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FUROSEMIDE INJECTION 10 MG/ML
Active substance(s): FUROSEMIDE / FUROSEMIDE / FUROSEMIDE
NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Furosemide 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection or Infusion
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Each 1 ml of solution contains 10 mg Furosemide.
Each 2 ml ampoule contains 20 mg Furosemide (20mg/2ml).
Each 4 ml ampoule contains 40 mg Furosemide (40mg/4ml).
Each 5 ml ampoule contains 50 mg Furosemide (50mg/5ml).
Each 25 ml vial contains 250 mg Furosemide (250mg/25ml).
Each 2 ml of sterile solution contains approximately 7 mg of sodium.
Each 4 ml of sterile solution contains approximately 15 mg of sodium.
Each 5 ml of sterile solution contains approximately 19 mg of sodium.
Each 25 ml of sterile solution contains approximately 93 mg of sodium.
For the full list of excipients see section 6.1
Solution for injection or infusion.
Clear, colourless or almost colourless solution (pH: 8.0 to 9.3).
When a prompt diuresis is required. Use in emergencies or when oral therapy is
precluded. Indications include:
- Oedema and/or ascites caused by cardiac or hepatic diseases
- Oedema caused by renal diseases (in case of nephrotic syndrome, treatment of the
underlying disease is essential)
- Pulmonary oedema (e.g. in case of acute heart failure)
- Hypertensive crisis (in addition to other therapeutic measures)
Posology and method of administration
Route of administration: intravenous or (in exceptional cases) intramuscular
The parenteral administration of furosemide is indicated in cases where oral
administration is not feasible or not efficient (for example in case of reduced
intestinal absorption) or when a quick effect is required. To achieve optimum efficacy
and suppress counter-regulation, a continuous furosemide infusion is generally to be
preferred to repeated bolus injections.
Consideration should be given to current clinical guidelines where available.
Where continuous furosemide infusion is not feasible for follow-up treatment after
one or several acute bolus doses, a follow-up regimen with low doses given at short
intervals (approx. 4 hours) is to be preferred to a regimen with higher bolus doses at
Therapy should be individualized according to patient response to gain maximal
therapeutic response and to determine the minimal dose needed to maintain that
Intravenous furosemide must be injected or infused slowly; a rate of 4 mg per minute
must not be exceeded and should never be given in association with other medicinal
products in the same syringe.
Generally, Furosemide should be administered intravenously. Intramuscular
administration must be restricted to exceptional cases where neither oral nor
intravenous administration is feasible. It must be noted that intramuscular injection is
not suitable for the treatment of acute conditions such as pulmonary oedema.
In the absence of conditions requiring a reduced dose (see below) the initial dose
recommended for adults and adolescents over 15 years, is of 20 mg to 40 mg
furosemide by intravenous (or in exceptional cases intramuscular) administration; the
maximum dose varying according to individual response.
If larger doses are required, they should be given increasing by 20 mg increments and
not given more often than every two hours.
In adults, the recommended maximum daily dose of furosemide administration is
When administered as an infusion, Furosemide may be administered undiluted using
a constant-rate infusion pump, or the solution may be further diluted with a
compatible carrier fluid, such as Sodium Chloride Injection B.P. or Ringer's Solution
for Injection. In either case, the rate of infusion should not exceed 4mg/minute.
The parenteral administration of furosemide is indicated in cases where oral
administration is not feasible or not efficient (for example in case of reduced
intestinal absorption) or when a quick effect is required. In cases where parenteral
administration is used, the switch to oral administration is recommended, as soon as
Children and adolescents (up to 18 years of age):
The experience in children and adolescents are limited. The intravenous
administration of furosemide to children and adolescents below 15 years is only
recommended in exceptional cases.
The dosage will be adapted to the body weight, and the recommended dose ranges
from 0.5 to 1 mg/kg body weight daily up to a maximum total daily dose of 20 mg.
There should be a switch to oral therapy as soon as possible.
