Sodium Lactate Injection
Dosage Form: injection, solution
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (M/6 Sodium Lactate)
in VIAFLEX Plastic Container
Sodium Lactate Injection Description
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (M/6 Sodium Lactate) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment and caloric supply in a single dose container for intravenous administration. It contains no antimicrobial agents. The pH may have been adjusted with lactic acid. Composition, osmolarity, pH, ionic concentration and caloric content are shown in Table 1.
|Size (mL)||Composition |
|*Osmolarity (mOsmol/L) |
|pH||Ionic Concentration |
|Caloric Content |
|Sodium Lactate |
|Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (M/6 Sodium Lactate)||500||18.7||334||6.5 |
(6.0 to 7.3)
The VIAFLEX plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PL 146 Plastic). The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container can leach out certain of its chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period, e.g., di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), up to 5 parts per million. However, the safety of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to USP biological tests for plastic containers as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.
Sodium Lactate Injection - Clinical Pharmacology
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP has value as a source of water, electrolytes, and calories. It is capable of inducing diuresis depending on the clinical condition of the patient.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP produces a metabolic alkalinizing effect. Lactate ions are metabolized ultimately to carbon dioxide and water, which requires the consumption of hydrogen cations.
Indications and Usage for Sodium Lactate Injection
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP is indicated as a source of water, electrolytes, and calories or as an alkalinizing agent.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to sodium lactate.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP is not for use for the treatment of lactic acidosis or severe metabolic acidosis.
The infusion must be stopped immediately if any signs or symptoms of a suspected hypersensitivity reaction develop. Appropriate therapeutic countermeasures must be instituted as clinically indicated.
Depending on the volume and rate of infusion, the intravenous administration of these injections can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, pulmonary edema or acid-base imbalance. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the injection. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of the injection.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations may be necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient or the rate of administration warrants such evaluation.
Excessive administration of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP may result in hypokalemia.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP should be administered with particular caution, if at all, to patients with alkalosis or at risk for alkalosis. Because lactate is metabolized to bicarbonate, administration may result in, or worsen, metabolic alkalosis.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP should be administered with particular caution, if at all, to patients with severe renal impairment, hypervolemia, overhydration, or conditions that may cause sodium retention, fluid overload, or edema.
Do not connect flexible plastic containers in series in order to avoid air embolism due to possible residual air contained in the primary container.
Pressurizing intravenous solutions contained in flexible plastic containers to increase flow rates can result in air embolism if the residual air in the container is not fully evacuated prior to administration.
Use of a vented intravenous administration set with the vent in the open position could result in air embolism. Vented intravenous administration sets with the vent in the open position should not be used with flexible plastic containers.
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP should be administered with particular caution, if at all, to patients with conditions associated with increased lactate levels or impaired lactate utilization, such as severe hepatic insufficiency. Hyperlactatemia can develop in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency, since lactate metabolism may be impaired. In addition Sodium Lactate Injection, USP may not produce its alkalinizing action in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency, since lactate metabolism may be impaired. Lactate is a substrate for gluconeogenesis. This should be taken into account when Sodium Lactate Injection, USP is used in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Safety and effectiveness of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP in pediatric patients have not been established by adequate and well controlled trials, however, the use of sodium lactate solutions in the pediatric population is referenced in the medical literature. The warnings, precautions and adverse reactions identified in the label copy should be observed in the pediatric population.
Lactate-containing solutions should be administered with particular caution to neonates and infants less than 6 months of age.
Clinical studies of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or drug therapy.
Caution is advised when administering Sodium Lactate Injection, USP to patients treated with drugs that may increase the risk of sodium and fluid retention, such as corticosteroids.
Caution is advised when administering Sodium Lactate Injection USP to patients treated with drugs for which renal elimination is pH dependent. Due to the alkalinizing action of lactate (formation of bicarbonate), Sodium Lactate Injection, USP may interfere with the elimination of such drugs.
- Renal clearance of acidic drugs such as salicylates and barbiturates may be increased.
- Renal clearance of alkaline drugs, such as sympathomimetrics (e.g., ephedrine, pseudoephedrine), and dextroamphetamine (dexamphetamine) sulfate may be decreased.
Renal clearance of lithium may also be increased. Caution is advised when administering Sodium Lactate Injection, USP to patients treated with lithium.
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Sodium Lactate Injection, USP. It is also not known whether Sodium Lactate Injection, USP can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Sodium Lactate Injection, USP should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential or studies to evaluate mutagenic potential have not been performed with Sodium Lactate Injection, USP. Studies to evaluate the possible impairment of fertility have not been performed.
Labor and Delivery
Studies have not been conducted to evaluate the effects of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP on labor and delivery. Caution should be exercised when administering this drug during labor and delivery.
Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions
The following adverse reactions have been reported in the post-marketing experience, listed by MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC).
Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity/infusion reactions manifested by: blood pressure decreased, pyrexia
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions:
Infusion site burning
Other symptoms of hypersensitivity/infusion reactions: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, and the following manifestations: angioedema, chest pain, chest discomfort, decreased heart rate, tachycardia, respiratory distress, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cough, urticaria, rash, pruritus, erythema, flushing, throat irritation, paresthaesias, hypesthesia oral, dysgeusia, nausea, anxiety and headache.
