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Quetiapine Fumarate

Pronunciation

Class: Atypical Antipsychotics
VA Class: CN709
Chemical Name: (E)-2-Butenedioate-2-[2-(4-dibenzo[b,f] [1,4]thiazepin-11-yl-1-piperazinyl)ethoxy]-ethanol (2:1) (salt)
Molecular Formula: (C21H25N3O2S)2C4H4O4
CAS Number: 111974-72-2
Brands: Seroquel

Warning(s)

Special Alerts:

[Posted 02/22/2011] ISSUE: FDA notified healthcare professionals that the Pregnancy section of drug labels for the entire class of antipsychotic drugs has been updated. The new drug labels now contain more and consistent information about the potential risk for abnormal muscle movements (extrapyramidal signs or EPS) and withdrawal symptoms in newborns whose mothers were treated with these drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy.

The symptoms of EPS and withdrawal in newborns may include agitation, abnormally increased or decreased muscle tone, tremor, sleepiness, severe difficulty breathing, and difficulty in feeding. In some newborns, the symptoms subside within hours or days and do not require specific treatment; other newborns may require longer hospital stays.

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

RECOMMENDATION: Healthcare professionals should be aware of the effects of antipsychotic medications on newborns when the medications are used during pregnancy. Patients should not stop taking these medications if they become pregnant without talking to their healthcare professional, as abruptly stopping antipsychotic medications can cause significant complications for treatment. For more information visit the FDA website at: and .

[Posted 05/02/2007] FDA notified healthcare professionals that the Agency proposed that makers of all antidepressant medications update the existing black box warning on the prescribing information for their products to include warnings about the increased risks of suicidal thinking and behavior in young adults ages 18 to 24 years old during the first one to two months of treatment. The proposed labeling changes also state that scientific data did not show this increased risk in adults older than 24 years of age and that adults 65 years of age and older taking antidepressants have a decreased risk of suicidality. The proposed updates apply to the entire category of antidepressants. Individuals currently taking prescribed antidepressant medications should not stop taking them and should notify their healthcare professional if they have concerns. Manufacturers of antidepressant medications will have 30 days to submit their revised product labeling and revised Medication Guides to FDA for review. See the FDA press release for the list of products affected by the proposed antidepressant product labeling changes. For more information visit the FDA website at: , and .

Warning(s)

  • Increased Mortality in Geriatric Patients
  • Substantially higher mortality rate (4.5%) in geriatric patients with dementia-related psychosis receiving atypical antipsychotic agents (e.g., quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone) compared with those receiving placebo (2.6%).a 97 98

  • Most fatalities resulted from cardiac-related events (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infections (mostly pneumonia).a 97 98

  • Atypical antipsychotics are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.a 97 98 (See Increased Mortality in Geriatric Patients with Dementia-related Psychosis under Cautions.)

Introduction

Atypical or second-generation antipsychotic agent.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 26 27 28

Uses for Quetiapine Fumarate

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Schizophrenia

Symptomatic management of schizophrenia.1 2 3 4 5 6 18 22 23 26

Slideshow: Depression, the Risk of Suicide, and Treatment Options

Bipolar Disorder

Management (alone or in combination with lithium or divalproex sodium) of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder.1 a

Quetiapine Fumarate Dosage and Administration

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer orally, generally 2–3 times daily without regard to meals.1 25

When switching from other antipsychotic agents to quetiapine, abrupt discontinuance of previous agent may be acceptable for some patients with schizophrenia, but gradual discontinuance may be appropriate for others.1 In all cases, minimize period of overlapping antipsychotic administration.1

In patients being switched from long-acting (depot) parenteral antipsychotic therapy to oral quetiapine therapy, administer first oral dose in place of next scheduled depot injection of the long-acting preparation.1

Periodically reevaluate need for continuing any existing drug therapy for symptomatic relief of adverse extrapyramidal effects.1

Dosage

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Available as quetiapine fumarate; dosage is expressed in terms of quetiapine.1

