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Perindopril and Indapamide

Pronunciation

(per IN doe pril & in DAP a mide)

Index Terms

  • Indapamide and Perindopril
  • Indapamide and Perindopril Erbumine
  • Perindopril Erbumine and Indapamide

Pharmacologic Category

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor
  • Antihypertensive
  • Diuretic, Thiazide-Related

Pharmacology

See individual agents.

Use: Labeled Indications

Note: Not approved in the US

Hypertension: Treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Coversyl Plus LD may be used as initial treatment. Coversyl Plus and Coversyl Plus HD are not indicated for initial treatment of hypertension, but are indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in patients for whom combination therapy is appropriate.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to perindopril, indapamide, any other component of the formulation, or sulfonamide-derived drugs; hereditary/idiopathic angioedema or history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an ACE inhibitor; hypokalemia; severe hepatic impairment; hepatic encephalopathy; pregnant women or those planning to become pregnant; breast-feeding; concomitant therapy with antiarrhythmic agents causing torsade de pointes; severe renal impairment (GFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [Coversyl Plus 4 mg/1.25 mg and Coversyl Plus LD] or GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [Coversyl Plus 8 mg/1.25 mg and Coversyl Plus HD]); concomitant use with aliskiren-containing drugs in patients with diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) or moderate-to-severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2); hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or the Lapp lactase deficiency

Note: Although the product labeling states this medication is contraindicated with other sulfonamide-containing drug classes, the scientific basis of this statement has been challenged. See “Warnings/Precautions” for more detail.

Dosing: Adult

Hypertension: Oral:

Initial: Perindopril 2 mg/indapamide 0.625 mg once daily; may increase as necessary to perindopril 4 mg/indapamide 1.25 mg once daily.

Maintenance dose: Perindopril 2 to 8 mg/indapamide 0.625 to 2.5 mg once daily.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing; use with caution. Dosage adjustments may be necessary.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

GFR >60 mL/minute/1.73 m2: No adjustment necessary.

GFR 30 to 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2: There are no specific dosage recommendations provided in the manufacturer’s labeling; use lower doses with caution (perindoprilat exposure may be increased) Dosing of perindopril 8 mg/indapamide 1.25 mg and perindopril 8 mg/indapamide 2.5 mg is contraindicated.

GFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Use is contraindicated.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling. Use is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment or hepatic encephalopathy.

Administration

Oral: Administer prior to a meal and early in the day to avoid nocturia.

Storage

Store at room temperature of 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

ACE Inhibitors: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification

Aminolevulinic Acid: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Analgesics (Opioid): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics. Analgesics (Opioid) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Consider therapy modification

Anticholinergic Agents: May increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

AzaTHIOprine: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. The diuretic response is likewise decreased. Consider therapy modification

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Calcium Salts: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Calcium Salts. Continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

Canagliflozin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CarBAMazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Specifically, cardiac glycoside toxicity may be enhanced by the hypokalemic and hypomagnesemic effect of thiazide diuretics. Monitor therapy

Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ciprofloxacin (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, granulocytopenia may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulfonamides. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diazoxide. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dofetilide. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Avoid combination

DPP-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Ferric Gluconate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Monitor therapy

Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Monitor therapy

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Heparin (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: Indapamide may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Consider therapy modification

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Iron Dextran Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification

Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy

Levosulpiride: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Levosulpiride. Avoid combination

Licorice: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Lithium. Consider therapy modification

Lithium: ACE Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Mecamylamine: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mecamylamine. Avoid combination

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying). Management: Though the drugs listed here have uncertain QT-prolonging effects, they all have some possible association with QT prolongation and should generally be avoided when possible. Consider therapy modification

Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, thiazide diuretics may decrease the excretion of calcium, and continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification

OXcarbazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OXcarbazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Pregabalin: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Reboxetine: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Sacubitril: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination

Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Phosphates: Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with diuretics, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, hydrate adequately and monitor fluid and renal status. Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Topiramate: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Topiramate. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Topiramate. Management: Monitor for increased topiramate levels/adverse effects (e.g., hypokalemia) with initiation/dose increase of a thiazide diuretic. Closely monitor serum potassium concentrations with concomitant therapy. Topiramate dose reductions may be necessary. Consider therapy modification

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin D Analogs: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Vitamin D Analogs. Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

Indapamide may interfere with parathyroid function tests and may decrease serum iodine (protein bound) without signs of thyroid disturbance

Adverse Reactions

Also see individual agents.

