WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW:
You or a family member will need to learn to care for your colostomy. It may require changes in your lifestyle. You may work with an ostomy specialist to find the best ways to care for yourself.
Follow up with your primary healthcare provider or gastroenterologist as directed:
You may need to return to have your stoma and colostomy checked. Bring your ostomy equipment with you to your appointments and any time you have to go to the hospital. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
Look at the skin around your stoma each time you change your pouch. Your stoma should be pink or red and moist. You may have a small amount of bleeding when you clean your stoma. This is normal. Your stoma will get smaller and become its normal size in about 8 weeks.
- Make sure the skin barrier opening fits well: The skin barrier is the part of the pouch that sticks to the skin of your abdomen. It should be no more than ⅛ of an inch larger than your stoma. If the opening is too large, bowel movement can leak onto your skin and cause irritation. Measure the size of your stoma with the guide that comes with your colostomy supplies. Make sure you cut the skin barrier smaller as your stoma gets smaller.
- Soothe irritated skin: If your skin is red, it may mean that the skin barrier was on too long. It is important to find the cause of your skin irritation. Ask if you need help finding the cause of your skin irritation.
Change your pouch:
How you change your pouch depends on the type you have. You will be given specific instructions on how to change your colostomy pouch. The following is general information about how to change your pouch:
- Ask how often to change your colostomy pouch: The type of pouch you wear affects the amount of time it can be worn. The kind and amount of bowel movement you have also affects how long the pouch stays on.
- Remove the pouch: Gently remove the pouch by pushing the skin down and away from the adhesive skin barrier with one hand. With the other hand, pull the pouch up and away from the stoma.
- Gently clean the skin around your stoma: Use mild soap and water. Do not use soaps that have oil or perfumes. Pat your skin dry.
- Use a pouch with the right size opening: Use a pouch that has an opening that is ⅛ of an inch larger than your stoma.
- Use skin products to help reduce irritation: These products can help protect your skin and keep it dry.
- Use slight pressure to place your clean pouch: Center the pouch over the stoma and press it firmly into place on clean, dry skin. It may be helpful to hold your hand over the new pouch for 30 seconds. The warmth of your hand can help stick the adhesive skin barrier into place.
- Dispose of the used pouch correctly: If the pouch is disposable, place the old pouch in another plastic bag and throw it in the trash. If you use a reusable pouch, ask how to clean it.
Empty your pouch:
- Empty the pouch when it is ⅓ to ½ full: Do not wait until the pouch is completely full. This could put pressure on the seal and cause it to leak or spill.
- Hold the pouch up by the bottom end: If the pouch has a clamp system, remove the clamp. You may need to roll the end back to keep it from getting soiled.
- Drain the pouch: Place toilet paper into the toilet before you empty the pouch to reduce splash back. Drain the pouch by squeezing the contents into the toilet.
- Clean the end of the pouch: Use toilet paper or a moist paper towel. You may also rinse the pouch but it is not necessary. Keep the end of the pouch clean.
- Close the end of the pouch: Unroll the end of the pouch. Replace the clamp or close the end of the pouch according to your primary healthcare provider's instructions.
Irrigate your colostomy:
Your primary healthcare provider or gastroenterologist will tell you if you can irrigate your colostomy. Ask an ostomy nurse or someone specially trained in ostomy care how to properly irrigate your colostomy. Below are some general steps for irrigation:
- Gather your supplies: You will need a plastic irrigating container with a long tube and a cone to put water into your colostomy. You will also need an irrigation sleeve that will direct the output into the toilet. You will need an adjustable belt to attach the irrigation sleeve and a tail closure for the end of the sleeve.
- Choose the same time every day to irrigate: This will help decrease problems with your colostomy.
- Know how much liquid to use: Fill the irrigating container with about 16 to 50 ounces (500 to 1500 mL) of lukewarm water. The water should not be cold or hot. Ask how much water you will need to irrigate. Hang the irrigation container so that it is level with your shoulder. Sit up straight on the toilet or on a chair next to the toilet.
- Attach the irrigation sleeve to your stoma: Take the adjustable belt and attach it to the irrigation sleeve. Place the belt around your waist and place the sleeve over your stoma. Place the end of the irrigation sleeve into the toilet bowl.
- Release air bubbles from the tubing: Release the clamp and allow a small amount of water to flow into the sleeve. Clamp the tubing again.
- Moisten the end of the cone: Use water or a water-soluble lubricant.
- Place the tip of the cone 3 inches into your stoma: Make sure the fit is snug, and do not force the cone. Release the clamp on the tubing again and slowly allow the water to flow into the stoma This should take about 5 to 10 minutes. Keep the cone in place for another 10 seconds.
- Remove the cone: Allow the output to drain into the irrigation sleeve for about 10 to 15 minutes. Dry the end of the irrigation sleeve. Clip the bottom of the sleeve to the top with a clasp or close the end of the sleeve with the tail closure. It may take 30 to 45 minutes to drain. You may move around during this time. Empty the output from the sleeve into the toilet. Clean the area around the stoma with mild soap and water and pat dry.
Foods to eat with a colostomy:
- Eat a variety of healthy foods: Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads, low-fat dairy products, and lean meats. Do not eat foods that give you cramps or diarrhea.
- Limit foods that may cause gas and odor: These include vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower. Other foods are beans, eggs, and fish. Eat slowly and do not use a straw to drink liquids. Yogurt, buttermilk, and fresh parsley may help control odor and gas.
- Drink liquids as directed: Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. This may help reduce constipation.
Living with a colostomy:
- Ostomy supplies: Ask what ostomy supplies you will need and how to get them.
- Work: Your primary healthcare provider will tell you when you can go back to work. You may need special support to prevent a hernia if you do heavy labor, such as lifting or digging. You may need an ostomy belt over the pouch to keep it in place if you are very active.
- Activity: Ask about the best exercise plan for you. Talk with your primary healthcare provider before you play contact sports. You may need to wear a special support or a colostomy cover to protect your stoma. Empty your pouch before you play sports or have sex.
- Bathing or swimming: You can bathe with or without your pouch. Always wear your pouch when you swim. Empty your pouch before you swim. Use waterproof tape over the edges of your skin barrier.
- Traveling: Carry extra colostomy supplies and pouches with you when you travel. If necessary, your local ostomy group or ostomy nurse may be able to help you find supplies in the area you are visiting.
Contact your primary healthcare provider or gastroenterologist if:
- You have a fever.
- You have a foul odor coming from your colostomy bag or stoma that lasts longer than a week.
- Your skin around the stoma becomes red and irritated.
- You have nausea, vomiting, pain, cramping, or bloating.
- You do not have regular bowel movements through your stoma.
- The size of your stoma changes.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
Return to the emergency department if:
- Your bowel movements are black or bloody.
- Your stoma is bleeding and you cannot stop the bleeding.
- You are too weak to stand up.
- You have severe abdominal pain.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.