Generic Name: Albendazole
Class: Anthelmintics
VA Class: AP200
Chemical Name: [5-(Propylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]-carbamic acid methyl ester
Molecular Formula: C12H15N3O2S
CAS Number: 54965-21-8

Introduction

Anthelmintic agent; benzimidazole derivative.1 4

Uses for Albenza

Neurocysticercosis

Treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis resulting from active lesions caused by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).1 5 7 8 13

Albendazole and praziquantel are drugs of choice, but treatment of neurocysticercosis is controversial.8 13 (See Precautions Related to Treatment of Neurocysticercosis under Cautions.)

Corticosteroids usually used concomitantly to reduce frequency and severity of adverse nervous system effects (CSF reaction syndrome).1 5 7 8 13 Anticonvulsant therapy also may be necessary.1 5 7 8 13

If retinal lesions are present, weigh risk versus benefit.1 5 8 Ocular and spinal cysts generally are not treated with anthelmintic drugs since irreparable damage may occur, even with concomitant corticosteroids.8 13

Hydatid Disease

Treatment of cystic hydatid disease (unilocular hydatid disease) of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus).1 3 5 7 8 13

Surgery is the treatment of choice when medically feasible;1 3 5 7 8 11 12 13 perioperative use of an anthelmintic may be indicated to minimize the risk of intraoperative dissemination of daughter cysts.7 8 11 Albendazole is drug of choice when an antihelmintic is indicated.7 8 11 12

Has been used for treatment of alveolar hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis.3 5 7 8 12 13 Surgical excision of the larval mass is the recommended and only reliable treatment.8 13 Although efficacy has not been definitely established, continuous albendazole (or mebendazole) therapy has been associated with clinical improvement in some nonresectable cases.13

Ascariasis

Treatment of ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.8 13 Albendazole, mebendazole, and ivermectin are drugs of choice.8 13

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Baylisascariasis

Has been used for treatment of baylisascariasis caused by Baylisascaris procyonis.8 13 18

Although no drug has been proven effective,8 18 immediate albendazole treatment (within 1–3 days of infection) is recommended in cases of probable infection, including known exposures such as ingestion of raccoon stool or contaminated soil.8 18 Ivermectin, mebendazole, thiabendazole, and levamisole (not commercially available in the US) are alternatives.8 Concomitant corticosteroid therapy may be helpful, especially in ocular and CNS infections.8

Additional information on baylisascariasis can be obtained at

Enterobiasis

Treatment of enterobiasis caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm).8 13 Albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate are drugs of choice.8 13

Filariasis

Treatment of filariasis caused by Mansonella perstans.8 Albendazole and mebendazole are drugs of choice.8 Antihistamines or corticosteroids also may be indicated to decrease allergic reactions secondary to disintegration of microfilariae following treatment.8

Treatment of filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi.8 13 20 21 22 23 Diethylcarbamazine (available in the US from the CDC) is the drug of choice.8 13 Ivermectin (with or without albendazole) has been used.8 13 20 21 22 23 A single dose of albendazole used in conjunction with either a single dose of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin may be more effective than any one drug alone for suppression of microfilaremia caused by these organisms.8 13 20 21 22

Has been used to reduce microfilaremia in the treatment of loiasis caused by Loa loa.8 Diethylcarbamazine (available in the US from the CDC) is the drug of choice;8 albendazole may be useful when diethylcarbamazine is ineffective or cannot be used, but repeated courses may be necessary.8

Hookworm Infections

Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption) caused by dog and cat hookworms.8 13 Usually self-limited with spontaneous cure after several weeks or months; albendazole, ivermectin, or topical thiabendazole (not commercially available in the US) are drugs of choice when treatment is indicated.8 13

Treatment of intestinal hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus.8 13 Albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate are drugs of choice.8 13

Treatment of eosinophilic enterocolitis caused by Ancylostoma caninum (dog hookworm).8 Treatment of choice is albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, or endoscopic removal of worms.8

Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans)

