Tansy

Scientific Name(s): Tanacetum vulgare L., Chrysanthemum vulgare [L.] Bernh. Family: Asteraceae (daisies)

Common Name(s): Tansy , garden tansy , 1 scented fern , stinking willie , bitter or golden buttons , 1 , 2 parsley fern . 2 Do not confuse with other plants referred to as “tansy,” such as the tansy ragworts ( Senecio species).

Uses

Tansy has no role in modern herbal medicine. Although it is toxic, tansy has been used as a vermifuge, emmenagogue, and antispasmodic. Efficacy has not been proven.

Dosing

There is no clinical evidence to support a specific dosage of tansy. Classical use of the oil as an anthelmintic was at a dose of 0.1 g/day.

Contraindications

No longer considered safe.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Documented adverse effects (emmenagogue and abortifacient effects). Avoid use. 3 , 4

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Tansy may cause contact dermatitis.

Toxicology

Internal poisoning may occur with symptoms of rapid and feeble pulse, severe gastritis, violent spasms, and convulsions. Deaths have been associated with ingestion of the essential oil and tansy infusion (tea).

Botany

Tansy is indigenous to Europe and was introduced to North America either for use in folk remedies or as an ornamental plant. It is an invader of disturbed sites and is commonly found on roadsides and waste areas throughout temperate regions of North America. 1 Tansy is listed as a “noxious weed” in several states. 5

The hardy, aromatic, perennial plant grows erect in large clusters to about 0.5 to 1 m in height but can occasionally grow to nearly 2 m. Stems are smooth or mostly hairless, often purplish-red in color, and branch extensively at the top. The stalkless leaves grow alternately around the stem and are narrow, lance-shaped, and finely divided into leaflets, giving the plant a fern-like appearance. From July to October, mature plants bear dense, flat-topped clusters of small, button-like, yellow flowers, about one-half inch wide. 6 Seeds are yellowish-brown with short, 5-toothed crowns. When crushed, the plant emits a strong, aromatic odor sometimes described as unpleasant. Tansy ragwort ( Senecio jacobea ) can be distinguished from common tansy by its ray flowers (petals), absence of sharp-toothed leaves, and a long fringe of soft, white hairs on the seeds. 1

History

Tansy has been used extensively in traditional medicine for centuries, despite recognition of its potential toxicity. Records of its uses, kept by Charlemagne as well as Swiss Benedictine monks in the 8th century, still exist; tansy was used for the treatment of intestinal worms, rheumatism, fevers, and digestive disorders. Large doses were used to induce abortions. Conversely, smaller doses were thought to enhance fertility and prevent miscarriages. 1 Other indications included treatment of gout, hysteria, kidney weakness, and flatulence. In moderate doses, tansy was used as an antispasmodic. Medieval records also note tansy as a culinary agent used to replace nutmeg and cinnamon, and as a bitter-tasting tea. Tansy pudding was a delicacy commonly associated with the Lenten fast.

Early American history records the use of tansy for funeral shrouds and wreaths. In 1668, the first president of Harvard University was buried in a tansy-lined coffin wearing a tansy wreath. When the Harvard cemetery was relocated in 1846, the tansy in the coffin still held its shape and fragrance. 1 Colonial Americans exploited the preservative properties of tansy, using it for packing meat and other perishable goods. A 17th century governor of Massachusetts listed tansy as a necessary plant for colonial herb gardens. American Indians reportedly used tansy as an insect repellant. 7

Tansy is also reputed to have had a place in Greek funeral rites. The name tansy is said to derive from the Greek word athanon , or immortal , either because of the flower's long-lasting nature or because of its ability to preserve dead bodies from decomposition.

Chemistry

Analysis of tansy plant extracts has identified 6 chemotypes distinguished by the components of their essential oil. 8 Fresh tansy yields between 0.2% and 0.6% volatile oil of highly variable composition. 9 Variability is further increased, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by the extraction method used. 7 The volatile oil is dominated by terpenes. In plants grown in the United States, Canada, and England, the major constituent is β-thujone. 7 , 9 Some genotypes contain as much as 95% thujone, 10 , 11 while other varieties are almost thujone-free. 12 Major constituents of other genotypes include camphor, isopinocamphone, trans-chrysanthenyl acetate, sabinene, bornyl acetate, or germacrene D. 13 Sesquiterpene lactones, principally parthenolide, are primary components of strains devoid of thujone. 10 The presence of flavones eupatorin, jaceosidin, 14 apigenin, diosmetin, jaceidin, jaeosidin, and quercetin also has been recorded. 10

The association between morphological attributes and chemical composition has been investigated in Finnish tansy. 9 Strains with the tallest shoots were associated with high yields of camphor and 1,8-cineole. Mixed chemotypes had the shortest shoots.