In patients with severe impairment of renal function (serum creatinine > 5 mg/dl) it is
recommended that an infusion rate of 2.5 mg furosemide per minute is not exceeded.
The recommended initial dose is 20 mg/day, increasing gradually until the required
response is achieved.
Special dosage recommendations:
For adults, the dose is based on the following conditions:
- Oedema associated to chronic and acute congestive heart failure
The recommended initial dose is 20 to 40 mg daily. This dose can be adapted to the
patient´s response, as necessary. The dose should be given in two or three individual
doses per day for chronic congestive heart failure and as a bolus for acute congestive
- Oedema associated with renal disease
The recommended initial dose is 20 to 40 mg daily. This dose can be adapted to the
response as necessary. The total daily dose can be administered as a single dose or as
several doses throughout the day.
If this does not lead to an optimal fluid excretion increase, furosemide must be
administered in continuous intravenous infusion, with an initial rate of 50 mg to 100
mg per hour.
Before beginning the administration of furosemide, hypovolaemia, hypotension and
acid-base and electrolytic imbalances must be corrected.
In dialyzed patients, the usual maintenance dose ranges from 250 mg to 1,500 mg
In patients with nephrotic syndrome the dosage must be determined with caution,
because of the risk of a higher incidence of adverse events.
- Oedema associated with hepatic disease
When intravenous treatment is absolutely needed, the initial dose should range from
20 mg to 40 mg. This dose can be adapted to the response as necessary. The total
daily dose can be administered as a single dose or in several doses.
Furosemide can be used in combination with aldosterone antagonists in cases in
which these agents in monotherapy are not sufficient. In order to avoid complications
such as orthostatic intolerance or acid-base and electrolytic imbalances or hepatic
encephalopathy, the dose must be carefully adjusted to achieve a gradual fluid loss.
The dose may produce in adults a daily body weight loss of approximately 0.5 kg.
In cases of ascites with oedema, weight loss induced by enhanced diuresis should not
exceed 1 kg / day.
- Pulmonary oedema (in acute heart failure)
The initial dose to be administered is 40 mg furosemide by intravenous application. If
required by the condition of the patient, another injection of 20 to 40 mg furosemide
is given after 30 – 60 minutes.
Furosemide should be used in addition to other therapeutic measures.
- Hypertensive crisis (in addition to other therapeutic measures)
The recommended initial dose in hypertensive crisis is 20 mg to 40 mg administrated
in bolus by intravenous injection. This dose can be adapted to the response as
- Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
– Patients with anuria or renal failure with oligoanuria not responding to
– Renal failure as a result of poisoning by nephrotoxic or hepatotoxic agents
– Renal failure associated with hepatic coma
– Patients with severe hypokalaemia or severe hyponatraemia
– Patients with hypovolaemia (with or without hypotension) or dehydration
– Patients in pre-comatose and comatose state associated with hepatic encephalopathy
– Patients with hypersensitivity to sulphonamides (e.g. Sulfonyureas or antibiotics of
sulphonamides group) may show cross-sensitivity to furosemide
– Lactation (see section 4.6)
Special warnings and precautions for use
Careful monitoring is required in case of:
- Patients with partial obstruction of urinary outflow (e.g. prostatic hypertrophy,
hydronephrosis, ureterostenosis). Urinary output must be secured
- Patients with hypotension or at increased risk from pronounced fall in blood
pressure (patients with coronary artery stenosis or cerebral artery stenosis)
- Patients with manifest or latent diabetes mellitus or variation of glycaemia (regular
monitoring of blood glucose levels necessary)
- Patients with gout and hyperuricaemia (regular monitoring of uric acid levels in
- Patients with hepatic disease or hepatorenal syndrome (renal impairment associated
to severe hepatic disease)
- Hypoproteinaemia (associated to nephrotic syndrome, furosemide´s effect may be
reduced and its ototoxicity increased)
- Co-administration with lithium salts (monitoring of lithium levels is required, see
- Acute porphyria (the use of diuretics is considered to be unsafe in acute porphyria
and caution should be exercised)
- In cases of ascites with oedema, weight loss induced by enhanced diuresis should
not exceed 1 kg / day
- Too vigorous diuresis may cause orthostatic hypotension or acute hypotensive
- NSAIDs may antagonise the diuretic effect of furosemide and other diuretics. Use of
NSAIDs with diuretics may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.