Treatment of toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans) caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati (dog and cat roundworms).8 13 Albendazole and mebendazole are drugs of choice.8 13 Concomitant corticosteroids may be indicated in severe cases with cardiac, ocular, or CNS involvement.8 13 Treatment may not be effective for ocular larva migrans; inflammation may be reduced by corticosteroid injections and surgery may be necessary for secondary damage.13

Strongyloidiasis

Treatment of strongyloidiasis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm).8 13 Drug of choice is ivermectin; albendazole and thiabendazole are alternatives.8 13

Trichinellosis

Treatment of trichinellosis (trichinosis) caused by Trichinella spiralis.8 13 Drug of choice is mebendazole; albendazole is an alternative.8 Concomitant corticosteroids usually recommended, especially for severe disease.8 13 Corticosteroids alleviate symptoms of the inflammatory reaction and can be lifesaving when cardiac or CNS systems are involved.13

Trichostrongyliasis

Treatment of trichostrongyliasis caused by Trichostrongylus.8 Pyrantel pamoate is drug of choice; albendazole and mebendazole are alternatives.8

Trichuriasis

Treatment of trichuriasis caused by Trichuris trichiura (whipworm).8 13 Mebendazole is drug of choice; albendazole and ivermectin are alternatives.8 13

Capillariasis

Treatment of capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis.8 Mebendazole is drug of choice; albendazole is an alternative.8

Gnathostomiasis

Treatment of gnathostomiasis caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum.8 Albendazole or ivermectin (with or without surgical removal) is recommended.8

Gongylonemiasis

Treatment of gongylonemiasis caused by Gongylonema.8 Albendazole or surgical removal is recommended.8

Oesophagostomiasis

Treatment of oesophagostomiasis caused by Oesophagostomum bifurcum.8 19 Albendazole or pyrantel pamoate may be effective.8 19

Trematode (Fluke) Infections

Treatment of infections caused by Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke).8 Albendazole and praziquantel are drugs of choice.8 Other anthelmintics (usually praziquantel) are recommended for all other fluke infections.8

Giardiasis

Treatment of giardiasis caused by Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. lamblia or G. intestinalis).8 13 Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide are drugs of choice.8 13 Albendazole (alone or in conjunction with metronidazole) is an alternative;8 13 may be particularly useful in children.13

Microsporidiosis

Treatment of intestinal microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon intestinalis.8 13 14 15 16 17 Albendazole is drug of choice,8 13 but organism not eradicated in all patients and recurrence of diarrhea is common after therapy is stopped.13

Treatment of ocular microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon hellem, E. cuniculi, or Vittaforma corneae.8 14 15 16 17 Albendazole in conjunction with topical fumagillin (not commercially available in the US) has been recommended,8 but topical fumagillin generally not effective for lesions caused by V. corneae and keratoplasty may be necessary.8

Treatment of disseminated microsporidiosis caused by E. hellem, E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, or Brachiola vesicularum.8 14 15 16 17 Albendazole is drug of choice.8

Albenza Dosage and Administration

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer orally with food.1 Food, especially fatty food, increases bioavailability.1 3 7

In patients (particularly young children) who have difficulty swallowing tablets whole, tablets may be crushed or chewed and swallowed with a drink of water.1

Dosage

Pediatric Patients

Neurocysticercosis
Oral

Children weighing <60 kg: 15 mg/kg daily (up to 800 mg daily), administered as 2 equally divided doses with meals, for 8–30 days.1 8 Repeat as necessary.8

Children ≥6 years of age and weighing ≥60 kg: 400 mg twice daily with meals for 8–30 days.1 8 5 Repeat as necessary.8

Hydatid Disease
Oral

Children <60 kg: 15 mg/kg daily (up to 800 mg daily), administered in 2 equally divided doses with meals for 28 days, followed by a 14-day albendazole-free interval.1 Repeat for a total of 3 dosage cycles.1

Children ≥6 years of age and weighing ≥60 kg: 400 mg twice daily with meals for 28 days, followed by a 14-day albendazole-free interval.1 Repeat for a total of 3 dosage cycles.1

Alternatively, 15 mg/kg daily (up to 800 mg daily) for 1–6 months has been recommended for treatment of hydatid cyst disease in pediatric patients.8

Ascariasis
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Baylisascariasis
Oral

