Scientific Name(s): Pistacia lentiscus L. Family. Anacardiaceae
Common Name(s): Mastic , mastick (tree) , mastix , mastich , lentisk
Uses of Mastic
The pharmacology and medicinal use of mastic is diverse. The resin has been used in cancer, infection, surgical wound adhesion, and ulcers. Studies also document its use as an antioxidant and an insecticide, and for treatment of high cholesterol, Crohn disease, diabetes, and hypertension. However, clinical trials to support these uses are limited.
Mastic resin has been studied as a treatment for ulcers at a dosage of 1 g daily. Various commercial products are available including Mastika , which contains mastic gum 250 mg in capsule form. The manufacturer's dosage guidelines are 4 capsules by mouth before bed or on an empty stomach for 4 weeks, followed by a maintenance dosage of 2 capsules daily to maintain GI health.
Avoid use with hypersensitivity to any ingredients of mastic gum as well as with pollen hypersensitivity.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
Mastic Adverse Reactions
Most adverse reactions are associated with hypersensitivity to the plant or to allergic reactions.
Most toxicity involves allergic reactions.
Mastic is collected from an evergreen, dioecious shrub, which can grow to about 3 m in height. It is native to the Mediterranean region, primarily in the Greek island of Chios. Its leaves are green, leather-like, and oval. The small flowers grow in clusters and are reddish to green. The fruit is an orange-red drupe that ripens to black.
Mastic is tapped from June to August by making numerous, longitudinal gouges in the tree bark. An oleoresin exudes and hardens into an oval tear shape, about the size of a pea (3 mm). The transparent, yellow-green resin is collected every 15 days. If chewed, it becomes “plastic,” with a balsamic/turpentine-like odor and taste. A related species is Pistacia vera , the pistachio nut. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
Mastic resin was used in ancient Egypt as incense and to embalm the dead. 3 , 6 It has also been used as a preservative and a breath sweetener. Mastic oil was mentioned by Dioskourides in ancient Grecian times and by Christopher Columbus in 1493. Mastic resin is still used as a flavoring in some Greek alcoholic beverages (eg, retsina wine) and in chewing gum from Chios. 6
Commercial application of mastic resin includes its use as an adherent, in protecting luster for glass, porcelain, bone, wood, and metal. Mastic resin is used in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, in some cosmetic mixtures and perfumery, and in dentistry as a filling material ingredient and in toothpaste production. The resin has been used traditionally as a chewing gum and for use against lip dryness. 7
Mastic is an oleoresin containing approximately 2% volatile oil. 2 , 4 The resin contains alpha and beta masticoresins, masticin, mastic acid, masticoresene, and tannins. 3 It is a complex mixture of tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic triterpene acids and alcohols. 8 Reports of certain fractions from the plant include polymer fraction isolation/characterization, 9 , 10 and acidic triterpenic fractions of mastic gum. 11
The essential oil component in mastic contains more than 70 compounds, some of the primary constituents being alpha-pinene, myrcene, caryophyllene, beta-pinene, linalool, and germacrene D. 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 A later report lists certain percentages of essential oils from galls and aerial parts of the plant, such as sequiterpene hydrocarbons (47%), beta-caryophyllene (13%), and cadinene (8%). 17 Essential oil composition in the species P. lentiscus differs from region to region. Reports from the areas of Chios, 18 Egypt, 19 and Corsica 20 are available. Essential oil chemical composition in mastic also changes with solidification and storage, 21 as well as with the time of year samples are taken. 22 Chemical composition of various parts of the plant have been discussed, including leaves, fruits, and aerial parts. 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 Lipids in the bark of P. lentiscus have been addressed. 27
Mastic Uses and Pharmacology
The pharmacology and use of mastic are diverse.Cancer
In vitro, Chios mastic gum treatment of human colon cancer cells induced cell arrest at cell cycle G1, detachment of the cells from the substrate, activation of pro-caspases-8, -9 and -3, and other changes typical of apoptosis in cell organelles. 28 , 29
Mechanism of action against human leukemia cells and endothelial cell proliferation is associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (involved with controlling leukemia cell proliferation) and RhoA (involved with regulating neovessel organization). 30
The monoterpene alpha-pinene may be associated with the mechanism of action repressing androgen receptor expression in a prostate cancer cell line. 31 Mastic gum inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer cells by suppressing nuclear factor kB activity and nuclear factor kB signal pathway. 32 Gum mastic enhanced gene maspin activity by suppressing androgen receptor activity and increasing Sp1 (involved in regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and angio-genesis) binding activity. 33In vitro
A 50% ethanol Chios mastic gum (CMG) extract induced apoptotic death of human colon cancer cells. The CMG extract induced an anoikis form of cell death associated with caspase-dependent pathways. 28 , 29
