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Yobine Injectable (Canada)

This page contains information on Yobine Injectable for veterinary use.
The information provided typically includes the following:
  • Yobine Injectable Indications
  • Warnings and cautions for Yobine Injectable
  • Direction and dosage information for Yobine Injectable

Yobine Injectable

This treatment applies to the following species:
Manufacturer: Veterinary Healthcare Solutions

YOBINE

Yohimbine Injection 2.0 mg/mL

DIN 00769959

Sterile

Veterinary Use Only

Xylazine Reversing Agent and Antidote

For Use in Dogs

Description

Yobine® is supplied in 20 mL multiple-dose vials as a sterile solution.

Each mL contains yohimbine (as the hydrochloride) 2.0 mg, methylparaben 0.9 mg, propylparaben 0.1 mg, water for injection, citric acid and sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.

Protect from light. Store below 30° C.

Pharmacology

Yohimbine is an indolealkylamine alkaloid that acts primarily by blocking central alpha-2 adrenoreceptors that are stimulated by xylazine. Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist that easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier.1 It competitively blocks and antagonizes central nervous system depression or sedation and the bradycardia and respiratory depression caused by xylazine.2

Xylazine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist with potent sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant properties, has been used extensively as an analgesic-sedative restraining agent. It has also been used as a preanesthetic agent for many general anesthetics. The central nervous system depressant effect, as well as other pharmacologic effects of xylazine, is dose-dependent, and if overdoses, or if a patient is hyperreactive to the drug, a life threatening situation could develop. Overdosing (relative or actual) can result in severe CNS depression which includes respiratory and cardiovascular depression.

Yohimbine is useful to counteract the effects of accidental overdosage of xylazine as well as for the rapid reversal of sedation after standard doses of xylazine. The competitive selective blocking of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor by yohimbine displaces xylazine from these sites and thereby rapidly cancels the effect of the xylazine.

Yohimbine, when used at the prescribed dose, will effectively reverse the effects of xylazine when it is used either alone3 or as a preanesthetic drug4 in dogs. Yohimbine abbreviates the anesthesia and chemical restraint of the xylazine.

The reversal of the sedative effects of xylazine by I.V. injection of yohimbine is rapid, usually occuring within one to three minutes, regardless of the route of administration of xylazine.5

Following is a table of recovery times in minutes after the I.V. injection of Yobine or normal saline (187 dogs).

 

XYLAZINE I.V.

XYLAZINE I.M.

XYLAZINE S.C.

AT

WT

AT

WT

AT

WT

YOBINE

Means

2.10

4.09

2.11

3.88

2.60

4.83

St. Dev.

1.71

3.72

1.28

2.18

1.97

3.89

NORMAL SALINE

Means

10.81

21.75

8.81

28.00

16.42

25.94

St. Dev.

9.00

11.27

5.72

27.89

27.48

27.86

AT - Arousal Time: Time from injection of Yobine to the time the dogs opened their eyes and held up their heads in response to patting, rubbing of the hair coat or loud noise.

WT - Walk Time: Time from injection of Yobine to the time that the dogs could walk on a rug.

Yobine Injectable Indications

Yobine should be used in dogs when it is desirable to reverse the effects of xylazine and as an antidote for overdoses of xylazine. Yobine has been used successfully as follows:

1. To reverse the sedative effects of xylazine.

2. To reverse the cardiac effects of xylazine such as arrhythmia and bradycardia.

3. To reverse the effects of xylazine when xylazine was administered alone.

4. To reverse the effects of xylazine when xylazine was administered in combination with other CNS depressants.

5. As an antidote for xylazine when xylazine was administered at five times the prescribed dose.

Contraindications

Doses in excess of those recommended should not be given. While Yobine is tolerated in dogs at 0.25 mg/lb body weight, doses of this magnitude may occasionally produce seizures and muscle tremors of short duration.

Dosage and Administration

For intravenous injection. The usual dose is 0.5 mL/20 lb body weight (0.05 mg/lb, or 0.11 mg/kg) to reverse the sedative effects of xylazine. Dosages may be repeated to a total of 0.15 mg/lb (0.33 mg/kg) to reverse the cardiac effects (especially arrythmia and bradycardia). As an antidote for overdosages of xylazine, treat to effect up to a total of 0.25 mg/lb (0.55 mg/kg). The carefully calculated dose of Yobine should be given intravenously slowly.

Side Effects

Occasionally a dog that has been reversed will show signs of apprehensiveness but this state quickly subsides.

Precautions

Clinical tests with yohimbine have not been conducted utilizing pregnant dogs. Therefore yohimbine should not be used in these animals.

Careful consideration should be given before administering to dogs known to be epileptic or seizure prone. The drug reverses the analgesic effects of xylazine as well as the sedative effects. If the animal was given xylazine for its analgesic properties, then reversal will allow for pain perception...caution should be used.

References

1. Short, C.E. Ed.: Principles and Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia, Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore, MD, 1987.

2. Hsu WH. Xylazine-Induced Depression and its Antagonism by Alpha Adrenergic Blocking Agents. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 218, No. 1, (188-192), 1981.

3. Hatch RC et al. Antagonism of Xylazine Sedation With Yohimbine, 4-Aminopyridine, and Doxapram in Dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. Vol. 46, No. 2, (371-375), 1985.

4. Hatch RC et al. Reversal of Pentobarbital Anesthesia With 4-Aminopyridine and Yohimbine in Cats Pretreated With Acepromazine and Xylazine. American Journal of Veterinary Research. Vol. 45, No. 12, (2586-2590), 1984.

5. LLOYD, Inc. research

Rev1211

Manufactured for: LLOYD, Inc. of Iowa, Shenandoah, Iowa 51601 USA

Distributed by: Veterinary Healthcare Solutions, 2525 Tecumseh Road West, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 1W4

NAC No.: 16560030

VETERINARY HEALTHCARE SOLUTIONS, INC.
2525 TECUMSEH ROAD WEST, WINDSOR, ON, N9B 1W4
Telephone:   519-790-9561
Fax:   1-866-651-9959
Website:   www.vhsvets.com
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Yobine Injectable information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the Canadian product label or package insert.

Copyright © 2016 North American Compendiums. Updated: 2016-08-21

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