25–50 mg/kg daily for 10 days.18 Some clinicians recommend a 20-day regimen.8

Immediate treatment is recommended if infection is probable; treatment should not be delayed until patient is symptomatic.18

Enterobiasis
Oral

400-mg initial dose followed by a second 400-mg dose given 2 weeks later.8

Consider treating household contacts, especially in situations in which multiple or repeated symptomatic infections occur.8 13

Filariasis
Filariasis Caused by Mansonella perstans
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 10 days.8

Hookworm Infections
Cutaneous Larva Migrans (Creeping Eruption)
Oral

400 mg once daily for 3 days.8

Intestinal Hookworm Infections
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Perform a repeat stool examination (using a concentration technique) for eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus 2 weeks after treatment; repeat dose if results are positive.13

Eosinophilic Enterocolitis Caused by Ancylostoma caninum
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans)
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 5 days.8 Optimum duration of therapy not known; some clinicians recommend up to 20 days of treatment.8

Strongyloidiasis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 2 days.8

Repeated or prolonged therapy or use of other agents may be necessary in immunocompromised individuals or those with disseminated disease.8 13

Trichinellosis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 8–14 days.8

Trichostrongyliasis
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Trichuriasis
Oral

400 mg once daily for 3 days.8

Capillariasis
Oral

400 mg once daily for 10 days.8

Gnathostomiasis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 21 days.a

Gongylonemiasis
Oral

10 mg/kg daily for 3 days.8

Trematode (Fluke) Infections
Oral

10 mg/kg daily for 7 days.8

Giardiasis
Oral

400 mg daily for 5 days (alone or in conjunction with metronidazole).8

Adults

Neurocysticercosis
Oral

Adults <60 kg: 15 mg/kg daily (up to 800 mg daily), administered in 2 equally divided doses with meals, for 8–30 days.1 8 Repeat as necessary.8

Adults ≥60 kg: 400 mg twice daily with meals for 8–30 days.1 8 5 Repeat as necessary.8

Hydatid Disease
Oral

Adults <60 kg: 15 mg/kg daily (up to 800 mg daily), administered in 2 equally divided doses with meals for 28 days, followed by a 14-day albendazole-free interval.1 Repeat for a total of 3 dosage cycles.1

Adults ≥60 kg: 400 mg twice daily with meals for 28 days, followed by a 14-day albendazole-free interval.1 Repeat for a total of 3 dosage cycles.1

Alternatively, 400 mg twice daily for 1–6 months has been recommended for treatment of hydatid cyst disease in adults.8

Ascariasis
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Baylisascariasis
Oral

25–50 mg/kg daily for 10 days.18 Some clinicians recommend a 20-day regimen.8

Enterobiasis
Oral

400-mg initial dose followed by a second 400-mg dose given 2 weeks later.8

Consider treating household contacts, especially in situations in which multiple or repeated symptomatic infections occur.8 13

Filariasis
Filariasis Caused by Mansonella perstans
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 10 days.8

Hookworm Infections
Cutaneous Larva Migrans (Creeping Eruption)
Oral

400 mg once daily for 3 days.8

Intestinal Hookworm Infections
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Perform a repeat stool examination (using a concentration technique) for eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus 2 weeks after treatment; repeat dose if results are positive.13

Eosinophilic Enterocolitis Caused by Ancylostoma caninum
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans)
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 5 days.8 Optimum duration of therapy not known; some clinicians recommend up to 20 days of treatment.8

Strongyloidiasis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 2 days.8

Repeated or prolonged therapy or use of other agents may be necessary in immunocompromised individuals or those with disseminated disease.8 13

