Stem 
Definition & substem (if available) 
A 
ac 
antiinflammatory agents, ibufenac derivatives 
actide 
synthetic polypeptides with a corticotrophinlike action 
adol or adol 
analgesics 
adom 
analgesics, tifluadom derivatives 
afenone 
antiarrhythmics, propafenone derivatives 
aj 
antiarrhythmics, ajmaline derivatives 
aldrate 
antacids, aluminium salts 
alox 
antacids, aluminium derivatives 
amivir see vir 

andr 
steroids, androgens 
anserin 
serotonin receptor antagonists (mostly 5HT_{2}) 
antel 
anthelminthics (underfined group) 
apine 
see pine 
arabine 
arabinofuranosyl derivatives 
arit 
antiarthritic substances, acting like clobuzarit and lobenzarit (mechanism different from antiinflammatory type substances, eg fenamates or profens) 
arol 
anticoagulants, dicoumarol derivatives 
arte 
antimalarial agents, artemisinin related compounds 
ase 
enzymes; dismase (superoxide dismutase activity), pase (lipase) teplase (tissue plasminogen activators), uplase (urokinasetypeplasminogen activators) 
ast 
antiasthmatic, antiallergics, not acting primarily as antihistaminics; lukast (leukotriene receptor antagonist); trodast (thromboxane A_{2} receptor antagonists, antiasthmatics) 
astine 
antihistaminics 
azenil 
benzodiazepine receptor antagonists/agonists (benzodiazepine derivatives) 
azepam 
diazepam derivatives 
azepide 
cholecystokinin receptor antagonist 
azocine 
narcotic antagonists/agonists related to 6,7benzomorphan 
azoline 
antihistaminics or local vasoconstrictors, antazoline derivatives 
azosin 
antihypertensive substances, prazosin derivatives 
B 
bactam 
blactamase inhibitors 
bamate 
tranquillizers, propanediol and pentanediol derivatives 
barb 
hypnotics, barbituric acid derivatives 
bendazole 
anthelminthics, tiabendazole derivatives 
bol 
anabolic steroids 
bradine 
bradycardic agents 
buzone 
antiinflammatory analgesics, phenylbutazone derivatives 
C 
cain 
Class 1 antiarrhythmics, procainamide and lidocaine derivatives (antifibrillants with local anaesthetic activity) 
caine 
local anaesthetics 
calci 
Vitamin D analogues/derivatives 
carbef 
antibiotics, carbacepham derivatives 
carnil 
benzodiazepine receptor antagonists/agonists (carboline derivatives) 
cavir 
see vir 
cef 
antibiotics, cefalosporanic acid derivatives 
cell or cel or cell 
cellulose derivatives cellate (cellulose ester derivatives); cellose (cellulose ether derivatives) 
cic 
hepatoprotectice substances with a carboxylic acid group 
cidin 
naturally occurring antibiotics (undefined group) 
cillin 
antibiotics, 6aminopenicillanic acid derivatives 
citabine 
nucleoside antiviral or antineoplastic agents, cytarabine or azarabine derivatives 
clone 
hypnotic tranquillizers 
cog 
blood coagulation factors; ()eptacog (blood coagulation VII); ()octocog (blood coagulation factor VIII); ()nonacog (blood coagulation factor IX) 
conazole 
systemic antifungal agents, miconazole derivatives 
cort 
corticosteroids, except prednisolone derivatives 
crinat 
diuretics, etacrynic acid derivatives 
crine 
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, tacrine derivatives 
cromil 
antiallergics, cromoglicic acid derivatives 
curium 
see ium 
cycline 
antibiotics, tetracycline derivatives 
D 
dan 
cardiac stimulants, pimobendan derivatives 
dapsone 
Antimycobacterials, diaminodiphenylsulfone derivatives 
dermin 
see ermin 
dil 
vasodilators 
dipine 
calcium channel blockers, nifedipine derivatives 
dismase 
see ase 
dopa 
dopamine receptor agonists, dopamine derivatives, used as antiparkinsonism/prolactin inhibitors; 