Mastic oil exerted an antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on human leukemia cells and inhibited the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from mouse melanoma cells. It also exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, with no affect on cell cycle survival, and a decrease of microvessel formation. 30
Mastic gum inhibited androgen-stimulated growth of a prostate cancer cell line and the expression of several androgen up-regulated genes. Mastic gum inhibited 2 proteins, cyclin D1 and p21, believed to be associated with cell proliferation and survival. Mastic gum also decreased prostate-specific antigen and expression of androgen receptor expression, resulting in down-regulation of both androgen receptor messenger DNA and protein levels. 31 Another study reported that mastic gum inhibits the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through nuclear factor proteins involved with immune and inflammatory responses. 32 Mastic gum also inhibited androgen receptor function and increased androgen-mediated gene maspin (protease inhibitor with tumor suppressive activity) in a prostate cancer cell line. 33Infection
Activity against several bacterial and fungal pathogens is documented in the scientific literature. Clinical trials document oral antiseptic activity for use in dentistry.In vitro
The monoterpenes are the primary chemical components contributing to the antibacterial activity of mastic oil against gram-positive and gram-negative strains. 34 , 35 Activity against the following organisms is documented: Sarcina lutea , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Bacillus subtilis . 36
Mastic also possesses antifungal activity. The growth of the fungi Candida albicans , C. parapsilosis , Torulopsis glabrata , and Trichophyton sp. have been inhibited by mastic. 37 Activity is documented against the agricultural pathogen Rhizoctonia solani 7 and Aspergillus flavus . 38Clinical data
The antibacterial activity and commercial use of mastic gum is documented against oral pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli , primarily associated with dental caries. Mastic versus placebo gum had antibacterial activity against S. mutans and mutans streptococci in a preliminary study of 25 periodontally-healthy patients. 39 Another study reported similar results, 40 with growth inhibition against lactobacilli in saliva of orthodontically-treated patients with fixed appliances chewing mastic versus placebo gum.Surgical wound adhesive
A comparative study documented that mastic gum ( Mastisol ) adhesive plus surgical adhesive strips exhibited the strongest adhesion when compared with 4 other anchoring methods. 41 , 42 Mastic gum adhesive has a lower incidence of postoperative contact dermatitis and skin discoloration, 43 as well as providing increased adhesiveness compared with compound tincture of benzoin. 44Ulcer
Microdilution assay revealed that mastic gum killed 50% of the isolates of H. pylori strains tested at a concentration of 125 mcg/mL and 90% at a concentration of 500 mcg/mL. 47Animal data
A report in rats proposed antisecretory and cytoprotective effects of mastic. 48 A study in mice with mastic extracts and isolated pure triterpenic acids (or mastic extract without polymer) documents greater activity with the latter compound against H. pylori . 46 Another study in mice concluded that monotherapy with mastic was not efficacious in eradicating H. pylori infection. 49Clinical data
A double-blind, controlled clinical trial of 38 patients with duodenal ulcers given mastic 1 g daily for 2 weeks exhibited ulcer-healing effects determined by endoscopy compared with placebo. 50 A letter in the New England Journal of Medicine discusses this study, as well as others, concluding that mastic 1 g daily for 2 weeks can rapidly cure peptic ulcers. Its antibacterial actions against H. pylori may explain, in part, these beneficial effects. 51 However, another clinical study of 8 patients concluded that mastic gum had no effect on eradicating H. pylori . 52Other pharmacological activity
The antioxidant activity of the plant against free radicals is well documented. 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 Anthocyanins, 55 tannins (eg, gallic acid), 56 and tocopherol content 57 , 58 , 59 all contribute to its activity.Cholesterol
An animal study documents the effects on blood lipids by mastic. 60 In another study, patients consuming Chios mastic powder exhibited a decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B, liver enzymes, gamma-GT levels, and glucose levels. 61 , 62Crohn disease
A 4-week pilot study examined the efficacy of mastic capsules (6 capsules per day or mastic 0.37 g per capsule) administered to 18 patients (8 controls) with mild to moderately active Crohn disease. Mastic was effective in regulating inflammatory mediators such as CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 in plasma, and oxidative stress. The therapy induced remission in 7 out of 10 patients. Nutritional status also improved in patients as a result of mastic therapy. 63Diabetes
An herbal mixture including mastic was effective in treating diabetic rats. 64Hypertension
Mastic has proven to be an effective insecticide. 66
Mastic resin has been studied as a treatment for ulcers at a daily dose of 1 g daily. 50 Various commercial products are available including Mastika , which contains mastic gum 250 mg in capsule form. The manufacturer dosage guidelines are 4 capsules by mouth before bedtime or on an empty stomach for 4 weeks followed by a maintenance dose of 2 capsules daily to maintain GI health. 67
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
Most adverse reactions are associated with hypersensitivity to the plant species or allergic reactions.