Trichinellosis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 8–14 days.8

Trichostrongyliasis
Oral

Single 400-mg dose.8

Trichuriasis
Oral

400 mg once daily for 3 days.8

Capillariasis
Oral

400 mg once daily for 10 days.8

Gnathostomiasis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 21 days.a

Gongylonemiasis
Oral

10 mg/kg daily for 3 days.8

Trematode (Fluke) Infections
Oral

10 mg/kg daily for 7 days.8

Giardiasis
Oral

400 mg daily for 5 days (alone or in conjunction with metronidazole).8

Microsporidiosis
Intestinal Microsporidiosis
Oral

400 mg twice daily for 21 days.8

Ocular Microsporidiosis
Oral

400 mg twice daily.8

Disseminated Microsporidiosis
Oral

400 mg twice daily.8

Prescribing Limits

Pediatric Patients

Neurocysticercosis
Oral

Children weighing <60 kg: Maximum 800 mg daily.1 8

Hydatid Disease
Oral

Children weighing <60 kg: Maximum 800 mg daily.1 8

Adults

Neurocysticercosis
Oral

Adults weighing <60 kg: Maximum 800 mg daily.1 8

Hydatid Disease
Oral

Adults weighing <60 kg: Maximum 800 mg daily.1 8

Special Populations

No special population dosage recommendations at this time.

Cautions for Albenza

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to benzimidazole derivatives or any component in the formulation.1

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Myelosuppression

Can cause bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia, and agranulocytosis in patients with or without underlying hepatic dysfunction.1 Reversible leukopenia has occurred in <1% of patients receiving the drug;1 granulocytopenia, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, or thrombocytopenia reported rarely.1 Rare fatalities reported due to granulocytopenia or pancytopenia.1

Monitor blood counts at the beginning of each 28-day cycle of albendazole treatment and every 2 weeks during treatment.1 Closer monitoring of blood counts is recommended in patients with liver disease, including hepatic echinococcosis, since these individuals may be more susceptible to bone marrow suppression leading to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and leukopenia.1

Discontinue albendazole if clinically important decreases in blood cell counts occur.1

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality

Teratogenic effects (embryotoxicity, skeletal malformations) reported in rats and rabbits.1

Exclude pregnancy before initiating albendazole.1 Avoid pregnancy during and for at least 1 month after treatment.1 If patient becomes pregnant, immediately discontinue the drug and apprise patient of the potential hazard to the fetus.1 (See Pregnancy under Cautions.)

General Precautions

Precautions Related to Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

Adverse CNS effects (e.g., seizures and/or hydrocephalus) resulting from inflammatory reactions to damaged intracerebral cysts may occur when albendazole is used for treatment of neurocysticercosis.5 7 Use appropriate corticosteroid and anticonvulsant treatment as required.1 5 7 8 Consider oral or IV corticosteroid therapy during the first week of treatment to prevent cerebral hypertension.1

Destruction of cysticercal lesions by albendazole may cause retinal damage.1 5 8 Prior to treatment of neurocysticercosis, examine patient for retinal lesions.1 In those with such lesions, weigh the need for treatment against the possibility of irreparable retinal damage.1 5 8

Hepatic Effects

Mild to moderate increases of hepatic enzymes occurred in about 16% of patients in clinical trials.1 Hepatic enzymes generally return to normal when the drug is discontinued, but acute liver failure of uncertain casualty and hepatitis have been reported.1

Perform liver function tests (hepatic transaminase concentrations) prior to each cycle of albendazole treatment and at least every 2 weeks during treatment.1 If hepatic enzymes exceed twice the ULN, consider discontinuing the drug based on the individual patient circumstance.1 Decisions to reinstitute albendazole when hepatic enzymes return to pretreatment levels should be individualized taking into account the risks and benefits of further albendazole treatment.1 If the drug is reinstituted, perform laboratory tests frequently.1

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category C.1 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions.)

Use during pregnancy only if benefits justify risks to the fetus and only when no alternative management is appropriate.1

Use in women of childbearing age only after a negative pregnancy test; caution women against becoming pregnant while receiving albendazole and for at least 1 month after completing treatment.1

Discontinue immediately if patient becomes pregnant.1

Lactation

Distributed into animal milk; not known whether distributed into human milk.1 Use with caution in nursing women.1

Pediatric Use

Only limited experience in children <6 years of age.1

Has been used for treatment of neurocysticercosis in pediatric patients as young as 1 year of age; efficacy appeared to be similar to that in adults and no unusual problems were reported.1

Has been used without unusual problems for treatment of hydatid disease in infants and young children.1