- Where indicated, steps should be taken to correct hypotension or hypovolaemia
before commencing therapy.
Cautious dose titration is required:
- Electrolyte variations (e.g. hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia). Potassium supplements
and/or dietary measures may be needed to control or avoid hypokalemia
- Fluid variations, dehydration, blood volume reduction with circulatory collapse and
possibility of thrombosis and embolism, particular in elderly, with excessive use
- Ototoxicity (if administered faster than 4 mg/min - other ototoxic compounds
administered concomitantly can increase this risk, see section 4.5
- Administration of high dosages
- Administration in progressive and severe renal disease
- Administration with sorbitol. Concomitant administration of both substances may
lead to increased dehydratation (sorbitol might cause additional fluid loss by inducing
- Administration in Lupus Erythematosus
- Medication that prolong the QT interval
Symptomatic hypotension leading to dizziness, fainting or loss of consciousness can
occur in patients treated with furosemide, particularly in the elderly, patients on other
medications which can cause hypotension and patients with other medical conditions
that are risks for hypotension.
Premature infants (possible development of nephrocalcinosis /nephrolithiasis; renal
function must be monitored and renal ultrasonography performed). In premature
infants with respiratory distress syndrome, diuretic treatment with furosemide during
the first weeks of life can increase the risk of persistent ductus arteriosus Botalli.
Caution should be observed in patients liable to electrolyte deficiency.
Regular monitoring of serum sodium, potassium and creatinine is generally
recommended during furosemide therapy; particularly close monitoring is required in
patients at high risk of developing electrolyte imbalances or in case of significant
additional fluid loss. (e.g. due to vomiting or diarrhoea).
Hypovolaemia or dehydration as well as any significant electrolyte and acid-base
disturbances must be corrected. This may require temporary discontinuation of
In patients who are at high risk for radiocontrast nephropathy, furosemide is not
recommended to be used for diuresis as part of the preventative measures against
Concomitant use with risperidone
In risperidone placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia, a higher
incidence of mortality was observed in patients treated with furosemide plus
risperidone (7.3%; mean age 89 years, range 75-97 years) when compared to patients
treated with risperidone alone (3.1%; mean age 84 years, range 70-96 years) or
furosemide alone (4.1%; mean age 80 years, range 67-90 years). Concomitant use of
risperidone with other diuretics (mainly thiazide diuretics used in low dose) was not
associated with similar findings.
No pathophysiological mechanism has been identified to explain this finding, and no
consistent pattern for cause of death observed. Nevertheless, caution should be
exercised and the risks and benefits of this combination or co-treatment with other
potent diuretics should be considered prior to the decision to use. There was no
increased incidence of mortality among patients taking other diuretics as concomitant
treatment with risperidone. Irrespective of treatment, dehydration was an overall risk
factor for mortality and should therefore be avoided in elderly patients with dementia
(see section 4.3 Contraindications).
Photosensitivity: Cases of photosensitivity reactions have been reported. If
photosensitivity reaction occurs during treatment, it is recommended to stop the
treatment. If a re-administration is deemed necessary, it is recommended to protect
exposed areas to the sun or to artificial UVA.
Furosemide 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection (2ml, 4ml and 5ml ampoule)
This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per
ampoule i.e. essentially "sodium free”.
Furosemide 10 mg/ml Solution for Injection (25 ml vial)
This medicinal product contains approximately 93 mg of sodium per vial. To
taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Not recommended combinations
Lithium excretion levels may be reduced by furosemide, resulting in increased cardiotoxic
effect and lithium toxicity. Therefore, this combination is not recommended (see section 4.4).
If this combination is deemed necessary lithium levels should be carefully monitored and
lithium dosage should be adjusted.