Reinitiating therapy: In patients previously treated with quetiapine, dosage titration is not necessary if reinitiated after a drug-free period <1 week;1 if reinitiated after a drug-free period >1 week, generally titrate dosage as with initial therapy.1

Adults

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Schizophrenia
Oral

Initially, 25 mg twice daily.1 23

Increase dosage in increments of 25–50 mg 2 or 3 times daily on the second or third day, as tolerated, to a target dosage of 300–400 mg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses by the fourth day.1 23

Make subsequent dosage adjustments at intervals of not less than 2 days, usually in increments or decrements of 25–50 mg twice daily.1 20

Dosages ranging from 150–750 mg daily were effective in clinical trials.1 4 5 6 7 8 11 18 22 Dosages >300 mg daily usually do not result in greater efficacy, but dosages of 400–500 mg daily have been required in some patients.1

Optimum duration of therapy currently not known, but efficacy of maintenance therapy with antipsychotics is well established.1 22 Continue therapy in responsive patients as long as clinically necessary and tolerated but at lowest possible effective dosage; reassess need for continued therapy and optimal dosage periodically (e.g., at least annually).1 22

If discontinuance is considered, precautions include slow, gradual dose reduction over many months, more frequent clinician visits, and use of early intervention strategies.22

Bipolar Disorder
Acute Mania
Oral

Initially, 100 mg daily in 2 divided doses.1 Increase dosage (in increments of ≤100 mg daily in 2 divided doses) to 400 mg daily on the fourth day of therapy.1 Make subsequent adjustments in increments of ≤200 mg daily to reach a dosage of up to 800 mg daily by the sixth day of therapy.1

Majority of patients respond to 400–800 mg daily.1

Optimum duration not established; efficacy has been demonstrated in two 12-week monotherapy trials and one 3-week adjunct therapy trial.a If used for extended periods, periodically reevaluate long-term risks and benefits for the individual patient.1 a

Prescribing Limits

Adults

Schizophrenia
Oral

Safety of dosages >800 mg daily not established.1

Bipolar Disorder
Acute Mania
Oral

Safety of dosages >800 mg daily not established.1

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Initially, 25 mg daily; increase dosage by 25–50 mg daily according to clinical response and tolerability until an effective dosage is reached.1

Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustment necessary.1

Patients at Risk of Orthostatic Hypotension

Consider a slower rate of dosage titration and a lower target dosage in geriatric patients and in patients who are debilitated or have a predisposition to hypotensive reactions.1 Adjust dosage with caution.1

Initially, 25 mg twice daily to minimize risk of orthostatic hypotension and associated syncope.1 If hypotension occurs during dosage titration, return to previous dosage in titration schedule.1

Cautions for Quetiapine Fumarate

Contraindications

  • Known hypersensitivity to quetiapine or any ingredient in the formulation.1

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Increased Mortality in Geriatric Patients with Dementia-related Psychosis

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Possible increased risk of death with use of atypical antipsychotics in geriatric patients with dementia-related psychosis.a 97 98

Atypical antipsychotics are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.a 97 98 (See Boxed Warning and see Geriatric Use under Cautions.)

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), a potentially fatal syndrome requiring immediate discontinuance of the drug and intensive symptomatic treatment, reported rarely.1

Tardive Dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary dyskinetic movements, reported infrequently.1 Consider discontinuance of quetiapine.1

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus

Severe hyperglycemia, sometimes associated with ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death, reported in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic agents, including quetiapine.1 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 47 60 61 62 63 67 87 Closely monitor patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus for worsening of glucose control and perform fasting glucose tests at baseline and periodically for patients with risk factors for diabetes (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes).1 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 If manifestations of hyperglycemia occur in any patient, test for diabetes mellitus.1 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

General Precautions

Orthostatic Hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension reported.1 Use with caution in patients with known cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (e.g., dehydration, hypovolemia, concomitant antihypertensive therapy).1 (See Patients at Risk of Orthostatic Hypotension under Dosage and Administration.)

