Codeine / promethazine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Codeine / promethazine Pregnancy Warnings
Codeine-promethazine has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. Codeine is the only narcotic analgesic which has shown a statistically significant association with teratogenicity (involving respiratory tract malformations) at the time of this writing. Like other narcotics, codeine rapidly crosses the placenta. Neonatal codeine withdrawal has occurred even in infants whose mothers were taking codeine at cough suppressant doses for as little as ten days prior to delivery. Promethazine taken within two weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. Codeine-promethazine is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs risk.
Codeine / promethazine Breastfeeding Warnings
The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory regarding a very rare, but serious, side effect. This may occur in nursing infants whose mothers are taking codeine and are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. When codeine enters the body and is metabolized, it changes to morphine, which relieves pain. Many factors affect codeine metabolism, including a person's genetic make-up. Some people have a variation in a liver enzyme and may change codeine to morphine more rapidly and completely than other people. Nursing mothers taking codeine may also have higher morphine levels in their breast milk. These higher levels of morphine in breast milk may lead to life-threatening or fatal side effects in nursing babies. In most cases, it is not known if someone is an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine. When prescribing codeine-containing drugs to nursing mothers, it is recommended that the lowest effective dose be used for the shortest period of time. It is also recommended that the mother-infant pairs be closely monitored. There is an FDA cleared test for determining a patient's CYP450 2D6 genotype. The test is not routinely used in clinical practice but is available through a number of different laboratories. The results of this test predict that a person can convert codeine to morphine at a faster rate than average, resulting in higher morphine levels in the blood. When levels of morphine are too high, patients have an increased risk of adverse events.
Codeine is excreted into human milk in small amounts. Several small series and one small retrospective study suggest that codeine may be causative in episodes of apnea, bradycardia and cyanosis in the first week of life. The FDA issued a Public Health Advisory about a very rare, but serious, side effect in nursing infants whose mothers are taking codeine and are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. Codeine is nevertheless considered compatible with breast-feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics. There are no data on the excretion of promethazine into human milk. However, passage of the drug into breast milk is expected.
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