Uses and Pharmacology

Evidence to support the use of tansy for any pharmacologic indication is lacking. Although roundworms are stunned by thujone and then expelled by the peristaltic action of the intestine, the risk of toxicity is too high to justify use as an anthelmintic. Similarly, use of tansy as an emmenagogue or abortifacient is dangerous. 10

Anti-inflammatory

Parthenolide, the major component of some genotypes, impairs platelet activation, induces cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, and activates NF-κB. 14

Animal data

Mouse-ear edema was inhibited 93% by a parthenolide-rich fraction of a tansy extract. Similar inhibition occurred with indomethacin (85%) and a jaceosidin-rich fraction (80%). Effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema were more modest (25% and 8% for parthenolide and jaceosidin fractions, respectively). 14

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of tansy for anti-inflammatory indications.

Antiulcer

Sesquiterpene lactones have a cytoprotective effect against gastric ulcers, possibly related to interactions between the α-methylene-γ-lactone group and thiol constituents in the gastric mucosa. Additionally, flavonoids isolated from tansy may have a topical effect on ulcers. 15

Animal data

A dose-dependent reduction in ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats was seen with a chloroform extract of a parthenolide-rich genotype of T. vulgare . Ulcer inhibition was similar for animals given chloroform extract or parthenolide (71% and 91% ulcer inhibition, respectively, at a dose of 40 mg/kg).

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of tansy as an antiulcer agent.

Antimicrobial

Tansy has some degree of in vitro antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive 16 , 17 and gram-negative bacteria. 17 Organisms susceptible to a hydroalcoholic extract of T. vulgare include Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Some activity against Candida krusei and C. tropicalis was also observed.

Animal data

Aqueous extracts of the plant partially inactivate tick-borne encephalitis virus in vitro but have been found to induce resistance to the virus in infected mice. 18

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of tansy as an antimicrobial agent.

Insecticidal

Oil of tansy has a strong, insect-repellent property, but the acaricidal property is affected by the method of extraction. Bioassays have associated the presence of 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate, ρ-cymene, γ-terpinene, and camphor with the strongest repellent activity 8 and β-thujone with insecticidal properties. 7 Colorado potato beetles ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) were strongly repelled by a commercial oil of tansy and a steam distillate of fresh leaves and flowers of tansy. 8 Inhibition of the feeding activity of the cabbage aphid ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) by a preparation of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from T. vulgare was 80% to 100%. High activity against the flour beetle ( Tenebrio molitor ), greenhouse whitefly ( Trialerodes vaporariorium ), and Teranychus urtiae Koch was also noted. 19

The extraction process affected mortality of spider mites treated with a 4% extract of tansy. Mortality rates for extracts obtained by distillation in water or steam was 60% and 75%, respectively, compared with 16% for a microwave-assisted extraction process. LC 50 values were 0.054 and 0.046 mg/cm 2 for water and steam-assisted distillation processes, respectively. LC 50 values for the microwave-assisted process were inconclusive. The active agent in this study was probably β-thujone, the main component in all 3 extracts (87% to 92%). 7

Dosage

There is no clinical evidence to support specific dosage of tansy. Classical use of the oil as an anthelmintic was at a dose of 0.1 g/day.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Documented adverse effects (emmenagogue and abortifacient effects). Avoid use. 3 , 4

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Ingestion of tansy and its extracts has been reported to cause serious systemic toxicity in animals and humans. Fatalities have occurred.

