(SOW dee um AS e tate)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Solution, Intravenous, as anhydrous:
Generic: 2 mEq/mL (20 mL, 50 mL, 100 mL); 4 mEq/mL (50 mL, 100 mL)
- Electrolyte Supplement, Parenteral
Use: Labeled Indications
Sodium source in large volume IV fluids to prevent or correct hyponatremia in patients with restricted intake; used to counter acidosis through conversion to bicarbonate
Hypernatremia and fluid retention
Sodium acetate is metabolized to bicarbonate on an equimolar basis outside the liver; administer in large volume IV fluids as a sodium source. Refer to Sodium Bicarbonate monograph.
Maintenance electrolyte requirements of sodium in parenteral nutrition solutions:
Daily requirements: 3-4 mEq/kg/24 hours or 25-40 mEq/1000 kcal/24 hours
Maximum: 100-150 mEq/24 hours
Dosage adjustment in renal impairment: No dosage adjustment provided in manufacturer’s labeling. Use with caution.
Dosage adjustment in hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment provided in manufacturer’s labeling. Use with caution.
Must be diluted prior to IV administration; infuse hypertonic solutions (eg, >2.8% sodium acetate in sterile water [2.8% sodium acetate in sterile water has osmolarity approximately equivalent to 2% sodium chloride]) via a central line (Mortimer, 2006; Suarez, 2004). If diluted in D5W or other solution, the osmolarity may be higher requiring central line administration at a lower sodium acetate concentration.
Consult individual institutional policies and procedures.
Sodium acetate anhydrous (2 mEq/mL): 1 mL = 164 mg sodium acetate anhydrous = 2 mEq of sodium (46 mg) and acetate (118 mg)
Store at room temperature of 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).
There are no known significant interactions.
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Thrombosis, hypervolemia
Dermatologic: Chemical cellulitis at injection site (extravasation)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hypernatremia, dilution of serum electrolytes, overhydration, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia
Gastrointestinal: Gastric distension, flatulence
Respiratory: Pulmonary edema
Miscellaneous: Congestive conditions
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Hypernatremia: Close monitoring of serum sodium concentrations is needed to avoid hypernatremia.
• Acid/base disorders: Use with caution in patients with acid/base alterations; contains acetate, monitor closely during acid/base correction.
• Edema: Use with caution in edematous patients.
• Heart failure (HF): Use extreme caution in patients with HF; monitor closely for edema.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; monitor serum sodium concentrations closely.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Aluminum: The parenteral product may contain aluminum; toxic aluminum concentrations may be seen with high doses, prolonged use, or renal dysfunction. Premature neonates are at higher risk due to immature renal function and aluminum intake from other parenteral sources. Parenteral aluminum exposure of >4 to 5 mcg/kg/day is associated with CNS and bone toxicity; tissue loading may occur at lower doses (Federal Register, 2002). See manufacturer’s labeling.
• Extravasation: Avoid extravasation.
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. Sodium requirements do not change during pregnancy (IOM, 2004).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience hypocalcemia or edema. Have patient report immediately to prescriber dyspnea (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.