Geriatric Use

Experience in patients ≥65 years of age is limited.1 Has been used without unusual problems for treatment of neurocysticercosis or hydatid disease in geriatric adults.1

Hepatic Impairment

Individuals with hepatic impairment are at increased risk for hepatotoxicity and bone marrow suppression during albendazole treatment.1

Discontinue albendazole if hepatic enzymes exceed twice the ULN or if clinically important decreases in blood cell counts occur.1

Renal Impairment

Not studied, but clearance of albendazole unlikely to be affected.1

Common Adverse Effects

Treatment of hydatid disease: Abnormal liver function test results, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, reversible alopecia, headache, dizziness.1

Treatment of neurocysticercosis: Headache, nausea, vomiting, raised intracranial pressure, meningeal signs.1

Interactions for Albenza

Induces CYP1A isoenzyme.1

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Cimetidine

Increased albendazole sulfoxide concentrations in bile and cystic fluid in hydatid cyst patients receiving cimetidine; plasma concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide unchanged1

Dexamethasone

Increased albendazole trough concentrations1

Praziquantel

Increased plasma concentrations and AUC of albendazole sulfoxide; time to peak concentrations and plasma elimination half-life of albendazole sulfoxide unchanged1

Theophylline

Single albendazole dose does not affect theophylline metabolism; potential for interaction exists since albendazole induces CYP1A1

Monitor theophylline concentrations during and after albendazole therapy1

Albenza Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Poorly absorbed from GI tract because of low aqueous solubility.1

Rapidly converted to active metabolite (albendazole sulfoxide) before reaching systemic circulation.1 Peak plasma concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide attained 2–5 hours after a dose.1

Food

Oral bioavailability enhanced by coadministration with fatty meal (estimated fat content 40 g); plasma concentrations up to fivefold higher compared with administration in fasted state.1

Distribution

Extent

Widely distributed throughout body.1 Detected in urine, bile, liver, cyst wall, cyst fluid, and CSF.1

Plasma Protein Binding

70% bound to plasma protein.1

Elimination

Metabolism

Rapidly converted in liver to active metabolite (albendazole sulfoxide) which is responsible for anthelmintic activity.1 Further metabolized to albendazole sulfone and other primary oxidative metabolites.1

Elimination Route

Albendazole is undetectable in urine; <1% of albendazole sulfoxide detectable in urine.1 Albendazole sulfoxide partially eliminated in bile.1

Half-life

Albendazole sulfoxide: 8–12 hours.1

Special Populations

Patients with extrahepatic obstruction: Increased albendazole sulfoxide serum concentration and prolonged half-life.1 Elimination half-life may be 31.7 hours.1

Patients with renal impairment: Pharmacokinetics not studied to date.1

Geriatric patients: Pharmacokinetics not fully evaluated; data from patients up to 79 years of age with hydatid cysts suggest pharmacokinetics similar to young, healthy adults.1

Stability

Storage

Oral

Tablets

20–25°C.1

Actions and Spectrum

  • Broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent.1

  • Benzimidazole derivative1 4 structurally related to thiabendazole and mebendazole.4

  • Principal anthelmintic effect of benzimidazoles appears to be specific, high-affinity binding to free β-tubulin in parasite cells,1 3 4 resulting in selective inhibition of parasite microtubule polymerization,1 3 4 and inhibition of microtubule-dependent uptake of glucose.2 3 6

  • Benzimidazole derivatives bind to the β-tubulin of parasites at much lower concentrations than to mammalian β-tubulin protein;4 the drugs do not inhibit glucose uptake in mammals, and do not appear to have any effect on blood glucose concentrations in humans.2 6

  • Active against the larval forms of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium.1

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of taking with food to increase oral bioavailability.1

  • Advise patients who experience difficulty swallowing the tablets whole (particularly young children) that the tablets may be crushed or chewed and swallowed with a drink of water.1

  • Importance of completing full course of therapy, even if feeling better after a few days.1

  • Importance of women informing clinician if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of initiating albendazole therapy in women of childbearing age only after a negative pregnancy test is obtained.1

  • Importance of cautioning women of childbearing age against becoming pregnant while receiving albendazole or within 1 month of completing treatment.1