Prolonged exposure to tansy may cause contact dermatitis 20 ; an extract of tansy is routinely included in the standard testing mixture for Asteraceae allergy. 21 , 22 A strong cross-sensitivity between chrysanthemum and tansy exists; the presence of parthenolide in both species may be a possible cause. 22 Arbusculin-A and tanacetin have also been indicated as sensitizing agents. 13 Prevalence of hypersensitivity to tansy has been reported as 60.6% 21 to 77% 22 of patients sensitive to Asteraceae (approximately 2% of the European patient population tested). Patients exhibiting the symptoms of contact dermatitis may have been exposed to the plants occupationally (flower trade), in their own gardens, or through the use of natural cosmetics, soaps, or shampoos. Clinically, lesions occur most often on the face, fingers, hands, and forearms. 23

Toxicology

As little as 10 drops of the oil may be lethal, but survival has been reported after ingestion of 15 mL. 13 , 24 The tea also has been fatal. 24 Symptoms of internal tansy poisoning include rapid and feeble pulse, severe gastritis, violent spasms, convulsions, and uterine bleeding; treatment with gastric lavage or emesis has been suggested, followed by symptomatic treatment. 25 Thujone is probably responsible for much of the toxicity associated with the plant. Chronic poisoning from prolonged use is also likely.

Bibliography

1. LeCain R , Sheley R . Common Tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare ). Montana State University Extension Service. May 2006. Available at: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/mt9911.html . Accessed January 29, 2007.
2. Meyer JE . The Herbalist . Hammond, IN: Hammond Book Co.; 1934.
3. Newall CA , Anderson LA , Phillipson JD , eds. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals . London: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996.
4. Ernst E . Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG . 2002;109:227-235.
5. Tanacetum vulgare L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , 13 February 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
6. Magic and Medicine of Plants . Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association; 1986.
7. Chiasson H , Bélanger A , Bostanian N , Vincent C , Poliquin A . Acaricidal properties of Artemesia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction . J Econ Entomol . 2001;94:167-171.
8. Schearer WR . Components of oil of tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare ) that repel Colorado potato beetles ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) . J Nat Prod . 1984;47:964-969.
9. Keskitalo M , Pehu E , Simon JE . Variation in volatile compounds from tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L.) related to genetic and morphological differences of genotypes . Biochem Syst Ecol . 2001:29;267-285.
10. Awang DV . Herbal medicine: tansy . Can Pharm J . 1995;128:46-48.
11. Gallino M . Essential oil from Tanacetum vulgare growing spontaneously in “Tierra del Fuego” (Argentina) . Planta Med . 1988;54:182.
12. Duke JA . CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs . Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1985.
13. Hendriks H , et al. The essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare . Planta Med . 1989;55:212.
14. Schinella GR , Giner RM , Recio MC , Mordujovich de Buschiazzo P , Rios JL , Manez S . Anti-inflammatory effects of South American Tanacetum vulgare . J Pharm Pharmacol . 1998;50:1069-1074.
15. Tournier H , Schinella G , de Balsa EM , Buschiazzo H , Manez S , Mordujovich de Buschiazzo P . Effect of the chloroform extract of Tanacetum vulgare and one of its active principles, parthenolide, on experimental gastric ulcer in rats . J Pharm Pharmacol . 1999;51:215-219.
16. Holopainen M , Kaupinnen V . Antimicrobial activity of different chemotypes of Finnish tansy . Planta Med . 1989;55:102.
17. Holetz FB , Pessini GL , Sanches NR , Cortez DA , Nakamura CV , Filho BP . Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases . Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz . 2002;97:1027-1031.
18. Fokina GI , Frolova TV , Roikhel VM , Pogodina VV . Experimental phytotherapy of tick-borne encephalitis [in Russian]. Vopr Virusol . 1991;36:18-21.
19. Adekenov SM , Zapolskya-Dovnar GM , Belyaev N . Repellent activity sesquiterpene lactones of Tanacetum vulgare L . Institute of Phytochemistry of Ministry of Sciences, Kazakhstan. 13th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Chemical Ecology. 1996; Prague, Czech Republic.
20. Hausen BM , Oestmann G . The incidence of occupationally-induced allergic skin diseases in a large flower market [in German]. Derm Beruf Umwelt . 1988;36:117-124.
21. Hausen BM . A 6-year experience with compositae mix . Am J Contact Dermat . 1996;7:94-99.
22. Paulsen E , Andersen KE , Hausen BM . Sensitization and cross-reaction patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients . Contact Dermatitis . 2001;45:197-204.
23. Esoteric Oils (Pty) Ltd. Tansy Essential Oil Information. Available at: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/tansy.htm . Accessed January 29, 2007.
24. The Dispensatory of the United States of America . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Grigg & Elliott; 1960.
25. Hardin JW , Arena JM . Human Poisoning From Native and Cultivated Plants . 2nd ed. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; 1974.

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