Pertussis In Children
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. Your child's air passages narrow and get plugged with thick mucus. This may cause him to have coughing spells. Anyone can have pertussis, but it is most serious in babies and young children. A baby may get pertussis before he is old enough to get the shots to prevent the infection. Pertussis is caused by bacteria. It is easily spread in the air when someone with pertussis coughs or sneezes.
Call 911 for any of the following:
- Your child has more severe coughing spells.
- Your child is short of breath or works hard to breathe.
- The skin between his ribs or above his breast bone pulls in with each breath.
- Your child's nostrils are flaring with each breath.
Return to the emergency department if:
- Your child's lips or fingernails are blue or white.
- Your child has been vomiting and cannot keep anything down.
- Your child has the following signs of dehydration:
- Crying without tears
- Dry mouth or tongue
- Fussiness, sleepiness, or dizziness
- Sunken soft spot on the top of his head (if your baby is younger than 1 year)
- Urinating less than usual
- Wrinkled skin
- Crying without tears
Contact your child's healthcare provider if:
- Your child has a fever.
- Your child is not drinking liquids.
- Your child's cough is getting worse.
- Your child is tugging his ears or has ear pain.
- Your child is not sleeping or resting because of the cough.
- You have questions or concerns about your child's condition or care.
- NSAIDs help decrease swelling and pain or fever. This medicine is available with or without a doctor's order. NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding or kidney problems in certain people. If your child takes blood thinner medicine, always ask if NSAIDs are safe for him. Always read the medicine label and follow directions. Do not give these medicines to children under 6 months of age without direction from your child's doctor.
- Acetaminophen decreases pain and fever. It is available without a doctor's order. Ask how much your child should take and how often he should take it. Follow directions. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage if not taken correctly.
- Antibiotics help treat or prevent a bacterial infection.
- Do not give aspirin to children under 18 years of age. Your child could develop Reye syndrome if he takes aspirin. Reye syndrome can cause life-threatening brain and liver damage. Check your child's medicine labels for aspirin, salicylates, or oil of wintergreen.
- Give your child's medicine as directed. Call your child's healthcare provider if you think the medicine is not working as expected. Tell him if your child is allergic to any medicine. Keep a current list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs your child takes. Include the amounts, and when, how, and why they are taken. Bring the list or the medicines in their containers to follow-up visits. Carry your child's medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
Manage your child's symptoms:
Your child's cough may last 10 weeks or longer. It may be worse at night. Coughing helps keep mucus from clogging his lungs. Any of the following may help your child:
- Help your child during a coughing spell. If your child has a coughing spell, put him on his side in the crib or bed. This is a safe position because it will keep your child from choking if he vomits. You may also hold your child in a sitting position during a coughing spell. Help your coughing child sit up and lean forward if he is older. This makes it easier to cough and bring up mucus from the lungs.
- Help keep your baby's airways clear. Use a bulb syringe to gently clean your baby's nose. Wash the bulb syringe after each use. Clean your baby's nose before breast or bottle feeding so he can breathe easier while feeding. You may need to feed your baby smaller amounts more often if he gets tired during feedings. Clean your baby's nose before you put him down to sleep.
- Use a cool mist humidifier to increase air moisture in your home. This may make it easier for your child to breathe and help decrease his cough.
- Give your child liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to give him each day and what liquids are best for him. You may need to give him small amounts of liquid every hour when he is awake. This will help prevent dehydration. Good liquids to drink are water or fruit juices. Limit caffeine.
- Give your child small, healthy meals often. Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads, low-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats, and fish. Healthy foods may give him energy and help him feel better.
- Help your child rest as much as possible until he begins to feel better.
- Do not smoke around your child or let anyone smoke around him. His breathing and coughing may get worse if he is near smoke.
Prevent the spread of pertussis:
If your child has signs or symptoms of pertussis, keep him away from others. If your child has had contact with someone who has pertussis, keep him away from others. Ask your child's healthcare provider if you or family members need to receive antibiotic medicine or a booster shot.
Follow up with your child's healthcare provider as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.