receive cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle. The primary efficacy outcome measure was overall survival. A total of 522 patients were enrolled at clinical centers in Europe, the US, and Canada. Patient demographics and baseline characteristics (shown in Table 13) were similar between arms with the exception of histologic subtype of NSCLC, with 48% of patients on the cisplatin arm and 37% of patients on the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm having adenocarcinoma. Efficacy results are presented in Table 13 and Figure 3 for overall survival.

21-Day Schedule

A randomized (1:1), multicenter trial was conducted in 135 patients with Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Patients were randomized to receive Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8, and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle or to receive etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on Days 1, 2, and 3 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 of a 21-day cycle.

There was no significant difference in survival between the two treatment arms (Log rank p=0.18, two-sided). The median survival was 8.7 months for the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm versus 7.0 months for the etoposide plus cisplatin arm. Median time to disease progression for the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 5.0 months compared to 4.1 months on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Log rank p=0.015, two-sided). The objective response rate for the Gemcitabine plus cisplatin arm was 33% compared to 14% on the etoposide plus cisplatin arm (Fisher’s Exact p=0.01, two-sided).

Figure 3: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve in Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin versus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC Study (N=522)

Table 14: Randomized Trials of Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin in Patients with NSCLC
a    28-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days; Single-agent cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 28 days.
b   21-day schedule — Gemcitabine plus cisplatin: Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 every 21 days; Etoposide plus Cisplatin: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m2 on Days 1, 2, and 3 every 21 days.
c   N/A Not applicable.
d   Karnofsky Performance Status.
e    CI=confidence intervals
f     p-value two-sided Fisher’s Exact test for difference in binomial proportions; log rank test for time-to-event analyses.

Trial

28-day Schedulea

21-day Scheduleb

Treatment Arm

Gemcitabine plus
Cisplatin

Cisplatin

Gemcitabine plus
Cisplatin

Etoposide plus
Cisplatin

Number of patients

Demographic/Entry
Characteristics

   Male

260

 

 

70%

262

 

 

71%

69

 

 

93%

66

 

 

92%

Median age, years
   Range

62
36 to 88

63
35 to 79

58
33 to 76

60
35 to 75

Stage IIIA
Stage IIIB
Stage IV

7%
26%
67%

7%
23%
70%

N/Ac

48%
52%

N/Ac

52%
49%

Baseline KPSd  70 to 80
Baseline KPSd  90 to 100

41%
57%

44%
55%

45%
55%

52%
49%

Efficacy Outcomes

Survival
   Median in months
   (95% CIe) months

9.0
8.2, 11.0

7.6
6.6, 8.8

8.7
7.8, 10.1

7.0
6.0, 9.7

   p-valuef

p=0.008

p=0.18

Time to Disease Progression
   Median in months
   (95% CIe) months

5.2
4.2, 5.7

3.7
3.0, 4.3

5.0
4.2, 6.4

4.1
2.4, 4.5

   p-valuef

p=0.009

p=0.015

Tumor Response

26%

10%

33%

14%

   p-valuef

p<0.0001

p=0.01

Pancreatic Cancer

The safety and efficacy of Gemcitabine was evaluated in two trials, a randomized, single-blind, two-arm, active-controlled trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy and in a single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial conducted in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with 5-FU or a 5-FU-containing regimen. The first trial randomized patients to receive Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles (n=63) or to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 600 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly (n=63). In the second trial, all patients received Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly for 7 weeks followed by a one-week rest, then once weekly dosing for 3 consecutive weeks every 28-days in subsequent cycles.

The primary efficacy outcome measure in both trials was “clinical benefit response”. A patient was considered to have had a clinical benefit response if either occurred:

The patient achieved a ≥50% reduction in pain intensity (Memorial Pain Assessment Card) or analgesic consumption, or a 20-point or greater improvement in performance status (Karnofsky Performance Status) for a period of at least 4 consecutive weeks, without showing any sustained worsening in any of the other parameters. Sustained worsening was defined as 4 consecutive weeks with either any increase in pain intensity or analgesic consumption or a 20-point decrease in performance status occurring during the first 12 weeks of therapy.