Caution should be exercised and the risks and benefits of the combination or co-treatment
with furosemide or with other potent diuretics should be considered prior to the decision to
use. See section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use regarding increased mortality in
elderly patients with dementia concomitantly receiving risperidone.
Combinations requiring a caution for use
Ototoxic drugs (e.g. aminoglycosides, cisplatin):
Furosemide may intensify the ototoxicity of certain drugs, for example cisplatin or
aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin, gentamicin and tobramycin, in particular in
patients with renal impairment. Since this may lead to irreversible damage, these drugs must
only be used with furosemide if there are compelling medical reasons.
In isolated cases, the intravenous administration of furosemide in a 24 hour period prior to
chloral hydrate administration may lead to flush, hyperhidrosis, anxiety, nausea, increase in
blood pressure and tachycardia. Therefore, the simultaneous administration of furosemide and
chloral hydrate is not recommended.
Carbamazepine and aminoglutethimide:
Concomitant administration of carbamazepine or aminoglutethimide may increase the risk of
Other anti-hypertensive agents:
The effect of other certain anti-hypertensive agents (diuretics and other drugs that low blood
pressure) may be potentiated by concurrent administration of furosemide.
Inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II receptor
The effects of other antihypertensives can be potentiated by concomitant administration of
furosemide. Severe fall in blood pressure with shock in extreme cases and deterioration of
renal function (acute renal failure in isolated cases) have been observed in combination with
ACE inhibitors, when the ACE inhibitor was administered for the first time, or for the first
time at high dosage (first dose hypotension). If possible, furosemide therapy should be
temporarily discontinued (or at least the dose reduced) for three days before therapy with an
ACE inhibitor or an Angiotensin II receptor antagonists is initiated or the dose of an ACE
inhibitor or Angiotensin II receptor antagonists is increased.
Patients taking diuretics may suffer accentuated hypotension and deterioration of renal
function; renal impairment may also occur during the first concurrent administration, or with
the first administration of high doses of ACE or of an antagonist of the angiotensin II
A synergetic effect of diuresis occurs as result of interaction of furosemide and thiazides.
A decrease in glucose tolerance may occur, since furosemide may reduce these drugs action.
The blood levels of metformin may be increased by furosemide. Inversely, metformin may
reduce furosemide concentration. The risk is linked to an increased occurrence of lactic
acidosis in case of functional renal insufficiency.
Cardiac glycosides (e.g. digoxin) and other medicinal products that may cause prolongation of
A decrease of potassium levels may increase digitalis toxicity; for this reason, potassium
levels should be monitored.
Some electrolyte disturbances may increase the toxicity of certain concomitantly administered
drugs that may cause prolongation of the QT interval. e.g. (class Ia antiarrhythmics and class
III antiarrhythmics like amiodarone, sotalol, dofetilide, ibutilide and quinolones). Monitoring
of potassium plasma levels and ECG are recommended.
Blood levels of furosemide and of fibric acid derivates (for example clofibrate and
fenofibrate) may be increased during concurrent administration (particularly in case of
hypoalbuminaemia). The increase of its effect/toxicity should be monitored.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and high doses of salicylates:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (including coxibs) may induce acute renal failure in
cases of pre-existing hypovolaemia and reduce its diuretic, natriuretic and antihypertensive
effect. When co-administered with high doses of salicylates,
the predisposition for salicylic toxicity may be increased due to a reduced renal excretion or
to a modified renal function.
Nephrotoxic drugs (e.g. polymyxins, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins organoplatins,
immunosuppressants, iodinated contrast media, foscarnet, pentamidine):
Furosemide may intensify the nephrotoxic effects of nephrotoxic drugs.
Antibiotics like cephalosporins-impairment of renal function may develop in patients
receiving treatment with furosemide and high doses of certain cephalosporins.
There is a risk of cytotoxic effects if cisplatin and furosemide are given concomitantly.