Most toxicity related to mastic or source P. lentiscus involves allergic reactions. The plant pollen is a major source for allergic reactions. 68 , 69 , 70 The first report of immunological reactions to pollen extracts of Pistacia genus occurred in 1987. 68 A monographic review of mastic's chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity is available. 71 Children ingesting mastic may develop diarrhea. 72
A 13-week toxicity study in rats documented changes in hematological parameters including increased white blood cell and platelet counts. Increases in total proteins, albumin, and total cholesterol were also documented. Liver weights increased in a dose-dependent manner and decreased body weight was documented at high doses. 73 Interestingly, some studies report hepatoprotective effects 74 from the aqueous extracts, while others identify hepatotoxic effects. 75
Bibliography1. Youngken H. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: P. Blakiston's Son & Co; 1950:535-536.
2. Budavari S, et al, eds. The Merck Index . 11th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co, Inc, 1989:92.
3. Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . New York, NY: DK Publishing; 1996:249.
4. Evans W. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy . 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company Ltd; 1996: 290-291.
5. Lawless J. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils . Rockport, MA: Element Books; 1995: 203.
6. Pistacia lentiscus . Plants for a future . http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pistacia+lentiscus . Accessed August 12, 2008.
7. Duru ME, Cakir A, Kordali S, et al. Chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of three Pistacia species. Fitoterapia . 2003;74(1-2):170-176.
8. Marner F, et al. Triterpenoids from gum mastic, the resin of Pistacia lentiscus . Phytochemistry . 1991;30:3709-3712.
9. Sanz M, Terencio MC, Paya M. Isolation and hypotensive activity of a polymeric procyanidin fraction from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie . 1992;47(6):466-467.
10. van den Berg KJ, van der Horst J, Boon JJ, Sudmeijer OO. Cis-1,4-poly-β-myrcene; the structure of the polymeric fraction of mastic resin ( Pistacia lentiscus L) elucidated. Tetrahedron Lett . 1998;39(17):2645-2648.
11. Papageorgiou VP, Bakola Christianopoulou MN, Apazidou KK, Psarros EE. Gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis of the acidic triterpenic fraction of mastic gum. J Chromatogr . 1997;769(2):263-273.
12. Calabro G, et al. Constituents of essential oils. IV. Essence of lentiscus ( Pistacia lentiscus ). Atti - Conv Naz Olii Essenz Sui Deriv Agrum . 1974:1-2;8-18.
13. Calabro G, et al. Essential oil constituents. IV. Essence of lentisc. Essenze Deriv Agrum . 1974;44:82-92.
14. Papageorgiou VP, Sagredos AN, Moser R. GLC-MS computer analysis of the essential oil of mastic gum. Chem Chron . 1981;10:119-124.
15. Papageorgiou VP, et al. The chemical composition of the essential oil of mastic gum. J Essent Oil Res . 1991;3:107-110.
16. Magiatis P, Melliou E, Skaltsounis AL, Chinou IB, Mitaku S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. Planta Med . 1999;65(8):749-752.
17. Fernandez A, et al. Composition of the essential oils from galls and aerial parts of Pistacia lentiscus L. J Essent Oil Res . 2000;12:19-23.
18. Katsiotis S, et al. Qualitative and quantitative GLC analysis of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus (Mastix) from different districts of the Chios Island. Epistm Ekdosis . 1984;10:17-28.
19. De Pooter H, et al. Essential oils from the leaves of three Pistacia species grown in Egypt. Flavour Fragrance J . 1991;6:229-232.
20. Castola V, et al. Analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Corsica. EPPOS . 1996;7:558-563.
21. Papanicolaou D, et al. Changes in chemical composition of the essential oil of Chios “mastic resin” from Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia tree during solidification and storage. Dev Food Sci . 1995;37A:303-310.
22. Medina Carnicer M, et al. The Mediterranean shrubby vegetation. X. Evolution of chemical composition of Pistacia lentiscus L. (Lentisco). Arch Zootech . 1979;28:105-109.