      OR

The patient was stable on all of the aforementioned parameters, and showed a marked, sustained weight gain (≥7% increase maintained for ≥4 weeks) not due to fluid accumulation.

The randomized trial enrolled 126 patients across 17 sites in the US and Canada. The demographic and entry characteristics were similar between the arms (Table 15). The efficacy outcome results are shown in Table 15 and for overall survival in Figure 4. Patients treated with Gemcitabine had statistically significant increases in clinical benefit response, survival, and time to disease progression compared to those randomized to receive 5-FU. No confirmed objective tumor responses were observed in either treatment arm.

Table 15: Randomized Trial of Gemcitabine versus 5-Fluorouracil in Pancreatic Cancer
a   Karnofsky Performance Status.
b   p-value for clinical benefit response calculated using the two-sided test for difference in binomial proportions. All other p-values are calculated using log rank test.

 

Gemcitabine

5-FU

Number of patients
Demographic/Entry Characteristics
   Male

63 

54%

63 

54%

Median age
   Range

62 years
37 to 79

61 years
36 to 77

Stage IV disease

71%

76%

Baseline KPS ≤70

70%

68%

Efficacy Outcomes

Clinical benefit response

22.2%

4.8%

p-valueb

p=0.004

Survival
   Median
   (95% CI)

5.7 months
(4.7, 6.9)

4.2 months
(3.1, 5.1)

   p-valueb

p=0.0009

Time to Disease Progression   
   Median
   (95% CI)

2.1 months
(1.9, 3.4)

0.9 months
(0.9, 1.1)

   p-valueb

p=0.0013

Figure 4: Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve

How Supplied/Storage and Handling

How Supplied

Gemcitabine for Injection, USP is available in sterile single-use vials individually packaged in a carton containing:

200 mg white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a 10-mL size sterile single-use vial - NDC 0409-0185-01

1 g white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a 50-mL size sterile single-use vial - NDC 0409-0186-01

Storage and Handling

Unopened vials of Gemcitabine for Injection, USP are stable until the expiration date indicated on the package when stored at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) and that allows for excursions between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature] [see Dosage and Administration (2.5 and 2.6)].

Patient Counseling Information

Advise patients of the risks of low blood cell counts and the potential need for blood transfusions and increased susceptibility to infections. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of signs or symptoms of infection, fever, prolonged or unexpected bleeding, bruising, or shortness of breath [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Advise patients of the risks of pulmonary toxicity including respiratory failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for development of shortness of breath, wheezing, or cough [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Advise patients of the risks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and associated renal failure. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for changes in the color or volume of urine output or for increased bruising or bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Advise patients of the risks of hepatic toxicity including liver failure and death. Instruct patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider for signs of jaundice or for pain/tenderness in the right upper abdominal quadrant [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

 

                                                                                 EN-3299

Manufactured by:
Zydus Hospira Oncology Private Ltd.
Ahmedabad 382-213, Gujarat, India
for Hospira, Inc.
Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA
Product of India
                                                                                                                                                                 

CA-2901

 

CA-2902

 

Gemcitabine 
Gemcitabine hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0409-0185
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Gemcitabine HYDROCHLORIDE (Gemcitabine) Gemcitabine 38 mg  in 1 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
MANNITOL  
SODIUM ACETATE  
HYDROCHLORIC ACID  
SODIUM HYDROXIDE  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0409-0185-01 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE in 1 CARTON
1 5 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA078339 07/25/2011
Gemcitabine 
Gemcitabine hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0409-0186
Route of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Gemcitabine HYDROCHLORIDE (Gemcitabine) Gemcitabine 38 mg  in 1 mL
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
MANNITOL  
SODIUM ACETATE  
HYDROCHLORIC ACID  
SODIUM HYDROXIDE  
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0409-0186-01 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE in 1 CARTON
1 25 mL in 1 VIAL, SINGLE-USE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA078339 07/25/2011
Labeler - Hospira, Inc. (141588017)
Revised: 05/2015
 
Hospira, Inc.
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