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Infant Colic

What is infant colic?

Infant colic is a condition in which a healthy infant cries very often and for long periods of time. Crying often starts in late afternoon or early evening. Infant colic may affect babies during their first weeks of life. It usually goes away by the time the baby is 4 to 6 months old.

What causes infant colic?

The exact cause of infant colic is not known. The following are possible factors that may cause infant colic:

  • Milk allergy: Your baby may have an allergy to the milk formula he is drinking.

  • Problems with the digestive system: Some babies may have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD occurs when acid and food in the stomach back up into the esophagus. Some babies may also have gas, which may be caused by swallowing too much air during a feeding.

  • Sensitivity to surroundings: Your baby may be very sensitive to normal noise, movement, or changes around him, and react by crying. Since his brain is not yet fully developed, he cannot control or stop his crying even when he is fed or comforted.

  • Mother's diet: Babies who are breastfed may have an allergy to what their mothers eat. These foods include milk, cheese, wheat, and nuts.

  • Smoking: Babies who have mothers that smoke cigarettes may have an increased risk for colic.

  • Parent stress: When parents are stressed, anxious, or depressed, babies may also become anxious and cry more.

What are the signs and symptoms of infant colic?

  • High-pitched crying sounds or screaming as if he is in great pain

  • Baby cannot be soothed

  • Flushed or red face

  • Kicking or moving more than usual

  • Abdomen that looks or feels hard

  • Pulling his legs up close to his abdomen

How is infant colic diagnosed?

Your baby's caregiver will ask you about his health since his birth. Tell him when your baby cries, eats, sleeps, and has bowel movements. His caregiver may want to know if anyone in your family has allergies. A physical exam will also be done. Your baby will be weighed to check if he is gaining enough weight.

How can I manage infant colic?

There is no treatment for colic. There are some things you can do to try to comfort and soothe your baby.

  • Help your baby rest and get plenty of sleep: Let your baby rest and get plenty of sleep in a quiet room. He may relax if you play lullabies or other soft music.

  • Try the 5 S's:

    • Swaddling: Use a light blanket to snuggly wrap your baby. Ask your baby's caregiver if you do not know how to swaddle him with a light blanket.

    • Side/stomach: Lay your baby on his side or stomach.

    • Shushing: Make a loud shushing sound or play white noise for your baby. White noise can come from a clothes dryer, white noise machine, or a vacuum cleaner.

    • Swinging: Gentle, soothing motions may comfort your baby. You may rock him in a rocking chair or cradle, or put him in a swing. You may also take a car ride with your baby or carry him in a front-pack.

    • Sucking: Give your baby something to suck on, such as a pacifier.

  • Be patient and stay calm: It can be very stressful listening to your baby cry for long periods. Take time for yourself to help you better cope with your baby's colic. Ask someone that you trust to care for your baby so you can leave the home, even if it is only for an hour or two. Ask your spouse, a friend, or a relative for help with child care and household chores. Never shake your baby. Shaking your baby can hurt him and cause brain damage.

How do I feed my baby?

  • Change your baby's milk or the foods you eat: You may need to change your baby's formula if he has an allergy. If you breastfeed your baby, you may need to avoid foods such as milk, cheese, wheat, and nuts. These foods may cause your baby to develop an allergy. Ask your baby's caregiver for more information.

  • Hold your baby upright while feeding him a bottle: This will help him swallow less air from the bottle. You could also try using a curved bottle or a bottle with collapsible bags to decrease the amount of air he swallows.

  • Burp your baby after each feeding: Burp your baby after each feeding. This helps remove gas from your baby's stomach.

  • Avoid giving your baby a bottle every time he cries: There are many reasons why a baby cries. Check to see if the baby is in a cramped position, is too hot or cold, or has a dirty diaper. Only feed your baby if you think he is hungry. Do not feed him just to make him stop crying.

Where can I find more support and information?

  • American Academy of Pediatrics
    141 Northwest Point Boulevard
    Elk Grove Village , IL 60007-1098
    Phone: 1- 847 - 434-4000
    Web Address: http://www.aap.org

When should I contact my caregiver?

Contact your child's caregiver if:

  • Your baby has a fever.

  • Your baby's skin has swelling or a rash.

  • You have questions or concerns about your baby's condition or care.

When should I seek immediate care?

Seek care immediately or call 911 if:

  • Your baby has trouble breathing or his lips and fingernails turn blue.

  • Your baby is not able to eat or drink.

  • Your baby is urinating less or not at all.

  • Your baby looks very weak, sleeps more than usual, and is hard to wake up.

  • Your baby's bowel movement has blood in it.

Care Agreement

You have the right to help plan your baby's care. Learn about your baby's health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your baby's caregivers to decide what care you want for your baby. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

© 2014 Truven Health Analytics Inc. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or Truven Health Analytics.

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