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POTASSIUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATE 20%

Active substance(s): POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

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SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
1

NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20%

2

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
20% of Potassium Chloride in 5ml

3

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Sterile Injection

4.1

Therapeutic indications
Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20% is used as a source of the potassium cation for
the treatment or prevention of potassium depletion in patients for whom dietary
measures or oral medication are inadequate. Potassium salts may also be used
cautiously in those taking digoxin where potassium depletion may cause
arrhythmias. Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20% must be administered by slow
I.V, as a dilute solution.

4.2

Posology and method of administration
Adults (including elderly) and Children:
Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20% must be diluted by adding to a large volume
of intravenous fluid before use. For example, 10mls diluted with not less than
700mls 0.9% Sodium Chloride Intravenous Infusion BP, or other suitable diluent,
and mixed well.
Dosage depends on the serum ionogram value and the acid-base state. A potassium
deficiency is calculated according to the formula:
MMOL Potassium = KG BW x 0.2 x 2 x (4.5 – actual serum potassium (MMOL)).
(The extracellular volume is calculated from the body weight in kg x 0.2).
The maximum dosage is 20 MMOL potassium per hour.
It is recommended not to exceed 2-3 MMOL potassium per kg body weight in 24
hours.

4.3

4.4

Contraindications
Hyperkalaemia, Hyperchloraemia, impaired renal function with oliguria,
anuria or azotaemia, Addison’s disease, acute dehydration and heat cramps.
Special warnings and precautions for use

Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20% must not be injected undiluted.
Plasma potassium concentration must be measured at regular intervals to avoid the
development of hyperkalaemia, especially in patients with renal impairment.
ECG monitoring facilities should be available.
Initial potassium replacement therapy should not involve glucose infusions, because
glucose may cause a further decrease in the plasma potassium concentration.
Potassium supplements should be administered with caution in patients with cardiac
disease and in patients who are receiving potassium sparing diuretics or other
medications which may increase plasma potassium levels.

4.5

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Potassium sparing diuretics:
Potassium supplements should not be administered with potassium- sparing diuretics (such as
amiloride, spironolactone and triamterene), particularly in patients with impaired renal
function. Any patients on this combination require close monitoring in order to diagnose a
potential hyperkalaemic condition as soon as possible.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists:
Patients taking ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists, especially those with
impaired renal function, should be closely monitored, as the potassium sparing effect in
combination with potassium infusion may result in hyperkalaemia.
Ciclosporin:
Concurrent use of ciclosporin may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia.
Glucose Infusion:
Concomitant use of glucose infusions in hypokalaemic patients may cause a further decrease in
plasma potassium concentrations.

4.6

Pregnancy and lactation
Potassium Chloride Concentrate 20%, may be used during pregnancy and lactation
under the supervision of the prescribing physician.

4.7

4.2

Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Not known
Undesirable effects
Pain at the injection site and phlebitis may occur during IV administration of
solutions containing 30 MMOL potassium or more per litre.
Hyperkalaemia is the most common and serious hazard of potassium therapy.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal
product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk
balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report
any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at:
www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
4.9

Overdose
Clinical signs and symptoms of potassium overdosage include:
paraesthesia of the extremities, listlessness, mental confusion, weakness or
heaviness of the legs, flaccid paralysis, cold skin, grey pallor, peripheral
vascular collapse, fall in blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias and heart block.
Extremely high plasma potassium concentrations (8-11mmol/litre) may cause
death from cardiac depression, arrhythmias or arrest.
Cardiac Arrhythmias or a serum concentration above 6.5mmol/litre require
immediate attention and may be treated by intravenous injection over 1-5
minutes of 10-20ml of 10% Calcium Gluconate Injection BP with E.C.G
monitoring. Serum concentrations may be reduced by infusion of 300-500mls
per hour of 10%-25% glucose solutions containing up to 10 units of insulin for
each 20g of Glucose, or by the infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate Solution.

5

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1

Pharmacodynamic properties
Potassium is the major cation of intracellular fluid and is essential for
maintenance of acid-base balance, isotonicity and the electrodynamic
characteristics of the cell. Potassium chloride is used as a source of the
potassium cation for treatment or prevention of potassium depletion in patients
in whom dietary measures are inadequate. Potassium chloride may also be
used cautiously to abolish arrhythmias or cardiac glycoside toxicity
precipitated by a loss of potassium.

5.2

Pharmacokinetic properties
Potassium chloride is generally readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal
tract. Potassium is excreted mainly by the kidneys; it is secreted in the distal
tubules which are also the site of sodium-potassium exchange. The capacity of
the kidneys to conserve potassium is poor and urinary excretion of potassium
continues even when there is severe depletion. Tubular secretion of potassium
is influenced by several factors, including chloride ion concentration, hydrogen
ion exchange, acid-base equilibrium and adrenal hormones. Some potassium is
excreted in the faeces and small amounts may also be excreted in saliva, sweat,
bile and pancreatic juice.

5.3

Preclinical safety data
No further information other than that which is included in the Summary of
Product Characteristics.

6

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients
Hydrochloric acid Ph. Eur.
Water for Injections Ph. Eur.

6.2

Incompatibilities
The compatibility of the large volume IV fluid intended for dilution should be
checked before use.

6.3

Shelf life
36 months

6.4

Special precautions for storage
Protect from light and store at less than 25ºC

6.5

Nature and contents of container
5 and 10ml clear glass ampoules, hermetically sealed under flame at the
gauging point
The ampoules are packed in cartons to contain 10 ampoules

6.6

Instructions for use, handling and disposal
Use as directed by a physician

7

MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
hameln pharmaceuticals limited
Gloucester
UK

8

MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER
PL 01502/0015R

9

DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE
AUTHORISATION
27/06/1986

10

/

30/08/2001

DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
30/01/2015

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Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

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