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CAR T-Cell Therapy: A Healthcare Professional's Guide - KTE-C19 for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Medically reviewed on Jul 13, 2017 by L. Anderson, PharmD

What is CAR T-Cell Therapy?

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an investigational immunotherapy, the latest targeted, very personalized treatment engineered to actively seek out and destroy cancer cells. Recently, an FDA Advisory Committee gave their stamp of approval on this marvel of biomedical engineering, and now upcoming FDA decisions are expected in the fall.

CAR T-cell therapy is not a "drug" in the usual sense; it is considered gene therapy, some call it a "living" drug. In CAR T, a patient's T cells (white blood cells) are separated out and engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to target the tumor antigen. The tumor antigen, such as C19, is a protein on the surface of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias.

The re-engineered CAR T-cell is then infused back into the patient and redirects the T cell CAR receptor to find the cancer antigen and kill the cancer cell. It sounds like science fiction, but the National Cancer Institute, pharmaceutical industry, and major research universities are all involved.

For a brief introductory review of the tumor and CAR T-cell action, see these related slideshows:

CAR T-Cell FDA Approval: Down to the Wire

Emerging cancer immunotherapies such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies are coming on deck as the next wave of advanced cancer treatments. Two CAR T agents -- Novartis’ CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel) and Kite Pharma's KTE-C19 (axicabtagene ciloleucel) -- are currently undergoing review for approval at the FDA.

Clinical trial results have been remarkable in refractory leukemias and lymphomas, leading to sustained, high rates of remission in a large percentage of treated patients.

However, treatments are not without serious risks and the manufacturing process is complicated and lengthy - two issues the FDA is taking under review. Side effects, which can be difficult for the patient, can be managed according to clinicians and researchers. But it's important to remember when thinking about risks - these patients usually have no other treatment options.

Learn More: CAR T-Cell Therapy: A Healthcare Professional's Guide - Adverse Events

What is KTE-C19?

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (KTE-C19) from Kite Pharma, initially developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is an anti-CD19 CAR-T therapy. KTE-C19 is under study for various relapsed and refractory hematologic malignancies, including:

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (KTE-C19): At the FDA

Aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a malignancy with promising, advanced CAR T research. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel, for short), and also known as KTE-C19, is currently under priority FDA review for aggressive NHL, with data from the ZUMA-1 trial.

On March 31, 2017, Kite announced they had completed the axicabtagene ciloleucel rolling submission for the Biologics License Application (BLA) for aggressive NHL, with an expected FDA approval decision date (PDUFA) by November 29th, 2017. If FDA-approved, Kite plans to launch axicabtagene ciloleucel in 2017, and it would be among the first commercially available CAR T gene therapies. The European Union submission of axicabtagene ciloleucel is expected in the 3rd quarter of 2017.

Learn More: KTE-C19 Studies for Advanced non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Learn More: CAR T-Cell Therapy: A Healthcare Professional's Guide - Manufacturing

Use of KTE-C19 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In addition to the priority review by the FDA for axicabtagene ciloleucel (KTE-C19) for refractory aggressive NHL, axi-cel is also under late Phase 1 research for treatment of refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL).

ALL is a blood and bone marrow cancer that results in a multiplication of immature lymphocytes that are ineffective in fighting infections. Lymphoblasts crowd the bone marrow and prevent normal blood cells from forming. Healthy red blood cells from the bone marrow cannot be formed, leading to anemia.

There are several approaches to treatment of ALL:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Chemotherapy, targeted cancer therapy
  • Radiation treatment
  • Stem cell transplant

In patients who are refractory to these standard treatments or relapse after receiving them, CAR T-cell therapy may offer a last-chance hope for successful treatment.

ZUMA-3 and ZUMA-4 Trials

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is furthest along in Kite's research pipeline, and is first to the FDA. In addition, KTE-C19 has shown impressive early results in difficult-to-treat patients with ALL. As reported in December 2016, in Phase 1 of the ZUMA-3 and ZUMA-4 trials, 13 patients with r/r ALL were treated with KTE-C19. In ZUMA-3, adults 18 years and older are being evaluated, and in ZUMA-4 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 2 to 21) are being enrolled.

Preliminary analysis found:

  • 9 of 11 patients (82%) achieved a complete remission or a complete remission with incomplete or partial blood count recovery.
  • All responders (100%) tested negative for minimal residual disease (MRD), meaning low or no cancer cells in circulation, and is correlated with risk of disease relapse in ALL.
  • Manufacturing of KTE-C19 was successful in all 13 patients in a period of 6 to 8 days.

Adverse events of grade 3 or higher included:

  • Cytokine release syndrome (5 of 13 patients, 38%)
  • Neurological events (5 of 13 patients, 38%), which can include events like aphasia, tremor, and seizures.

Two patients died: one in ZUMA-3 from KTE-C19-related cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and one in ZUMA-4 from an unrelated fungal infection. Larger Phase 2 studies in r/r ALL will be ongoing in 2017.

ZUMA-3 Update in Adults

In June 2017 an update to the ZUMA-3 trial in adults with r/r ALL was released. In the Phase 1 trial, 11 patients were treated with KTE-C19 at different target doses.

Reported results included:

  • 73% of patients achieved complete remission, including those with incomplete or partial recovery of bone marrow.
  • Ongoing complete remissions have been observed from 2 months to greater than 7.4 months.
  • No dose-limiting toxicities occurred in the trial.
  • KTE-C19 was successfully manufactured in 6 days. Vein-to-vein time has been reduced to about 17 days. The manufacturer reports this can be further improved by 2 or 3 days.

The company noted that once cell doses are optimized, pivotal Phase 2 research would commence in 2017.

Safety Update in ZUMA-3 for r/r ALL

In the adult population with r/r ALL in ZUMA-3, the safety data included:

  • Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurred in 3 of 11 patients (27%)
  • Grade 3 or higher neurologic events occurred in 6 of 11 patients (55%)
  • Both of these adverse events were generally reversible.

As previously reported, one patient developed fatal CRS. In order to further improve the safety profile of KTE-C19, ZUMA-3 is also evaluating additional patients who will receive:

  • Tocilizumab (Actemra), an interleukin-6 (IL-6) blocker, within 36 hours post-KTE-C19 infusion
  • A lower dose of cell therapy.

Finished: CAR T-Cell Therapy: A Healthcare Professional's Guide - KTE-C19 for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

CAR T-Cell Therapy: A Healthcare Professional's Guide - An Overview

CAR T-Cell therapy is the latest investigational targeted immunotherapy that is leading to high remission rates in certain difficult-to-treat cancers. But how does this personalized gene therapy work, and what…

 

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