In addition, Nephrotoxicity of cisplatin may be enhanced if furosemide in not given in low
doses (e.g. 40 mg in patients with normal renal function) and with positive fluid balance,
when used to achieve forced diuresis during cisplatin treatment.
Drugs that undergo significant renal tubular secretion:
Probenecid, methotrexate and other drugs which, like furosemide, undergo significant renal
tubular secretion may reduce the effect of furosemide. Conversely, furosemide may decrease
renal elimination of these products. In case of high-dose treatment (in particular, of both
furosemide and the other medicinal products), this may lead to increased serum levels and an
increased risk of adverse effects due to furosemide or the concomitant medication.
Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors:
These agents´ effects may be enhanced by the simultaneous administration of furosemide.
Phenobarbital and phenytoin:
Attenuation of the effect of furosemide may occur following concurrent administration of
Tubocurarine, curarine derivatives and succinyl choline:
The muscle relaxing effect of these agents may be enhanced or prolonged by furosemide.
Glucocorticoids, carbenoxolone, Amphotericin B, Penicillin G, ACTH, laxatives and
Co-administration of furosemide with glucocorticoids, carbenoxolone,large amount of
liquorice or prolonge use of laxatives may increase potassium loss. In the association with
glucocorticoids, hypokalaemia should be considered and its aggravation with the overuse of
laxatives. Since, this may lead to irreversible hearing damages, this combination should only
be used if there are compelling medical reasons.
Potassium levels should be monitored.
Simultaneous administration of sucralfate and furosemide may reduce the natriuretic and
antihypertensive effects of furosemide. Patients receiving both drugs should be observed
closely to determine if the desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive effect of furosemide is
achieved. The intake of furosemide and sucralfate should be separated by at least two hours.
Furosemid increases the effects of oral anticoagulants.
The effects of theophylline and of curare-type muscle relaxants may be potentiated.
Pressor amines (e.g. adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine)):
Concomitant use of furosemide may attenuate the effects of pressor amines.
Concomitant use of ciclosporin and furosemide is associated with increased risk of gouty
Pregnancy and lactation
Use during pregnancy
Furosemide should not be given during pregnancy unless there are compelling
medical reasons. Furosemide crosses the placental barrier, and can therefore cause a
diuresis of the fetus. Treatment during pregnancy requires monitoring of fetal growth.
Treatment of pregnancy hypertension and oedema is in general not recommended, as
physiological hypovolemia can be induced which causes reduction of placental
If use of furosemide is essential for the treatment of cardiac or renal insufficiency
during pregnancy, careful monitoring of electrolytes, haematocrit and fetal growth is
essential. Possible displacement of bilirubin from albumin binding and thus elevated
risk of nuclear icterus in hyperbilirubinaemia is discussed for furosemide. Furosemide
can predispose the fetus to hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and secondary
Furosemide reaches 100% of the maternal serum concentration in cord blood. No
malformations in humans which might be associated with exposure to furosemide
have been reported to date. However, there is limited experience to allow a
conclusive evaluation of a potential damaging effect in the embryo/fetus.
Use during lactation
Furosemide passes into breast milk and may inhibit lactation. Women must not
breast-feed if they are treated with furosemide (see section 4.3).
Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Furosemide has negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Patients respond individually to Furosemide.
The ability to drive or operate machines can incidentally be reduced because of
treatment with furosemide, especially at the start of therapy, change of medication or
in combination with alcohol.
The evaluation of adverse reactions is based on the following definition of frequency:
Very common (≥1/10)
Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)
Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100)
Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)
Very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Uncommon: thrombocytopenia; thrombocytopenia may become manifest, especially
with an increase of haemorrhage tendency.
Rare: eosinophilia, leukopenia, bone marrow depression; occurrence of this symptom
necessitates withdrawal of treatment.
Very rare: haemolytic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, agranulocytosis.
Severe fluid depletion may lead to haemoconcentration with a tendency for
thromboses to develop especially in elder patients.
Immune system disorders
Rare: severe anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions such as anaphylactic shock (for
treatment see section 4.9).
