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Insulin zinc Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings

Insulin zinc is also known as: Humulin L, Iletin II Lente Pork, Iletin Lente, Insulin Lente Pork, Lente Iletin II, Novolin L

Insulin zinc Pregnancy Warnings

Insulin has been assigned to pregnancy category B by the FDA. Insulin regular is the drug of choice for the treatment of diabetes during pregnancy. Data from human pregnancy have revealed an increased incidence of teratogenicity associated with diabetes mellitus; the association with the use of insulin is probably coincidental. Because of the strong association between diabetes or hyperglycemia and perinatal morbidity and multiple congenital malformations, most experts recommend strict control of maternal plasma glucose with the use of insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is only recommended for use during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.

See references

Insulin zinc Breastfeeding Warnings

Insulin is not excreted into human milk. Breast-feeding, however, may decrease insulin requirements, despite the need for increased caloric intake. Careful observation of increased maternal caloric needs and maternal blood glucose levels are needed. The manufacturer recommends that caution be used when administering insulin to nursing women.

See references

References for pregnancy information

  1. Crombach G, Siebolds M, Mies R "Insulin use in pregnancy. Clinical pharmacokinetic considerations." Clin Pharmacokinet 24 (1993): 89-100
  2. Breschi MC, Seghieri G, Bartolomei G, Gironi A, Baldi S, Ferrannini E "Relation of birthweight to maternal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during normal pregnancy." Diabetologia 36 (1993): 1315-21
  3. Steel JM, West CP "Intrauterine death during continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin." Br Med J 290 (1985): 1787
  4. Adam PA, Teramo K, Raiha N, Gitlin D, Schwartz R "Human fetal insulin metabolism early in gestation." Diabetes 18 (1969): 409-16
  5. Kitzmiller JL "Sweet success with diabetes. The development of insulin therapy and glycemic control for pregnancy." Diabetes Care 16 Suppl 3 (1993): 107-21
  6. Knopp RH, Van Allen MI, McNeely M, Walden CE, Plovie B, Shiota K, Brown Z "Effect of insulin-dependent diabetes on plasma lipoproteins in diabetic pregnancy." J Reprod Med 38 (1993): 703-10
  7. Hunter DJ, Burrows RF, Mohide PT, Whyte RK "Influence of maternal insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on neonatal morbidity." Can Med Assoc J 149 (1993): 47-52
  8. Menon RK, Cohen RM, Sperling MA, et al "Transplacental passage of insulin in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." N Engl J Med 323 (1990): 309-15
  9. Garner P "Type i diabetes mellitus and pregnancy." Lancet 346 (1995): 157-61
  10. Soler NG, Walsh CH, Malins JM "Congenital malformations in infants of diabetic mothers." Q J Med 45 (1976): 303-13
  11. Thompson DM, Dansereau J, Creed M, Ridell L "Tight glucose control results in normal perinatal outcome in 150 patients with gestational diabetes." Obstet Gynecol 83 (1994): 362-6
  12. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ.. "Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 5th ed." Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins (1998):
  13. Dignan PS "Teratogenic risk and counseling in diabetes." Clin Obstet Gynecol 24 (1981): 149-59
  14. Gabbe SG, Mestman JH, Freeman RK, et al. "Management and outcome of pregnancy in diabetes mellitus, Classes B to R." Am J Obstet Gynecol 129 (1977): 723-32
  15. Kjos SL, Henry OA, Montoro M, Buchanan TA, Mestman JH "Insulin-requiring diabetes in pregnancy: a randomized trial of active induction of labor and expectant management." Am J Obstet Gynecol 169 (1993): 611-5
  16. Burt RL, Davidson IW "Insulin half-life and utilization in normal pregnancy." J Obstet Gynaecol 43 (1974): 161-70
  17. Steel JM, Johnstone FD, Hume R, Mao JH "Insulin requirements during pregnancy in women with type I diabetes." Obstet Gynecol 83 (1994): 250-8
  18. Stangenberg M, Persson B, Stange L, Carlstrom K "Insulin-induced hypoglycemia in pregnant diabetics." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 62 (1983): 249-52
  19. Miller E, Hare JW, Cloherty JP, et al. "Elevated maternal hemoglobin A in early pregnancy and major congenital anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers." N Engl J Med 304 (1981): 1331-4

References for breastfeeding information

  1. Neville MC, Sawicki VS, Hay WW Jr "Effects of fasting concentrations on milk secretion in women." J Endocrinol 139 (1993): 165-73
  2. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ.. "Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 5th ed." Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins (1998):
  3. Neubauer SH, Ferris AM, Chase CG, Fanelli J, Thompson CA, Lammi-Keefe CJ, Clark RM, Jensen RG, Bendel RB, Green KW "Delayed lactogenesis in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." Am J Clin Nutr 58 (1993): 54-60

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