dox 
antibacterials, quinoline dioxide derivatives 
dralazine 
antihypertensives, hydrazinephthalazine derivatives 
drine 
sympathomimetics; frine: sympathomimetic, phenethyl derivatives 
dronic acid 
calcium metabolism regulator, pharmaceutical aid 
E 
ectin 
antiparasitics, ivermectin derivatives 
entan 
endothelin receptor antagonists 
eptacog 
see –cog 
erg 
ergot alkaloid derivatives 
eridine 
analgesics, pethidine derivatives 
ermin 
growth factors; dermin (epidermal growth factors); fermin (fibrinoblast growth factors); nermin (tumour necrosis factor); sermin (insulinlike growth factors) 
estr 
estrogens 
etanide 
diuretics, piretanide derivatives 
exakin 
see kin 
exine 
mucolytic, bromhexine derivatives 
F 
fenamic acid 
antiinflammatory, anthranilic acid derivatives fenamate (“fenamic acid” derivatives) 
fenin 
diagnostic aids; (phenylcarbamoyl)methyl iminodiacetic acid derivatives 
fenine 
analgesics, glafenine derivatives  (subgroup of fenamic acid group) 
fentanil 
narcotic analgesics, fentanil derivatives 
fermin 
see –ermin 
fiban 
Fibrinogen receptor antagonists (glycoprotein lib/llla receptor antagonists 
fibrate 
clofibrate derivatives 
flapon 
5lipoxygenaseactivating protein (FLAP) inhibitor 
flurane 
general inhalation anaesthetics, halogenated alkane derivatives 
formin 
antihyperglycaemics, phenformin derivatives 
fos (vos) 
insecticides, anthelmintics,pesticides etc., phosphorous derivatives 
fos or fos 
various pharmacological categories belonging to fos (other than above) 
fradil 
calcium channel blockers acting as vasodilators 
frine 
see drine 
fungin 
antifungal antibiotics 
fylline 
Nmethylated xanthine derivatives 
G 
gab 
gabamimetic agents 
gado 
diagnostic agents, gadolinium derivatives 
gatran 
thrombin inhibitor, antithrombotic agents 
gest 
steroids, progestogens 
giline 
MAOinhibitors type B 
gillin 
antibiotics produced by Aspergillus strains 
gli 
antihyperglycaemics, sulfonamide derivatives 
golide 
dopamine receptor agonists, ergoline derivatives 
gramostim 
see stim 
grastim 
see stim 
grel or grel 
platelet aggregation inhibitors 
guan 
antihypertensives, guanidine derivatives 
H & I 
icam 
antiinflammatory, isoxicam derivatives 
ifene 
antiestrogens, clomifene and tamoxifen derivatives 
ilide 
Class III antiarrhythmics, sematilide derivatives 
imex 
immunostimulants 
imod 
immunomodulators, both stimulant/suppressie and stimulant 
imus 
immunosuppressants (other than antineoplastics) 
io 
iodinecontaining contrast media 
io or iod 
iodine containing compounds other than contrast media 
iptan 
serotonin (5HT_{1}) receptor agonists, sumatriptan derivatives 
irudin 
hirudin derivatives 
isomide 
antiarrhythmics, disopyramide derivatives 
ium 
quarternary ammonium compounds  curium (curarelike substances) 
izine 
diphenylmethyl piperazine derivatives rizine (antihistaminics/cerebral (or peripheral) vasodilators) 
J & K 
kacin 
antibiotics, kanamycin and bekanamycin derivatives (obtained from Streptomyces kanamyceticus); 
kalant 
potassium channel blockers 
kalim 
potassium channel activators, antihypertensive 
kef 
enkephalin agonists 
kin 
interleukin type substances; nakin (ll1 derivatives) leukin (ll2 derivatives) plestim (ll3 derivatives) exakin (ll6 derivatives) 
kinra 
interleukin receptor antagonists; nakinra (ll1 receptor antagonists) 
kiren 
renin inhibitors 
L 
leukin 
see kin 
lipastat 
see stat 
lukast 
see ast 
M 
mab 
monoclonal antibodies (for details please see page …..) 