Ocular Effects

Possible lenticular changes; ophthalmologic examination of the lens by methods adequate to detect cataract formation (e.g., slit lamp exam) recommended at initiation of therapy, or shortly thereafter, and at 6-month intervals during chronic therapy.1

Nervous System Effects

Possible risk of seizures; use with caution in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions known to lower the seizure threshold (e.g., dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, geriatric patients).1

Disruption of ability to reduce core body temperature possible; use with caution in patients exposed to conditions that may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature (e.g., dehydration, extreme heat, strenuous exercise, concomitant use of anticholinergic agents).1

Somnolence reported.1 Potential impairment of judgment, thinking, or motor skills.1

Endocrine Effects

Hypothyroidism possible.1

Elevated prolactin concentrations reported with some atypical antipsychotic agents; not observed in clinical trials with quetiapine but reported in animals.1

Metabolic Effects

Weight gain possible.1

Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations possible; weakly related to weight gain.1

Hepatic Effects

Asymptomatic, transient, and reversible increases in serum transaminases (principally ALT) reported; usually occurred within first 3 weeks and resolved despite continued quetiapine therapy.1

Sexual Dysfunction

Priapism possible.1

GI Effects

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration possible; use with caution in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia (e.g., geriatric patients, those with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia).1

Suicide

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Attendant risk with psychotic illnesses; closely supervise high-risk patients.1 Prescribe in the smallest quantity consistent with good patient management to reduce the risk of overdosage.1

Possible Prescribing and Dispensing Precautions

Ensure accuracy of prescription; similarity in spelling of Seroquel (quetiapine) and Serzone (former trade name for nefazodone hydrochloride, an antidepressant agent) may result in errors associated with adverse CNS (e.g., mental status deterioration, hallucination, paranoia, muscle weakness, lethargy, dizziness) and GI (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) effects.29 30 31

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Category C.1

Lactation

Distributed into milk in animals; not known whether distributed into human milk.1 Women receiving quetiapine should not breast-feed.1

Pediatric Use

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

Safety and efficacy not established in children <18 years of age.1

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in safety relative to younger adults, but factors that decrease pharmacokinetic clearance, increase the pharmacodynamic response, or cause poorer tolerance or orthostasis may be present.1 (See Patients at Risk of Orthostatic Hypotension under Dosage and Administration.)

Possible increased risk of death in geriatric patients with dementia-related psychosis.a 97 98 Substantial (1.6- to 1.7-fold) increase in mortality rate reported in geriatric patients with dementia who received atypical antipsychotic agents (e.g., aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone) for treatment of behavioral disorders; most fatalities resulted from cardiac-related events (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infections (mostly pneumonia).a 97 98

Atypical antipsychotics are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.a 97 98 (See Boxed Warning and see Increased Mortality in Geriatric Patients with Dementia-related Psychosis under Cautions.)

Hepatic Impairment

Increased plasma concentrations expected in patients with hepatic impairment; dosage adjustment may be necessary.1

Renal Impairment

Clearance may be decreased in severe renal impairment, but dosage adjustment not necessary.1

Common Adverse Effects

Somnolence, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, increased ALT, weight gain, dyspepsia.a

Interactions for Quetiapine Fumarate

Metabolized principally by CYP3A4.1 b Does not appear to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 in vitro; pharmacokinetic interaction with substrates of these isoenzymes unlikely.1 b

Drugs Affecting Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes

Inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4; potential pharmacokinetic interaction (altered quetiapine metabolism).1 b

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Alcohol

Potentiation of cognitive and motor effects of alcohol1

Avoid alcohol during therapy with quetiapine1

Antifungals, azole (e.g., fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole)

Substantial decrease in quetiapine clearance with concomitant use of ketoconazole, resulting in increased peak plasma quetiapine concentrations1

Use concomitantly with caution; dosage adjustment of quetiapine may be necessary1

