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FLUCLOXACILLIN 250MG CAPSULES BP

Active substance(s): FLUCLOXACILLIN SODIUM / FLUCLOXACILLIN SODIUM

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SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
1

NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Flucloxacillin 250mg Capsules BP

2

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Flucloxacillin Sodium equivalent to 250mg Flucloxacillin per Capsule
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1

3

PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Capsules
Hard gelatin size ‘2’ capsules with Caramel body and Black cap printed with
‘FLU250 MIL’ and filled with white to almost white granular powder.

4

CLINICAL PARTICULARS
Flucloxacillin is an isoxazolyl penicillin of the β-lactam group of antibiotics which
exerts a bactericidal effect upon many Gram-positive organisms including
β-lactamase-producing staphylococci and streptococci.

4.1

Therapeutic indications
Flucloxacillin Sodium is indicated for the treatment of infections due to
sensitive Gram-positive organisms, including β-lactamase producing
staphylococci and streptococci. Typical indications include:
Skin and soft tissue infections:
Boils, cellulitis, infected burns, abscesses, infected skin conditions (e.g. ulcer,
eczema, and acne), protection for skin grafts, carbuncles, furunculosis,
infected wounds and impetigo
Respiratory tract infections:
Pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, sinusitis, pharyngitis, otitis media and
externa, tonsillitis and quinsy
Other infections caused by flucloxacillin-sensitive organisms:
Osteomyelitis, urinary tract infection, enteritis, meningitis, endocarditis and
septicaemia
Flucloxacillin Sodium is also indicated for use as a prophylactic agent during
major surgical procedures when appropriate; for example cardiothoracic and
orthopaedic surgery.
Parenteral usage is indicated where oral dosage is inappropriate.

4.2

Posology and method of administration
Premature infants, neonates, sucklings and infants
Other pharmaceutical forms/strengths may be more appropriate for administration to
this population.

Depends on the age, weight and renal function of the patient, as well as on the
severity of the infection.
Usual adult dosage (Including elderly patients)
Oral – 250mg four times a day
Osteomyelitis, endocarditis – Up to 8g daily, in divided doses six to eight
hourly
Surgical prophylaxis – 1 to 2g IV at induction of anaesthesia followed by
500mg six hourly IV, IM or orally for up to 72 hours
Usual children’s dosage
2-10 years: half adult dose.
Under 2 years: quarter adult dose.
Abnormal renal function: In common with other penicillins, flucloxacillin
usage in patients with renal impairment does not usually require dosage
reduction. However, in the presence of severe renal failure (creatinine
clearance <10ml/min) a reduction in dose or an extension of dose interval
should be considered. Flucloxacillin is not significantly removed by dialysis
and hence no supplementary dosages need to be administered either during, or
at the end of the dialysis period. The maximum recommended dose in adults is 1 g
every 8 to 12 hours.

Hepatic impairment:
Dose reduction in patients with reduced hepatic function is not necessary.

Administration:
Oral: Oral doses should be administered half to one hour before meals.

4.3

Contraindications
Flucloxacillin should not be given to patients with a history of hypersensitivity
to β-lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins) or excipients.
Flucloxacillin is contra-indicated in patients with a previous history of
flucloxacillin associated jaundice/hepatic dysfunction.

4.4

Special warnings and precautions for use

Before initiating therapy with flucloxacillin, careful enquiry should be made
concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactams. Cross-sensitivity
between penicillins and cephalosporins is well documented.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) have
been reported in patients receiving β-lactam antibiotics. Although anaphylaxis
is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on
oral therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a
history of β-lactam hypersensitivity.
Flucloxacillin should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic
dysfunction, Patients ≥50 years and those with serious underlying disease. In
these patients, hepatic events may be severe, and in very rare circumstances,
deaths have been reported (see section 4.8).
During prolonged treatments (e.g. osteomyelitis, endocarditis), regular
monitoring of hepatic and renal functions is recommended.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible
organisms.
Flucloxacillin capsules contain approximately 51mg sodium per g. This should
be included in the daily allowance of patients on sodium restricted diets.
If anaphylaxis occurs flucloxacillin should be discontinued and the appropriate
therapy instituted. Serious anaphylactic reactions may require immediate
emergency treatment with adrenaline (epinephrine). Ensure adequate airway
and ventilation and give 100% oxygen. IV crystalloids, hydrocortisone,
antihistamine and nebulised bronchodilators may also be required.
The use of flucloxacillin (like other penicillins) in patients with renal
impairment does not usually require dosage reduction. In the presence of
severe renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 10ml/min), however, a
reduction in dose or an extension of dose interval should be considered
because of the risk of neurotoxicity (see section 4.2).
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema
associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthematous
pustulosis (AGEP) (see section 4.8). In case of AGEP diagnosis,
Flucloxacillin should be discontinued and any subsequent administration of
Flucloxacillin contra-indicated.