Glucose tolerance may decrease with furosemide. In patients with diabetes mellitus
this may lead to a deterioration of the metabolic control; latent diabetes mellitus may
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia and metabolic alkalosismay occur, especially after
prolonged therapy or when high doses are administered. Regular monitoring of serum
electrolytes (especially potassium, sodium and calcium) is therefore indicated.
Potassium depletion may occur, especially due to poor potassium diet. Particulary
when the supply of potassium is concomitantly reduced and/or extrarenal potassium
losses are increased (e.g. in vomiting or chronic diarrhoea) hypokalaemia may occur
as a result of increased renal potassium losses.
Underlying disorders (e.g. cirrhotic disease or heart failure), concomitant medication
(see section 4.5) and nutrition may cause predisposition to potassium deficiency. In
such cases, adequate monitoring is necessary as well as therapy substitution.
As a result of increased renal sodium losses, hyponatraemia with corresponding
symptoms may occur, particularly if the supply of sodium chloride is restricted.
Increased renal calcium losses can lead to hypocalcaemia, which may induce tetania
in rare cases.
In patients with increased renal magnesium losses, tetania or cardiac arrhythmias
were observed in rare cases as a consequence of hypomagnesaemia.
Uric acid levels may increase and gout attacks may occur.
Metabolic alkalosis may develop, or pre-existing metabolic alkalosis (for e.g.
decompensated hepatic cirrhosis) may become more severe with furosemide.
Nervous system disorders
Rare: paraesthesia, vertigo, dizziness, sleepiness, confusion, sensations of pressure in
Not known: Dizziness, fainting and loss of consciousness (caused by symptomatic
Rare: aggravation of myopia, blurred vision; disturbances of vision with
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Rare: dysacusis and/or syrigmus (tinnitus aurium) due to furosemide are rare and
usually transitory; incidence is higher in rapid intravenous administration, particularly
in patients with renal failure or hypoproteinaemia (e.g. in nephrotic syndrome).
Uncommon: deafness (sometimes irreversible)
In particular, at the initial state of treatment and in elderly, a very intense diuresis
may cause a reduction in blood pressure which, if pronounced may cause signs and
symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, acute hypotension, sensations of pressure
in the head, dizziness, circulatory collapse, thrombophlebitis or sudden death (with
i.m. or i.v. administration).
Rare: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, gastric distress, constipation, dry mouth.
Very rare: acute pancreatitis, intrahepatic cholestasis, cholestasis jaundice, hepatic
ischaemia, increases in hepatic transaminases.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Uncommon: pruritus, dermal and mucosal reactions (e.g. bullous exanthema, rash,
urticaria, purpura, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity)
Rare: vasculitis, lupus erythematosus exacerbation or activation.
Not known: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Rare: leg muscle cramps, asthenia. chronic arthritis.
Renal and urinary disorders
Diuretics may exacerbate or reveal acute retention of urine symptoms (bladderemptying disorders, prostatic hyperplasia or narrowing of the urethra), vasculitis,
glycosuria, transitorily increase of blood creatinine and urea levels.
Rare: interstitial nephritis.
Pregnancy, puerperium and perinatal conditions
Premature infants treated with furosemide may develop nephrocalcinosis and/or
nephrolithiasis; due to calcium deposit in renal tissue.
In premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, diuretic treatment in the first
weeks of life with furosemide can increase the risk of persistent ductus arteriosus
General disorders and administration site conditions
Rare: febrile conditions; following i.m. injection local reactions such as pain may
Rare: serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels may rise during furosemide treatment.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is
important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal
product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions
via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
The clinical picture in acute or chronic overdose depends primarily on the extent and
consequences of electrolyte and fluid loss (e.g. hypovolaemia, dehydration,
haemoconcentration, cardiac arrhythmias - including AV blockage and ventricular
fibrillation) due to excessive diuresis.