Barbiturates

Possible increased quetiapine clearance1

Increased quetiapine dosage may be required1

Carbamazepine

Possible increased quetiapine clearance1

Increased quetiapine dosage may be required1

Cimetidine

Decreased quetiapine mean clearance1

No dosage adjustment of quetiapine required1

CNS agents

Possible additive CNS effects1

Use with caution1

Divalproex sodium

Increased peak plasma quetiapine concentrations, with no effect on extent of absorption or mean quetiapine clearance; decreased peak plasma valproic acid concentrations and extent of absorption, but not significant1

Dopamine agonists

Antagonistic effects1

Erythromycin

Decreased quetiapine clearance1

Use concomitantly with caution1

Fluoxetine

No effect on quetiapine pharmacokinetics1

Glucocorticoids

Possible increased quetiapine clearance1

Increased quetiapine dosage may be required1

Haloperidol

No effect on quetiapine pharmacokinetics1

Hypotensive agents

Additive hypotensive effects1

Imipramine

No effect on quetiapine pharmacokinetics1

Levodopa

Antagonistic effects1

Lithium

No effect on lithium pharmacokinetics1

Lorazepam

Decreased lorazepam clearance1

Phenytoin

Substantially increased quetiapine clearance1

Increased quetiapine dosage may be required;1 23 caution advised if phenytoin is withdrawn and replaced with a non-inducer (e.g., valproate)1

Rifampin

Possible increased quetiapine clearance1

Increased quetiapine dosage may be required1

Risperidone

No effect on quetiapine pharmacokinetics1

Thioridazine

Substantially increased quetiapine clearance1

Quetiapine Fumarate Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Rapidly absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations attained within 1.5 hours.1 b Bioavailability of tablet formulation is 100% relative to an oral solution (not commercially available in US).1 b

Food

Bioavailability is marginally affected by food.1 b

Distribution

Extent

Widely distributed throughout the body.1

Distributed into milk in animals; not known whether distributed into human milk.1

Plasma Protein Binding

83%.1 b

Elimination

Metabolism

Extensively metabolized to inactive metabolites, principally via CYP3A4.1 b

Elimination Route

Excreted in urine (73%) and feces (20%), with <1% of the drug excreted unchanged.1 b

Half-life

Approximately 6 hours.1 b

Special Populations

In patients with hepatic impairment, clearance is 30% lower and AUC and peak plasma concentrations are 3 times higher than those of healthy individuals.1

In patients with severe renal impairment (Clcr 10–30 mL/minute), clearance may be reduced by 25% compared with healthy individuals; however, plasma concentrations in patients with renal impairment were within the range of those seen in healthy patients.1

In geriatric patients, clearance is decreased by about 40% compared with younger patients.1

Stability

Storage

Oral

Tablets

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).1

Actions

  • Exact mechanism of antipsychotic action is not known; may involve antagonism at serotonin type 1 (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT1A]),1 6 7 15 17 type 2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2C),1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 23 and type 6 (5-HT6) receptors,17 and at dopamine receptors.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 26 28

  • Antagonism at other receptors (e.g., α1-adrenergic receptors, histamine H1 receptors) may contribute to other therapeutic and adverse effects (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, somnolence).1

Advice to Patients

Pending revision, the material in this section should be considered in light of more recently available information in the MedWatch notification at the beginning of this monograph.

  • Risk of orthostatic hypotension, especially during initial dosage titration and at times of re-initiation of therapy or increases in dosage.1

  • Risk of somnolence and impairment of judgment, thinking, or motor skills; avoid driving, operating machinery, or performing hazardous tasks until effects on the individual are known.1

  • Importance of avoiding alcohol during quetiapine therapy.1

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of avoiding overheating or dehydration.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses (e.g., diabetes mellitus, seizures, dementia).1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Quetiapine Fumarate

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets, film-coated

25 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

50 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

100 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

200 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

300 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

400 mg (of quetiapine)

Seroquel (with povidone)

AstraZeneca

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 10/2014. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

QUEtiapine Fumarate 25MG Tablets (LUPIN PHARMACEUTICALS): 100/$35.99 or 200/$65.97

SEROquel 100MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$396.98 or 180/$1,158.98

SEROquel 200MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$715.99 or 180/$2,089.02