23. Boelens M, et al. Chemical composition of the essential oils from the gum and from various parts of Pistacia lentiscus L. (mastic gum tree). Flavour Fragrance J . 1991;6:271-275.
24. Fleisher Z, et al. Volatiles of the mastic tree — Pistacia lentiscus L. aromatic plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part X. J Essent Oil Res . 1992;4:663-665.
25. Wyllie S, et al. Volatile components of the fruit of Pistacia lentiscus . J Food Sci . 1990;55:1325-1326.
26. Bonsignore L, et al. GC-MS and GC-FTIR analysis of the volatile fraction of Pistacia lentiscus L. aerial parts. Boll Chim Farm . 1998;137:476-479.
27. Diamantoglou S, et al. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of barks and leaves of Pistacia lentiscus , Pistacia terebinthus and Pistacia vera during a year. Z Pflanzenphysiol . 1979;93:219-228.
28. Balan KV, Demetzos C, Prince J, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells treated with an extract of the plant product, Chios mastic gum. In Vivo . 2005;19(1):93-102.
29. Balan KV, Prince J, Han Z, et al. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells treated in vitro with constituents of a product derived from Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia. Phytomedicine . 2007;14(4):263-272.
30. Loutrari H, Magkouta S, Pyriochou A, et al. Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus var. chia inhibits growth and survival of human K562 leukemia cells and attenuates angiogenesis. Nutr Cancer . 2006;55(1):86-93.
31. He ML, Yuan HQ, Jiang AL, et al. Gum mastic inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer . 2006;106(12):2547-2555.
32. He ML, Li A, Xu CS, et al. Mechanisms of antiprostate cancer by gum mastic: NF-kappaB signal as target. Acta Pharmacol Sin . 2007;28(3):446-452.
33. He ML, Chen WW, Zhang PJ, et al. Gum mastic increases maspin expression in prostate cancer cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin . 2007;28(4):567-572.
34. Tassou C, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of mastic gum ( Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) on gram positive and gram negative bacteria in broth and in model food system. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation . 1995;36:411-420.
35. Koutsoudaki C, Krsek M, Rodger A. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil and the gum of Pistacia lentiscus Var. chia. J Agric Food Chem . 2005;53(20):7681-7685.
36. Iauk L, Ragusa S, Rapisarda A, Franco S, Nicolosi VM. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. extracts: Preliminary report. J Chemother . 1996;8(3):207-209.
37. Ali-Shtayeh M, et al. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses . 1999;42:665-672.
38. Barra A, Coroneo V, Dessi S, Cabras P, Angioni A. Characterization of the volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from different origins and its antifungal and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem . 2007;55(17):7093-7098.
39. Aksoy A, Duran N, Koksal F. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and Mutans streptococci . Arch Oral Biol . 2006;51(6):476-481.
40. Aksoy A, Duran N, Toroglu S, Koksal F. Short-term effect of mastic gum on salivary concentrations of cariogenic bacteria in orthodontic patients. Angle Orthod . 2007;77(1):124-128.
41. Mikhail G, Selak L, Salo S. Reinforcement of surgical adhesive strips. J Dermatol Surg Oncol . 1986;12(9):904-905, 908.
42. Mikhail G, Selak L, Salo S, Balle MR. The efficacy of adhesives in the application of wound dressings. J Burn Care Rehabil . 1989;10(3):216-219.
43. Lesesne CB. The postoperative use of wound adhesives. Gum mastic versus benzoin, USP. J Dermatol Surg Oncol . 1992;18(11):990.
44. Yavuzer R, Kelly C, Durrani N, Mittal V, Jackson IT, Remine S. Reinforcement of subcuticular continuous suture closure with surgical adhesive strips and gum mastic: Is there any additional strength provided? Am J Surg . 2005r;189(3):315-8.
45. Huwez F, Al-Habbal MJ. Mastic in treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Gastroenterol Jpn . 1986;21(3):273-274.
46. Paraschos S, Magiatis P, Mitakou S, et al. In vitro and in vivo activities of Chios mastic gum extracts and constituents against Helicobacter pylori . Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2007;51(2):551-559.
47. Marone P, Bono L, Leone E, Bona S, Carretto E, Perversi L. Bactericidal activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic gum against Helicobacter pylori . J Chemother . 2001;13(6):611-614.
48. Al-Said M, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M. Evaluation of mastic, a crude drug obtained from Pistacia lentiscus for gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer activity. J Ethnopharmacol . 1986;15(3):271-278.