Symptoms of these disturbances include severe hypotension (progressing to shock),
acute renal failure, thrombosis, delirious states, flaccid paralysis, apathy and
At the first signs of shock (hypotension, sudoresis, nausea, cyanosis) the injection
should be immediately interrupted, place the patient head down and allow free
Fluid replacement and correction of the electrolyte imbalance; monitoring of
metabolic functions, and maintenance of urinary flux.
Medicinal treatment in case of anaphylactic shock: dilute 1 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline
solution in 10 ml and inject slowly 1 ml of the solution (corresponding to 0.1 mg of
adrenaline), control pulse and tension and monitor eventual arrhythmias. Adrenaline
administration may be repeated, if necessary. Subsequently, inject intravenously a
glucocorticoid (for example 250 mg of methylprednisolone), repeating if necessary.
Adapt the above-mentioned dosages for children, according body weight.
Correct hypovolaemia with available means and complement with artificial
ventilation, oxygen and in case of anaphylactic shock with anti-histamines.
No specific antidote to furosemide is known. If overdose during parenteral treatment
has taken place, in principle the treatment consists on follow up and supportive
therapy. Haemodialysis does not accelerate furosemide elimination.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Diuretic, Sulfonamides, plain
ATC code: C03CA01
Furosemide is a strong diuretic agent of fast action. From a pharmacological point of
view, furosemide inhibits the co-transport system (reabsorption) of the following
electrolytes Na+, K+ and 2CL-, located on the luminal cell membrane on the ascending
limb of the loop of Henle. Consequently, furosemide´s efficiency depends on the drug
reaching the tubular lumen through an anionic transport mechanism. The diuretic
effect results on the inhibition of sodium chloride reabsorption in this segment of the
loop of Henle. As a result, the fraction of excreted sodium may ascend to 35% of
sodium glomerular filtration. The secondary effects of increased elimination of
sodium are: increase of urinary excretion and increase of potassium distal secretion at
the distal tube. Excretion of calcium and magnesium salts is also increased.
Furosemide inhibits the feedback mechanism in the dense macula and induces dosedependent stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
In case of heart failure, furosemide induces an acute reduction of cardiac pre-load
(through the enlargement of the blood vessels capacity). This early vascular effect
seems to be mediated by prostaglandins and assumes an adequate renal function with
activation of the renin-angiotensin system and an intact synthesis of prostaglandins.
Due to its natriuretic effect, furosemide reduces the vascular reactivity to
catecholamine that is increased in hypertensive patients.
The diuretic effect of furosemide is established within 15 minutes of an intravenous
A dose-dependent increase in diuresis and natriuresis was found in healthy
individuals to whom furosemide was administerd (doses between 10 and 100 mg).
The duration of action in healthy individuals after the administration of an
intravenous 20 mg dose of furosemide is approximately 3 hours and 3 to 6 hours,
when an oral 40 mg dose is given.
In ill patients, the relation between tubular concentration of free furosemide and
bound furosemide (determined through the urine excretion rate) andits natriuretic
effect is translated in a sigmoid graphic, with a minimum effective excretion rate of
approximately 10 micrograms per minute. Consequently, a continuous infusion of
furosemide is more effective than repeated bolus injections. Above a certain bolus
administration dose, the drugs effects do not significantly increase. The efficacy of
furosemide is decreased in cases of reduced tubular secretion or in cases of intratubular binding of the drug to albumin.
Furosemide distribution volume is 0.1 to 1.2 litres per kg of body weight. The
distribution volume may be increased depending on the concomitant illness.
Protein binding (mostly to albumin) is higher than 98%.
Furosemide is mostly eliminated as the non-conjugated form, mainly through
secretion at the proximal tube. After intravenous administration, 60% to 70% of
furosemide is eliminated by this manner. The glucuronic metabolite of furosemide
represents 10% to 20% of the recovered substances in the urine. The remaining dose
is eliminated in the faeces, probably after biliary secretion. After intravenous
administration, the plasma half-life of furosemide ranges from 1 to 1.5 hours.
