Chlorpromazine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Chlorpromazine is also known as: Ormazine, Thorazine
Chlorpromazine Pregnancy Warnings
Chlorpromazine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the FDA. The drug has been frequently used in all stages of pregnancy for treatment of nausea and vomiting. Studies of a possible teratogenic effect have been conflicting. Use during labor is occasionally associated with hypotension which can be dangerous to both mother and fetus. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Chlorpromazine should probably be avoided during labor. It should otherwise be given during pregnancy only when benefit outweighs risk.
Chlorpromazine Breastfeeding Warnings
Chlorpromazine is excreted into human milk in small amounts. The American Academy of Pediatrics describes chlorpromazine as a drug "whose effect on nursing infants is unknown but may be of concern". The Academy also notes drowsiness and lethargy in the infant and galactorrhea in the adult as reasons for concern.
References for pregnancy information
- Heinonen O, Slone D, Shapiro S; Kaufman DW ed. "Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy." Littleton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc. (1977): 297
- Rumeau-Rouquette C, Goujard J, Huel G "Posible teratogenic effect of phenothiazines in human beings." Teratology 15 (1977): 57-64
- O'Connor M, Johnson GH, James DI "Intrauterine effect of phenothiazines." Med J Aust 1 (1981): 416-7
- Ananth J "Congenital malformations with psychopharmacologic agents." Compr Psychiatry 16 (1975): 437-45
References for breastfeeding information
- Committee on Drugs, 1992 to 1993 "The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 93 (1994): 137-50
- Wiles DH, Orr MW, Kolakowska T "Chlorpromazine levels in plasma and milk of nursing mothers." Br J Clin Pharmacol 5 (1978): 272-3
- Kuller JA, Katz VL, Mcmahon MJ, Wells SR, Bashford RA "Pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disease in pregnancy and lactation: fetal and neonatal effects." Obstet Gynecol 87 (1996): 789-94
- Ohkubo T, Shimoyama R, Sugawara K "Determination of chlorpromazine in human breast milk and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography." J Chromatogr 614 (1993): 328-32
- Roberts RJ, Blumer JL, Gorman RL, et al "American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs: Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk." Pediatrics 84 (1989): 924-36
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