SEROquel 25MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$212.09 or 180/$607.90

SEROquel 300MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$969.96 or 180/$2,880.07

SEROquel 400MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 30/$575.97 or 90/$1,610.03

SEROquel 50MG Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 100/$625.00 or 300/$1,832.93

SEROquel XR 150MG 24-hr Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$597.99 or 180/$1,685.97

SEROquel XR 200MG 24-hr Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$673.96 or 180/$1,980.98

SEROquel XR 300MG 24-hr Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$880.02 or 180/$2,589.90

SEROquel XR 400MG 24-hr Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$1,022.95 or 180/$3,010.84

SEROquel XR 50MG 24-hr Tablets (ASTRAZENECA): 60/$337.99 or 180/$953.01

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions October 3, 2014. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

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53. Holt RI. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes: response to consensus statement. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2086-7. [IDIS 524618] [PubMed 15277449]

54. Citrome L, Volavka J. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes: response to consensus statement. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2087-8. [IDIS 524619] [PubMed 15277450]

55. Isaac MT, Isaac MB. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes: response to consensus statement. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2088. [IDIS 524620] [PubMed 15277451]

56. Boehm G, Racoosin JA, Laughren TP et al. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes: response to consensus statement. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2088-9. [IDIS 524621] [PubMed 15277452]

57. Barrett EJ. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes: response to Holt, Citrome and Volevka, Isaac and Isaac, and Boehm et al. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27:2089-90.

58. Fuller MA, Shermock KM, Secic M et al. Comparative study of the development of diabetes mellitus in patients taking risperidone and olanzapine. Pharmacotherapy. 2002; 23:1037-43.

59. Koller EA, Cross JT, Doraiswamy PM et al. Risperidone-associated diabetes mellitus: a pharmacovigilance study. Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 23:735-44. [IDIS 498493] [PubMed 12820816]

60. Koller EA, Weber J, Doraiswamy PM et al. A survey of reports of quetiapine-associated hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004; 65:857-63. [IDIS 518849] [PubMed 15291665]

61. Ananth J, Johnson KM, Levander EM et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and myocardial infarction in a patient taking risperidone and lithium carbonate. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004; 65:724. [IDIS 516345] [PubMed 15163265]

62. Torrey EF, Swalwell CI. Fatal olanzapine-induced ketoacidosis. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160:2241. [IDIS 516756] [PubMed 14638601]

63. Wehring HJ, Kelly DL, Love RC et al. Deaths from diabetic ketoacidosis after long-term clozapine treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160:2241-2. [IDIS 516757] [PubMed 14638600]

64. Koro CE, Fedder DO, L’Italien GJ et al. Assessment of independent effect of olanzapine and risperidone on risk of diabetes among patients with schizophrenia: population based nested case-control study. BMJ. 2002; 325:243. [IDIS 485916] [PubMed 12153919]

65. Citrome LL. Efficacy should drive atypical antipsychotic treatment. BMJ. 2003; 326:283. [IDIS 492968] [PubMed 12561827]

66. Anon. Which atypical antipsychotic for schizophrenia?. Drug Ther Bull. 2004; 42:57-60. [PubMed 15310154]

67. Anon. Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycaemia. Aust Adv Drug React Bull. 2004; 23:11-2.

68. Sussman N. The implications of weight changes with antipsychotic treatment. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003; 23 (Suppl 1):S21-6.

69. Gianfrancesco F, Grogg A, Mahmoud R et al. Differential effects of antipsychotic agents on the risk of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with mood disorders. Clin Ther. 2003; 25:1150-71. [IDIS 497269] [PubMed 12809963]

70. Bushe C, Leonard B. Association between atypical antipsychotic agents and type 2 diabetes: review of prospective clinical data. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2004; 47:S87-93. [PubMed 15056600]

71. Cavazzoni P, Mukhopadhyay N, Carlson C et al. Retrospective analysis of risk factors in patients with treatment-emergent diabetes during clinical trials of antipsychotic medications. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2004; 47:s94-101. [PubMed 15056601]