Furosemide is excreted in breast milk. It crosses the placental barrier transferring
itself slowly to the foetus. Furosemide achieves similar concentrations in the mother,
foetus and newborn.
In case of renal impairment, furosemide´s elimination is slower and its half-life is
increased. In patients with end-stage renal disease the average half-life is 9.7 hours. In
several multi-organ failure the half life may range from 20-24 hours.
In case of nephrotic syndrome, the lower concentration of plasma proteins leads to
higher concentrations of unbound furosemide . On the other hand, the efficiency of
furosemide is reduced in these patients, due to intratubular albumin binding and to
reduced tubular secretion.
Furosemide exhibits low dialysis in patients undergoing haemodialysis, peritoneal
dialysis or CAPD (Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis).
In case of hepatic impairment, furosemide´s half-life increases 30% to 90%, mainly
due to the higher distribution volume. Biliary elimination might be reduced (up to
50%). In this group of patients, there is a wider variability of the pharmacokinetic
Congestive heart failure, severe hypertension, elderly
Furosemide elimination is slower due to reduced renal function in patients with
congestive heart failure, severe hypertension or in elderly.
Premature infants and new-born
Depending on the maturity of the kidney, elimination of furosemide may be slow. In
case of children with insufficient capacity of glucuronidation, the metabolism of the
drug is also reduced. In term neonates the half-life is generally less than 12 hours.
Preclinical safety data
Chronic toxicity studies in the rat and dog led to renal alterations (among others fibrous
degeneration and renal calcification). Furosemide did not show genotoxic or carcinogenic
In reproductive toxicology studies, a reduced number of differentiated glomeruli, skeletal
anomalies of the scapulae, humerus and ribs (induced by hypokalaemia) were seen in fetal
rats, as well as hydronephrosis that occurred in fetal mice and rabbits after administration of
high doses. The results of a mouse study and one of the three rabbit studies showed an
increased incidence and severity of hydronephrosis (distention of the renal pelvis and, in some
cases, of the ureters) in fetuses derived from the treated dams as compared with those from
the control group.
Preterm rabbits given furosemide had a higher incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage than
saline-treated littermates, possibly due to furosemide-induced intracranial hypotension.
List of excipients
Water for injections.
Furosemide may precipitate out of solution in fluids of low pH. This medicinal
product should not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in
Unopened: 3 years
After first opening: Once opened the product should be used immediately.
After dilution: Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated
for 24 hours at 25°C, protected from light.
From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used
immediately. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions
prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer
than 24 hours at 2 to 8ºC, unless dilution has taken place in controlled and
validated aseptic conditions.
Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 25°C.
Do not refrigerate.
Keep the ampoules / vial in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
For storage conditions of the diluted medicinal product, see section 6.3.
Nature and contents of container
20 mg in 2 ml: amber coloured ampoule with two white ring and white OPC dot
containing 2 ml solution.
40 mg in 4 ml: amber coloured 5 ml ampoule with white snap off and blue band
containing 4 ml solution.
50 mg in 5 ml: amber coloured 5 ml ampoule with white snap off and white band
containing 5 ml solution.
250 mg in 25 ml: Type I amber glass vial sealed with a chlorobutyl rubber
stopper and aluminium seal and a red flip off cap containing 25 ml solution.
10 x 2 ml ampoules
1, 5 ,10 x 4 ml ampoules
10 x 5 ml ampoules
1,5,10 x 25 ml vials
Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Furosemide Injection diluted to 1 mg/ml is compatible with 0.90% NaCl Infusion,
and Compound Sodium Lactate Infusion for 24 hrs. The dilution of the solution for
injection is to be made under aseptic conditions.
The solution is to be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior
to administration. The solution should only be used if the solution is clear and free
from particles. Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in
accordance with local requirements. For single use only, discard any remaining
contents after use.
Furosemide 10 mg / ml Solution for Injection solution should not be mixed with any
other drugs in the injection bottle.
MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Accord Healthcare Limited,
Sage House, 319 Pinner Road,
North Harrow, Middlesex HA1 4HF,
MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE
DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.