Active Substance: ceftaroline fosamil
Common Name: ceftaroline fosamil
ATC Code: J01DI02
Marketing Authorisation Holder: AstraZeneca AB
Active Substance: ceftaroline fosamil
Authorisation Date: 2012-08-23
Therapeutic Area: Community-Acquired Infections Pneumonia Skin Diseases, Infectious
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Antibacterials for systemic use
Zinforo is indicated in adults for the treatment of the following infections:
- complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI);
- community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.
What is Zinforo?
Zinforo is a powder that is made up into a solution for infusion (drip into a vein). It contains the active substance ceftaroline fosamil.
What is Zinforo used for?
Zinforo is an antibiotic. It is used to treat the following infections in adults:
- complicated skin and soft tissue (tissue below the skin) infections. ‘Complicated’ means that the infection is difficult to treat;
- community-acquired pneumonia (an infection of the lungs that is caught outside of hospital).
Prescribers should consider official guidance on the appropriate use of antibiotics.
The medicine can only be obtained with a prescription.
How is Zinforo used?
The recommended dose is 600 mg every 12 hours given as an infusion into a vein lasting 60 minutes. Patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infections should be treated for five to 14 days, whereas patients who have community-acquired pneumonia should be treated for five to seven days. In patients with moderately reduced kidney function the doctor may need to reduce the dose.
How does Zinforo work?
The active substance in Zinforo, ceftaroline fosamil, is a type of antibiotic called cephalosporin belonging to the group of ‘beta-lactams’. It works by interfering with the production of complex molecules called ‘peptidoglycans’, which are essential components of bacterial cell walls. It does so by binding and blocking some enzymes called penicillin-binding protein transpeptidases involved in the last steps of bacterial cell wall production. This causes weakness in the bacterial cell walls which then become prone to collapse, ultimately leading to the death of the bacteria.
In experimental studies Zinforo was shown to have activity against certain bacteria against which other antibiotics belonging to the beta-lactam class do not work (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP)). The full list of bacteria against which Zinforo is active can be found in the summary of product characteristics (also part of the EPAR).
How has Zinforo been studied?
The effects of Zinforo were first tested in experimental models before being studied in humans.
Zinforo has been studied in four main studies that compared Zinforo with other antibiotics:
- two studies involving a total of 1,396 adults compared Zinforo with the antibiotics vancomycin and aztreonam used together to treat complicated skin and soft tissue infection;
- two studies involving a total of 1,241 adults compared Zinforo with the antibiotic ceftriaxone to treat community-acquired pneumonia.
In all of the studies, the main measure of effectiveness was the number of patients whose infection was cured after treatment.
What benefit has Zinforo shown during the studies?
Zinforo was as effective as the other antibiotics in treating both types of infection:
- In complicated skin and soft tissue infection, one study showed that 86.6% of the patients receiving Zinforo were cured (304 out of 351), compared with 85.6% of the patients receiving the combination of vancomycin and aztreonam (297 out of 347). In the second study, 85.1% of patients receiving Zinforo were cured (291 out of 342) compared with 85.5% of the patients receiving the combination of vancomycin and aztreonam (289 out of 338).
- In community-acquired pneumonia, one study showed that 83.8% of the patients receiving Zinforo were cured (244 out of 291), compared with 77.7% of the patients receiving ceftriaxone (233 out of 300). In the second study, 81.3% of patients receiving Zinforo were cured (235 out of 289) compared with 75.5% of the patients receiving ceftriaxone (206 out of 273).
What is the risk associated with Zinforo?
The most common side effects with Zinforo (seen in more than 3% of patients) are diarrhoea, headache, nausea (feeling sick), and pruritus (itching), which were generally mild or moderate in severity.
Zinforo must not be used in people who are hypersensitive (allergic) to ceftaroline fosamil or any of the other ingredients. Zinforo must also not be used in patients who are hypersensitive to other antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporin class and those who are severely allergic to other beta-lactam antibiotics. For the full list of restrictions, see the package leaflet.
Why has Zinforo been approved?
The CHMP noted that Zinforo was effective in treating complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia and was generally well tolerated. The risk of hypersensitivity was considered to be limited as treatment duration is relatively short. The CHMP noted that Zinforo had shown activity in experimental models against certain bacteria against which other antibiotics belonging to the beta-lactam class do not work such as MRSA. However there were uncertainties about the effects of Zinforo in patients with certain very severe infections. These effects will be investigated in further studies. The CHMP concluded that benefits of Zinforo are greater than its risks and recommended that it be given marketing authorisation.
Other information about Zinforo
The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for Zinforo on 23 August 2012.
For more information about treatment with Zinforo, read the package leaflet (also part of the EPAR) or contact your doctor or pharmacist.
Source: European Medicines Agency
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