mantadine 
adamantine derivatives; mantine, mantone 
meline 
cholinergic agents, arecoline derivatives 
mer 
polymers 
mesine 
sigma receptor ligands 
mestane 
aromatase inhibitors 
metacin 
antiinflammatory, indometacin derivatives 
micin 
antibiotics obtained from various Micromonospora 
monam 
monobactam antibiotics 
morelin 
see relin 
mostim 
see stim 
motine 
antivirals, quinoline derivatives 
moxin 
monoamine oxidase inhibitors, hydrazine derivatives ** not part of definition 
mustine 
antineoplastic, alkylating agents, (bchloroethyl) amine derivatives 
mycin 
antibiotics, produced by Streptomyces strains 
N 
nab 
cannabinol derivatives 
nakin 
see kin 
nakinra 
see kinra 
nal 
narcotic antagonists/agonists related to normorphine 
nercept 
tumour necrosis factor antagonist 
nermin 
see ermin 
nic 
nicotinic acid or nicotinoyl alcohol derivatives 
nicate 
antihypercholesterolaemic and/or vasodilating nicotinic acid esters 
nidazole 
antiprotozoals, metronidazole derivatives 
nifur 
5nitrofuran derivatives 
nixin 
antiinflammatory, anilinonicotinic acid derivatives 
nonacog 
see cog 
O 
octocog 
see cog 
olol 
badrenoreceptor antagonists alol: aromatic ring –CHCH2NHR related to olols 
olone 
steroids other than prednisolone derivatives 


opamine 
dopaminergic agents dopamine derivatives used as cardiac stimulat/antihypertensives/diuretics 
onide 
steroids for topical use, acetal derivatives 
(o)nidine 
antihypertensives, clonidine derivatives 
orex 
anoretics 
orphan 
narcotic antagonists/agonists, morphinan derivates; orphine, orphinol, orphone 
oxacin 
antibacterials, nalidixic acid derivatives 
oxan(e) 
benzodioxane derivatives 
oxanide 
antiparasitics, salicylanides and analogues 
oxef 
antibiotics, oxacefalosporanic acid derivatives 
oxetine 
antidepressants, fluoxetine derivatives 
P 
pafant 
plateletactivating factor antagonists 
pamide 
diuretics, sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives 
pamil 
coronary vasodilators, verapamil derivatives 
parcin 
glycopeptides antibiotics 
parin 
heparin derivatives including low molecular mass heparins 
penem 
analogues of penicillanic acid antibiotics modified in the fivemembered ring 
peridol 
see –perone 
peridone 
see –perone 
perone 
tranquillizers, neuroleptics, 4’fluoro4piperidinobutyrophenone derivatives;  peridol (antipsychotics, haloperidol derivatives); peridone (antipsychotics, risperidone derivatives) 
pidem 
hypnotics/sedatives, zolpidem derivatives 
pin(e) 
tricyclic compounds apine (psychoactive); cilpine (antiepileptic); dipine (see –dipine) zepine (antidepressant/neuroleptic; oxepin, oxopine, sopine, tepines 
piprazole 
psychotropics, phenylpiperazine derivatives 
pirox 
antimycotic pyridine derivatives 
planin 
antibacterials (Actinoplanes strains) 
platin 
antineoplastic agents, platinum derivatives 
plestim 
see –stim 
plon 
pyrazolo[]pyrimidine derivatives, used as anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics poetin erythropoietin type blood factors porfin benzoporphyrin derivatives 
pramine 
substances of the imipramine group 
prazole 
antiulcer, benzimidazole derivatives 
pred 
prednisone and prednisolone derivatives; methazone or –metasone, betasol 
pressin 
vasoconstrictors, vasopressin derivatives 
pride 
sulpiride derivatives 
pril(at) 
angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors 
prim 
antibacterials, trimethoprim derivatives 
profen 
antiinflammatory agents, ibuprofen derivatives 
prost 
prostaglandins; prostil (prostaglandins, antiulcer) 
prostil 
see prost 
Q 
quinil 