  • Importance of routine (every 2 weeks) monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests to detect harm to the bone marrow or liver.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Albendazole

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets, film-coated

200 mg

Albenza (with povidone)

GlaxoSmithKline

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2014. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

Albenza 200MG Tablets (AMEDRA PHARMACEUTICALS): 30/$780.03 or 90/$2,299.86

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions January 1, 2008. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

1. GlaxoSmithKline. Albenza (albendazole) tablets prescribing information. Research Triangle Park, NC; 2007 Aug.

2. Keystone JS. Mebendazole. Ann Intern Med. 1979; 91:582-6. [PubMed 484964]

3. Liu LX. Antiparasitic drugs. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334:1178-84. [IDIS 363831] [PubMed 8602186]

4. Tracy JW, Webster LT Jr. Drugs used in the chemotherapy of helminthiasis. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996:1009-26.

5. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, PA: Personal communication.

6. Wolfe MS. Mebendazole: treatment of trichuriasis and ascariasis in Bahamian children. JAMA. 1974; 230:1408-11. [IDIS 48650] [PubMed 4479643]

7. Jernigan JA, Pearson RD. Antiparasitic agents. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:458-92.

8. Anon. Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther. Aug 2004. From the Medical Letter website ().

9. Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Horton J et al. Albendazole therapy for neurocysticercosis: a prospective double-blind trial comparing 7 versus 14 days of treatment. Neurology. 1997; 48:1421-7. [IDIS 386620] [PubMed 9153484]

10. Gil-Grande LA, Rodriguez-Caabeiro F, Prieto JG et al. Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of albendazole in intra-abdominal hydatid disease. Lancet. 1993; 342:1269-72. [IDIS 322962] [PubMed 7901585]

11. Wen H, New RRC. Diagnosis and treatment of human hydatidosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1993; 35:565-74. [IDIS 317427] [PubMed 8329280]

12. King CH. Cestodes (tapeworms). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:2544-53.

13. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2006 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 27th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2006.

14. Scaglia M, Sacchi L, Croppo GP et al. Pulmonary microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem in a patient with AIDS. J Infect. 1997; 34:119-26. [IDIS 385384] [PubMed 9138134]

15. Klotler DP. Clinical syndromes associated with microsporidiosis. Adv Parasitol. 1998; 40:321-49. [PubMed 9554078]

16. Molina JM, Chastang C, Goguel J et al. Albendazole for treatment and prophylaxis of microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon intestinalis in patients with AIDS: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 1998; 177:1373-7. [IDIS 405281] [PubMed 9593027]

17. Leder K, Ryan N, Spelman D et al. Microsporidial disease in HIV-infected patients: a report of 42 patients with review of the literature. Scand J Infect Dis. 1998; 30:331-8. [PubMed 9817510]

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Raccoon roundworm encephalitis—Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 50:1153-5.

19. Storey PA, Bugri S, Magnussen P et al. The effect of albendazole on Oesophagostomum bifurcum infection and pathology in children from rural northern Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001; 95:87-95. [PubMed 11235558]

20. Beach MJ, Streit TG, Addiss DG et al. Assessment of combined ivermectin and albendazole for treatment of intestinal helminth and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Haitian schoolchildren. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999; 60:479-86. [IDIS 427901] [PubMed 10466981]

21. Simonsen PE, Magesa SM, Dunyo SK et al. The effect of single dose ivermectin alone or in combination with albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in primary school children in Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 98:462-72. [IDIS 517713] [PubMed 15186934]

22. Makunde WH, Kamugisha LM, Massaga JJ et al. Treatment of co-infection with bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis: a safety and efficacy study of albendazole with ivermectin compared to treatment of single infection with bancroftian filariasis. Filaria J. 2003; 2:15. [PubMed 14613509]

23. Bockarie MJ, Alexander NDE, Hyun P et al. Randomised community-based trial of annual single-dose diethylcarbamazine with or without ivermectin against Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human beings and mosquitoes. Lancet. 1998; 351:162-8. [IDIS 398928] [PubMed 9449870]

a. AHFS drug information 2007. McEvoy GK, ed. Albendazole. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2007:45–7.

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