Generic name: poliovirus vaccine inactivated
Dosage form: injection
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Before administration, parenteral drug products should be checked visually for any deviation from normal appearance including container integrity. The syringe or vial and its packaging should be inspected prior to use for evidence of leakage, premature activation of the plunger, or a faulty tip seal. If evidence of such defects are observed, the syringe should not be used.
After preparation of the injection site, immediately administer IPOL vaccine intramuscularly or subcutaneously. In infants and small children, the mid-lateral aspect of the thigh is the preferred site. In older children and adults IPOL vaccine should be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the deltoid area.
The syringe is intended for single use only, must not be reused, and must be disposed of properly and promptly following its use.
To help avoid HIV (AIDS), HBV (Hepatitis), and other infectious diseases due to accidental needlesticks, contaminated needles should not be recapped or removed, unless there is no alternative or that such action is required by a specific medical procedure.
Care should be taken to avoid administering the injection into or near blood vessels and nerves. If blood or any suspicious discoloration appears in the syringe, do not inject but discard contents and repeat procedures using a new dose of vaccine administered at a different site.
DO NOT ADMINISTER VACCINE INTRAVENOUSLY.
The primary series of IPOL vaccine consists of three 0.5 mL doses administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, preferably eight or more weeks apart and usually at ages 2, 4, and 6 to 18 months. Under no circumstances should the vaccine be given more frequently than four weeks apart. The first immunization may be administered as early as six weeks of age. For this series, a booster dose of IPOL vaccine is administered at 4 to 6 years of age.41
Use with Other Vaccines
From historical data on the antibody responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell or acellular pertussis, Hib, or hepatitis B vaccines used concomitantly with IPOL vaccine, no interferences have been observed on the immunological end points accepted for clinical protection.11,16,36 (See DRUG INTERACTIONS section.)
If the third dose of IPOL vaccine is given between 12 to 18 months of age, it may be desirable to administer this dose with Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and/or other vaccines using separate syringes at separate sites,28 but no data on the immunological interference between IPOL vaccine and these vaccines exist.
Use in Previously Vaccinated Children
Children and adolescents with a previously incomplete series of polio vaccine should receive sufficient additional doses of IPOL vaccine to complete the series. OPV is no longer recommended for routine immunization and is recommended only in special circumstances7 (see General Recommendations section).
Interruption of the recommended schedule with a delay between doses does not interfere with the final immunity. There is no need to start the series over again, regardless of the time elapsed between doses.
The need to routinely administer additional doses is unknown at this time.28
A primary series of IPOL vaccine is recommended for unvaccinated adults at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus. While the responses of adults to primary series have not been studied, the recommended schedule for adults is two doses given at a 1 to 2 month interval and a third dose given 6 to 12 months later. If less than 3 months but more than 2 months are available before protection is needed, three doses of IPOL vaccine should be given at least 1 month apart. Likewise, if only 1 or 2 months are available, two doses of IPOL vaccine should be given at least 1 month apart. If less than 1 month is available, a single dose of IPOL vaccine is recommended.28
Incompletely Vaccinated Adults
Adults who are at an increased risk of exposure to poliovirus and who have had at least one dose of OPV, fewer than three doses of conventional IPV or a combination of conventional IPV or OPV totaling fewer than three doses should receive at least one dose of IPOL vaccine. Additional doses needed to complete a primary series should be given if time permits.28
Completely Vaccinated Adults
Adults who are at an increased risk of exposure to poliovirus and who have previously completed a primary series with one or a combination of polio vaccines can be given a dose of IPOL vaccine.
The preferred injection site of IPOL vaccine for adults is in the deltoid area.