benzodiazepine receptor partial agonists (quinoline derivatives) 
R 
racetam 
amide type nootrope agents, piracetam derivatives 
relin 
prehormones or hormonerelease stimulating peptides; morelin (growth hormone releasestimulating peptides); tirelin (thyrotropin releasing hormone analogues) 
relix 
hormonerelease inhibiting peptides 
renone 
aldosterone antagonists, spironolactone derivates 
restat (or restat) 
see –stat 
retin 
retinol derivatives 
ribine 
ribofuranilderivatives of the pyrazofurin type 
rifa 
antibiotics, rifamycin derivatives 
rinone 
cardiac stimulants, amrinone derivatives 
rizine 
see –izine 
rozole 
aromatase inhibitors, imidozoletriazole derivatives 
rubicin 
antineoplastic antibiotics, daunorubicin derivatives 
S 
sal 
salicylic acid derivatives: sal, salazo, salazine/salazide, salan 
sartan 
angiotensin II receptor antagonists, antihypertensive (nonpeptidic) 
semide 
diuretics, furosemide derivatives 
sermin 
see –ermin 
serpine 
derivatives of Rauwolfia alkaloids 
setron 
serotonin receptor antagonists (5HT_{3}), not fitting into other established groups of serotonin receptor antagonists 
som 
growth hormone derivatives 
spirone 
anxiolytics, buspirone derivatives 
stan or ster 
steroids, androgens 
stat (or stat) 
enzyme inhibitors: lipastat (pancreatic lipase inhibitors); restat or restat (aldosereducing inhibitors); vastatin (antilipidemic substances, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 
steine 
mucolytics, other than bromhexine derivatives 
ster 
androgens/anabolic steroids: testosterone, sterone, ster, gesterone, sterone, sterol, ster, (a)steride(antineoplastics) 
stim 
colony stimulating factors: grastim (granulocyte colony stimulatory factor (GCSF) type) substances; gramostim (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) type substances); mostim (macrophage stimulating factors (MCSF) type substances); plestim (interleukin3 analogues and derivatives) 
sulfa 
antiinfectives, sulfonamides 
sulfan 
antineoplastic, alkylating agents, methanesulfonates 
T 
tecan 
antineoplastics, topoisomerase I inhibitors 
tepa 
antineoplastics, thiotepa derivatives 
teplase 
see ase 
terol 
bronchodilators, phenethylamine derivatives (previously prenaline or terenol) 
terone 
antiandrogens 
tiazem 
calcium channel blockers, diltiazem derivatives 
tide 
peptides and glycopeptides (for special groups of peptides see actide, pressin, relin, tocin) 
tidine 
histamine H_{2}receptor antagonists, cimetidine derivatives 
tirelin 
see relin 
tizide 
diuretics, chlorothiazide derivatives 
tocin 
oxytocin derivatives 
toin 
antiepileptics, hydantoin derivatives 
trexate 
folic acid analogues 
tricin 
antibiotics, polyene derivatives 
triptyline 
antidepressants, dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptane or cyclopheptene derivatives 
troban 
thromboxane A_{2}receptor antagonists; antithrombotic agents 
trodast 
see ast 
trop 
atropine derivatives 
U 
uplase 
see ase 
uracil 
uracil derivatives used as thyroid antagonists and as antineoplastics 
uridine 
uridine derivatives used as antiviral agents and as antineoplastics; also udine 
V 
vastatin 
see stat 
verine 
spasmolytics with a papaverinelike action 
vin or vin 
vinca alkaloids 
vir 
antivirals (underfined group): amivir (neuraminidase inhibitors); cavir (carbocyclic nucleosides); virsen (antisense oligonucleotides) 
virsen 
see vir 
vudine 
antiviral; antineoplastics, zidovudine derivatives 
W & X 
xanox 
antiallergic respiratory tract drugs, xanoxic acid derivatives 
Y & Z 
zofone 
alozafone derivatives 
zepine 
see pine 