49. Loughlin MF, Ala′Aldeen DA, Jenks PJ. Monotherapy with mastic does not eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection from mice. J Antimicrob Chemother . 2003;51(2):367-371.
50. Al Habbal M, et al. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol . 1984;11(5):541-544.
51. Huwez F, Thirlwell D, Cockayne A, Ala′Aldeen DA. Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori . N Engl J Med . 1998;339(26):1946.
52. Bebb JR, Bailey-Flitter N, Ala′Aldeen D, Atherton JC. Mastic gum has no effect on Helicobacter pylori load in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother . 2003;52(3):522-523.
53. Assimopoulou A, Zlatanos S, Papageorgiou V. Antioxidant activity of natural resins and bioactive triterpenes in oil substrates. Food Chem . 2005;92(4):721-727.
54. Abdelwahed A, Bouhlel I, Skandrani I, et al. Study of antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of gallic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose from Pistacia lentiscus . Confirmation by microarray expression profiling. Chem Biol Interact . 2007;165(1):1-13.
55. Longo L, Scardino A, Vasapollo G. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in the berries of Pistacia lentiscus L., Phillyrea latifolia L. and Rubia peregrina L. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technologies . 2007;8(3):360-364.
56. Ljubuncic P, Azaizeh H, Portnaya I, et al. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of eight plants used in traditional Arab medicine in Israel. J Ethnopharmacol . 2005;99(1):43-47.
57. Abdel-Rahman A, et al. Mastich as an antioxidant. J Am Oil Chem Soc . 1975;52:423.
58. Abdel-Rahman, A. Mastich and olibanum as antioxidants. Grasas Aceites (Seville) . 1976;27:175-177.
59. Cerrati C, et al. α-Tocopherol, a major antioxidant in Mediterranean plants. Sostanze Grasse . 1992;69:317-320.
60. Bamboi G, Pinna W, Sau F. Total blood lipids and lipoproteins in sheep fed Pistacia lentiscus drupe [Italian]. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper . 1988;64(1):93-99.
61. Triantafyllou A, Chaviaras N, Sergentanis TN, Protopapa E, Tsaknis J. Chios mastic gum modulates serum biochemical parameters in a human population. J Ethnopharmacol . 2007;111(1):43-49.
62. Dedoussis GV, Kaliora AC, Psarras S, Chiou A, Mylona A, Papadopoulos NG, Andrikopoulos NK. Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression. Atherosclerosis . 2004;174(2):293-303.
63. Kaliora AC, Stathopoulou MG, Triantafillidis JK, Dedoussis GV, Andrikopoulos NK. Chios mastic treatment of patients with active Crohn's disease. World J Gastroenterol . 2007;13(5):748-753.
64. Eskander E, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of a herbal formulation in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Egypt J Pharm Sci . 1995;36:253-270.
65. Sanz M, Terencio MC, Paya M. Pharmacological actions of a new procyanidin polymer from Pistacia lentiscus L. Pharmazie . 1993;48(2):152-153.
66. Pascual-Villalobos M, et al. Screening for anti-insect activity in Mediterranean plants. Ind Crops Prod . 1998;8:183-194.
67. Mastic gum supplement for UK digestion. Chem Drug . 2000:28(10):12.
68. Keynan N, Geller-Bernstein C, Waisel Y, Bejerano A, Shomer-Ilan A, Tamir R. Positive skin tests to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia in Israel. Clin Allergy . 1987;17(3):243-249.
69. Cvitanovic S, Marusic M. Hypersensitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic coast. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol . 1994;4(2):96-100.
70. Keynan N, Tamir R, Waisel Y, et al. Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia . Allergy . 1997;52(3):323-330.
71. Ford R, et al. Mastic absolute. Food Chem Toxicol . 1992;30(suppl):71S-72S.
72. Kang JS, Wanibuchi H, Salim EI, Kinoshita A, Fukushima S. Evaluation of the toxicity of mastic gum with 13 weeks dietary administration to F344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol . 2007;45(3):494-501.
73. Janakat S, Al-Merie H. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus , Phillyrea latifolia and Nicotiana glauca . J Ethnopharmacol . 2002;83(1-2):135-138.
74. Ljubuncic P, Song H, Cogan U, Azaizeh H, Bomzon A. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease. J Ethnopharmacol . 2005;100(1-2):198-204.
75. Al-Habbal MJ, Al-Habbal Z, Huwez FU. A double-blind controlled clinical trial of mastic and placebo in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol . 1984;11(5):541-544.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health