4.5

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of flucloxacillin. Concurrent
administration of probenecid delays the renal excretion of flucloxacillin.
Bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of flucloxacillin.

4.6

Pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy: Animal studies with flucloxacillin have shown no teratogenic
effects. The product has been in clinical use since 1970 and the limited
number of reported cases of use in human pregnancy have shown no evidence
of untoward effects. The decision to administer any drug during pregnancy
should be taken with the utmost care. Therefore flucloxacillin should only be
used in pregnancy when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks
associated with treatment.
Lactation: Trace quantities of flucloxacillin can be detected in breast milk.
The possibility of hypersensitivity reactions must be considered in breastfeeding infants. Therefore flucloxacillin should only be administered to a
breast-feeding mother when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks
associated with the treatment.

4.7

Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Adverse effects on the ability to drive or operate machinery have not been
observed.

4.8

Undesirable effects
The following convention has been utilised for the classification of
undesirable effects: Very common (>1/10), common (>1/100, <1/10),
uncommon (>1/1000, <1/100), rare (>1/10,000, <1/1,000), very rare
(<1/10,000).
Unless otherwise stated, the frequency of the adverse events has been derived
from more than 30 years of post-marketing reports.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Very rare: Neutropenia (including agranulocytosis) and thrombocytopenia.
These are reversible when treatment is discontinued. Haemolytic anaemia.
Immune system disorders
Very rare: Anaphylactic shock (exceptional with oral administration) (see
Section 4.4 Special warnings and special precautions for use), angioneurotic
oedema.
If any hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the treatment should be discontinued.
(See also Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders).
Gastrointestinal disorders
*Common: Minor gastrointestinal disturbances.
Very rare: Pseudomembranous colitis.
If pseudomembranous colitis develops, flucloxacillin treatment should be
discontinued and appropriate therapy, e.g. oral vancomycin should be initiated.
Hepato-biliary disorders

Very rare: Hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. (See Section 4.4 Special
Warnings and Special Precautions for Use). Changes in liver function
laboratory test results (reversible when treatment is discontinued).
Hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice may be delayed for up to two months post-

treatment; in several cases the course of the reactions has been protracted and
lasted for some months. Hepatic events may be severe and in very rare
circumstances a fatal outcome has been reported. Most reports of deaths have
been in patients ≥50 years and in patients with serious underlying disease.
There is evidence that the risk of flucloxacillin induced liver injury is increased in
subjects carrying the HLA-B*5701 allele. Despite this strong association, only 1
in 500-1000 carriers will develop liver injury. Consequently, the positive
predictive value of testing the HLA-B*5701 allele for liver injury is very low
(0.12%) and routine screening for this allele is not recommended.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
*Uncommon: Rash, urticaria and purpura.
Very rare: Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic
epidermal necrolysis.
(See also Immune system disorders).
Frequency not known: AGEP – acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
(see section 4.4)
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Very rare: Arthralgia and myalgia sometimes develop more than 48 hours
after the start of the treatment.
Renal and urinary disorders
Very rare: Interstitial nephritis.
This is reversible when treatment is discontinued.
General disorders and administration site conditions
Very rare: Fever sometimes develops more than 48 hours after the start of the
treatment.
*The incidence of these AEs was derived from clinical studies involving a
total of approximately 929 adult and paediatric patients taking flucloxacillin.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal
product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance
of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any
suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme; website:
www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
4.9

Overdose
Gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may be evident
and should be treated symptomatically.

