Chlorpheniramine / dihydrocodeine / pseudoephedrine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings
Chlorpheniramine / dihydrocodeine / pseudoephedrine Pregnancy Warnings
Chlorpheniramine/dihydrocodeine/pseudoephedrine has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA. Animal studies have not been conducted with this combination product. There are no controlled data in human pregnancy. In the pregnancy section of the product labeling for Hydro-Tussin DHC, the manufacturer states "This combination product should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed, especially during the first trimester." However, in the contraindications section of the product labeling, the manufacturer of Hydro-Tussin DHC states that "This product is contraindicated in women who are pregnant." (This may be due to the fact that with conservative use, dihydrocodeine is relatively safe for use in pregnancy. However, if used for prolonged periods or in high doses at term, dihydrocodeine represents a significantly greater risk when used in pregnancy.) The manufacturer further states that the product is "... not recommended for use by women during and immediately before labor and delivery because oral opioids may cause respiratory depression in the newborn."
Chlorpheniramine/dihydrocodeine/pseudoephedrine is not recommended for use by women during and immediately before labor and delivery because oral opioids may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Babies born to mothers who have been taking opioids regularly prior to delivery will be physically dependent. The withdrawal signs include irritability and excessive crying, tremors, hyperactive reflexes, increased respiratory rate, increased stools, sneezing, yawning, vomiting, and fever. The intensity of the syndrome does not always correlate with the duration of the maternal opioid use or dose. The Collaborative Perinatal Project monitored 1,070 first trimester exposures and 3,931 exposures which occurred anytime during pregnancy. No evidence was found to suggest a relationship to large categories of malformations. Antihistamine exposure in the first trimester in general was not associated with an increased risk of malformations. Babies born to mothers who have been taking opioids regularly prior to delivery are likely to be physically dependent. Withdrawal signs have included irritability and excessive crying, tremors, hyperactive reflexes, increased respiratory rate, increased stools, sneezing, yawning, vomiting, and fever. The intensity of the syndrome does not always correlate with the duration of maternal opioid use or dose. To treat opioid withdrawal symptoms in infants, chlorpromazine 0.7 to 1.0 mg/kg every six hours, phenobarbital 2 mg/kg every six hours, or paregoric 2 to 4 drops/kg every four hours have been used. The duration of therapy is 4 to 28 days, with the dosages decreased as tolerated.
Chlorpheniramine / dihydrocodeine / pseudoephedrine Breastfeeding Warnings
There are no data on the excretion of chlorpheniramine into human milk. However, because other antihistamines are excreted into human milk in low concentrations, the manufacturer of chlorpheniramine recommends that caution be used when administering chlorpheniramine to nursing women. There are no data on the excretion of dihydrocodeine into human milk. However, because other opiates (e.g. morphine) are excreted into human milk and because the molecular weight of dihydrocodeine bitartrate is low enough, the presence of dihydrocodeine in the milk would be expected. Pseudoephedrine is excreted into human milk. Three mothers given pseudoephedrine demonstrated milk concentrations consistently higher than plasma concentrations. Maximum milk concentrations were reached at 1 to 1.5 hours after dosing. In one woman, the milk:plasma concentration ratio at 1, 3, and 12 hours was 3.3, 3.9, and 2.6. The authors calculated that 1000 mL of breast milk consumed over 24 hours would provide an infant with 0.25 to 0.33 mg of pseudoephedrine, or 0.5% to 0.7% of the dose ingested by the mother. There are no reports of adverse effects in infants who were exposed to pseudoephedrine in breast milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers pseudoephedrine to be compatible with breast-feeding.
There are no data on the excretion of the combination product chlorpheniramine/dihydrocodeine/PSE into human milk. Pseudoephedrine is excreted into human milk.
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