72. Gianfrancesco FD, Grogg AL, Mahmoud RA et al. Differential effects of risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine, and conventional antipsychotics on type 2 diabetes: findings from a large health plan database. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63:920-30. [IDIS 488480] [PubMed 12416602]

73. Etminan M, Streiner DL, Rochon PA. Exploring the association between atypical neuroleptic agents and diabetes mellitus in older adults. Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 23:1411-15. [IDIS 510498] [PubMed 14620387]

74. Leslie DL, Rosenheck RA. Incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes attributable to atypical antipsychotic medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161:1709-11. [IDIS 522186] [PubMed 15337666]

75. Sernyak MJ, Leslie DL, Alarcon RD et al. Association of diabetes mellitus with use of atypical neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159:561-6. [IDIS 494206] [PubMed 11925293]

76. Geller WK, MacFadden W. Diabetes and atypical neuroleptics. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160:388. [IDIS 513919] [PubMed 12562601]

77. Gianfrancesco FD. Diabetes and atypical neuroleptics. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160:388-9; author reply 389. [IDIS 513920] [PubMed 12562599]

78. Lamberti JS, Crilly JF, Maharaj K. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among outpatients with severe mental disorders receiving atypical antipsychotic drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004; 65:702-6. [IDIS 516341] [PubMed 15163259]

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80. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations).

81. Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ: Personal communication.

82. AstraZeneca, Wayne, PA: Personal communication.

83. Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN: Personal communication.

84. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ: Personal communication.

85. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ: Personal communication.

86. Citrome LL. The increase in risk of diabetes mellitus from exposure to second generation antipsychotic agents. Drugs Today (Barc). 2004; 40: 445-64. [PubMed 15319799]

87. Citrome L, Jaffe A, Levine J et al. Relationship between antipsychotic medication treatment and new cases of diabetes among psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatr Serv. 2004; 55:1006-13 [PubMed 15345760]

88. Sachs G, Chengappa KN, Suppes T et al. Quetiapine with lithium or divalproex for the treatment of bipolar mania: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6:213-23.

89. Geddes J, Freemantle N, Harrison P et al. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ. 2000; 321: 1371-6. [IDIS 456653] [PubMed 11099280]

90. Tandon R. Improvement without impairment: a review of clinical data for quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003; 23: S15-20. [IDIS 501838] [PubMed 12832945]

91. Schulz SC, Thomson R, Brecher M. The efficacy of quetiapine vs haloperidol and placebo: a meta-analytic study of efficacy. Schizophr Res. 2003; 62:1-12. [PubMed 12765737]

92. Srisurapanont M, Maneeton B, Maneeton N. Quetiapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; 2: CD00967. [PubMed 15106155]

93. Emsley RA, Raniwalla J, Bailey PJ et al. A comparison of the effects of quetiapine (‘Seroquel’) and haloperidol in schizophrenic patients with a history of and a demonstrated, partial response to conventional antipsychotic treatment. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000; 15:121-31. [PubMed 10870870]

94. Leucht S, Wahlbeck K, Hamann J et al. New generation antipsychotics versus low-potency conventional antipsychotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2003; 361: 1581-89. [IDIS 497379] [PubMed 12747876]

95. Peuskens J, Link CGG. A comparison of quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997; 96: 265-73.

96. Copolov DL, Link CGG, Kowalcyk B. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized comparison of quetiapine (ICI 204, 636, ‘Seroquel’) and haloperidol in schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2000; 30:95-105. [PubMed 10722180]

97. Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: deaths with antipsychotics in elderly patients with behavioral disturbances. Rockville, MD; 2005 Apr 11. From the FDA website.

98. Dear healthcare professional letter regarding adding important safety information regarding the use of atypical antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis to the prescribing information for Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate). Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2005 Jul.

a. AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate) tablets prescribing information. Wilmington, DE; 2005 Dec.

b. DeVane CL, Nemeroff CB. Clinical pharmacokinetics of quetiapine. An atypical antipsychotic. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001; 40:509-22. [PubMed 11510628]

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