Flucloxacillin is not removed from the circulation by haemodialysis.

5

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1

Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Beta-Lactamase Resistant Penicillins
ATC code: J01CF05
Properties: Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic of the group of
isoxazolyl penicillins; it is not inactivated by staphylococcal β-lactamases.
Activity: Flucloxacillin, by its action on the synthesis of the bacterial wall,
exerts a bactericidal effect on streptococci except those of group D
(Enterococcus faecalis) staphylococci. It is not active against methicillinresistant staphylococci
There is evidence that the risk of flucloxacillin induced liver injury is
increased in subjects carrying the HLA-B*5701 allele. Despite this strong
association, only 1 in 500-1000 carriers will develop liver injury.
Consequently, the positive predictive value of testing the HLA-B*5701 allele
for liver injury is very low (0.12%) and routine screening for this allele is not
recommended

5.2

Pharmacokinetic properties
Absorption:
Flucloxacillin is stable in acid media and can therefore be administered either
by the oral or parenteral route. The peak serum levels of flucloxacillin reached
after one hour are as follows.
- After 250mg by the oral route (in fasting subjects): Approximately 8.8mg/l
- After 500mg by the oral route (in fasting subjects): Approximately
14.5mg/l
- After 500mg by the IM route: Approximately 16.5mg/l
The total quantity absorbed by the oral route represents approximately 79% of
the quantity administered
Distribution:
Flucloxacillin diffuses well into most tissue. Specifically, active
concentrations of flucloxacillin have been recovered in bones: l1.6mg/1
(compact bone) and l5.6mg/l (spongy bone), with a mean serum level of
8.9mg/l.
Crossing the meningeal barrier: Flucloxacillin diffuses in only small
proportion into the cerebrospinal fluid of subjects whose meninges are not
inflamed. Crossing into mothers' milk: flucloxacillin is excreted in small
quantities in mothers' milk
Metabolism:

In normal subjects approximately 10% of the flucloxacillin administered is
metabolised to penicilloic acid. The elimination half-life of flucloxacillin is in
the order of 53 minutes.
Excretion:
Excretion occurs mainly through the kidney. Between 65.5% (oral route) and
76.1% (parenteral route) of the dose administered is recovered in unaltered
active form in the urine within 8 hours. A small portion of the dose
administered is excreted in the bile. The excretion of flucloxacillin is slowed
in cases of renal failure.
Protein binding: The serum protein-binding rate is 95%.

5.3

Preclinical safety data
No further information of relevance to add

6

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1

List of excipients
Magnesium Stearate (E572)
Colloidal Anhydrous Silica
Capsule Shell Components:
Body:
Red Iron Oxide (E172)
Yellow Iron Oxide (E172)
Titanium Dioxide (E171)
Gelatin
Cap:
Black Iron Oxide (E172)
Titanium Dioxide (E171)
Gelatin
Ink components:
Titanium Dioxide (E171)
Shellac (E904)
Industrial Methylated Spirits
Soya Lecithin
Dimethyl siloxane
Mono and di glycerides of fatty acids (E471)
Methyl cellulose
Polyethylene glycol stearate
Xanthan gum
Benzoic acid
Polyethylene glycol
Sorbic acid

6.2

Incompatibilities
None stated

6.3

Shelf life
3 years: polypropylene containers
2 years: blister strips

6.4

Special precautions for storage
Container: Do not store above 25ºC. Store in the original container. Keep
tightly closed.
Blister: Do not store above 25ºC. Store in the original pack.

6.5.

Nature and Contents of Container
White polypropylene container with polyethylene lid: 14, 28, 100, 250, 500 and 1000
capsules.

Blister Strips: 14, 28 and 100 capsules.
The blister strips are packed in the carton along with the patient leaflet.
Or
Blister strips are packed in triple laminated bags along with a silica gel sachet and
heat sealed. The bags are packed in the carton along with the patient leaflet.

Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6

Special precautions for disposal
Nothing stated

7

MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Milpharm Limited
Ares
Odyssey Business Park
West End Road
South Ruislip
HA4 6QD
United Kingdom

8

MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
PL 16363/0041

9

DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE
AUTHORISATION
14/05/2002

10

DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
24/01/2017

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Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

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