An excessive volume or too high a rate of administration of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP may lead to fluid and sodium overload with a risk of edema (pheripheral and/or pulmonary), particularly when renal sodium excretion is impaired.
Excessive administration of lactate may lead to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis may be accompanied by hypokalemia.
When assessing an overdose, any additives in the solution must also be considered.
The effects of an overdose may require immediate medical attention and treatment.
Sodium Lactate Injection Dosage and Administration
As directed by a physician. Dosage, rate, and duration of administration are to be individualized and dependent upon the indication for use, patient's age, weight, concomitant treatment and clinical condition of the patient as well as laboratory determinations.
All injections in VIAFLEX plastic containers are intended for intravenous administration using sterile and nonpyrogenic equipment.
After opening the container, the contents should be used immediately and should not be stored for a subsequent infusion. Do not reconnect any partially used containers.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
Do not administer unless the solution is clear and seal is intact.
When making additions to Sodium Lactate Injection, USP, aseptic technique must be used. Mix the solution thoroughly when additives have been introduced. Do not store solutions containing additives.
Additives may be incompatible with Sodium Lactate Injection, USP. As with all parenteral solutions, compatibility of the additives with the solution must be assessed before addition, by checking for a possible color change and/or the appearance of precipitates, insoluble complexes, or crystals. Before adding a substance or medication, verify that it is soluble and/or stable in water and that the pH range of Sodium Lactate Injection, USP is appropriate.
The instructions for use of the medication to be added and other relevant literature must be consulted. Additives known or determined to be incompatible should not be used.
How is Sodium Lactate Injection Supplied
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (M/6 Sodium Lactate) in VIAFLEX plastic container is available as follows:
Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. It is recommended the product be stored at room temperature (25ºC); brief exposure up to 40ºC does not adversely affect the product.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF VIAFLEX PLASTIC CONTAINER
For Information on Risk of Air Embolism - see Precautions
Tear overwrap down side at slit and remove solution container. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. The opacity will diminish gradually. Check for minute leaks by squeezing inner bag firmly. If leaks are found, discard solution as sterility may be impaired. If supplemental medication is desired, follow directions below.
Preparation for Administration
- Suspend container from eyelet support.
- Remove plastic protector from outlet port at bottom of container.
- Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set.
To Add Medication
- Prepare medication site.
- Using syringe with 19 to 22 gauge needle, puncture resealable medication port and inject.
- Mix solution and medication thoroughly. For high density medication such as potassium chloride, squeeze ports while ports are upright and mix thoroughly.
- Close clamp on the set.
- Prepare medication site.
- Using syringe with 19 to 22 gauge needle, puncture resealable medication port and inject.
- Remove container from IV pole and/or turn to an upright position.
- Evacuate both ports by squeezing them while container is in the upright position.
- Mix solution and medication thoroughly.
- Return container to in use position and continue administration.
Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Deerfield, IL 60015 USA
Printed in USA
*Bar Code Position Only
Rev. November 2011
BAXTER, VIAFLEX, and PL 146 are trademarks of
Baxter International Inc.
Package Label-Principle Display Panel
(M/6 Sodium Lactate)
EACH 100 mL CONTAINS 1.87g SODIUM LACTATE pH MAY HAVE BEEN
ADJUSTED WITH LACTIC ACID. pH 635 (6.0 TO 7.3) mEq/L SODIUM 167
LACTATE 167 OSMOLARITY 334 mOsmol/L (CALC) STERILE
NON-PYROGENIC SINGLE DOSE CONTAINER NOT FOR USE IN THE
TREATMENT OF LACTIC ACIDOSIS ADDITIVES MAY BE INCOMPATIBLE
CONSULT WITH A PHARMACIST IF AVAILABLE WHEN INTRODUCING ADDITIVES
USE ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE MIX THOROUGHLY DO NOT STORE DOSAGE
INTRAVENOUSLY AS DIRECTED BY A PHYSICIAN SEE DIRECTIONS
CAUTIONS SQUEEZE AND INSPECT INNER BAG WHICH MAINTAINS PRODUCT
STERILITY DISCARD IF LEAKS ARE FOUND MUST NOT BE USED IN SERIES
CONNECTIONS DO NOT USE UNLESS SOLUTION IS CLEAR RX ONLY
STORE UNIT IN MOISTURE BARRIER OVERWRAP AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
(25°C/77°F) UNTIL READY TO USE AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT SEE PACKAGE INSERT
PL 146 PLASTIC
FOR PRODUCT INFORMATION
BAXTER VIAFLEX AND
PL 146 ARE TRADEMARKS OF
BAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC
BAXTER HEALTHCARE CORPORATION
DEERFIELD IL 60015 USA
MADE IN USA
FOR HI-RES INK JET
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP
M/6 SODIUM LACTATE
SECONDARY BAR CODE
(17) YYMM00 (10) XXXX
PRIMARY BAR CODE
|SODIUM LACTATE |
Sodium Lactate Injection, solution
|Labeler - Baxter Healthcare Corporation (005083209)|
|Baxter Healthcare Corporation||059140764||MANUFACTURE|