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (1% to 2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypokalemia (2% to 7%), hyperkalemia (1%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (2%), vomiting (2%), dyspepsia (≤1%)

Renal: Increased blood urea nitrogen (2% to 4%)

Respiratory: Cough (3% to 5%), upper respiratory tract infection (2%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Agranulocytosis, angina pectoris, angioedema, cardiac arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accident, colitis, decreased hemoglobin, depression, dermatitis, ECG abnormality, edema, eosinophilic pneumonitis, epistaxis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis (purpura), fever, flushing, gout, hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypertension, hypersensitivity reaction, hyponatremia, hypotension, impotence, increased serum creatinine, increased serum transaminases, increased uric acid, interstitial nephritis, metabolic alkalosis, neutropenia, oliguria, optic neuritis, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, pancreatitis, pruritus, renal insufficiency, respiratory insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, syncope, tachycardia, tetany, thrombocytopenia, tinnitus, torsades de pointes, toxic epidermal necrolysis, ventricular arrhythmia, visual disturbance

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: At any time during treatment (especially following first dose), angioedema may occur rarely with ACE inhibitors; it may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). Black patients and patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy may be at an increased risk. Risk may also be increased with concomitant use of mTOR inhibitor (eg, everolimus) therapy. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Use in patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE inhibitor therapy is contraindicated.

• Cholestatic jaundice: A rare toxicity associated with ACE inhibitors includes cholestatic jaundice, which may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis; discontinue if marked elevation of hepatic transaminases or jaundice occurs. Consider discontinuing therapy if symptoms of hepatic dysfunction (eg, fever, malaise, muscle pain, rash) present within the first weeks to months of therapy.

• Cough: An ACE inhibitor cough is a dry, hacking, nonproductive one that usually occurs within the first few months of treatment and should generally resolve within 1-4 weeks after discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Other causes of cough should be considered (eg, pulmonary congestion in patients with heart failure) and excluded prior to discontinuation.

• Dermatologic reactions: Maculo-papular pruritic rashes have been reported with ACE inhibitors which may or may not recur when switched to another ACE inhibitor. Severe reactions (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme) rarely have been observed with indapamide use in postmarketing studies; in most cases resolution occurred within 2 weeks of indapamide discontinuation.

• Electrolyte disturbances: Hyperkalemia may occur with ACE inhibitors; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely. Indapamide may cause hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, and/or hypercalcemia. Use is contraindicated in patients with hypokalemia. Discontinue use prior to parathyroid function testing. Measure electrolytes during the first week of therapy and periodically thereafter.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions can occur with ACE inhibitors. Severe anaphylactoid reactions may be seen during hemodialysis with high-flux dialysis membranes (eg, polyacrylonitrile [PAN]), and rarely, during low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate cellulose. Rare cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing sensitization treatment with hymenoptera (bee, wasp) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors.

• Hypotension/syncope: Symptomatic hypotension with or without syncope can occur with ACE inhibitors (usually with the first several doses); effects are most often observed in volume-depleted patients; correct volume depletion prior to initiation; close monitoring of patient is required especially with initial dosing and dosing increases; blood pressure must be lowered at a rate appropriate for the patient's clinical condition. Although dose reduction may be necessary, hypotension is not a reason for discontinuation of future ACE inhibitor use especially in patients with heart failure where a reduction in systolic blood pressure is a desirable observation.

• Neutropenia/agranulocytosis: Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been associated with rare cases of agranulocytosis, neutropenia, or leukopenia with myeloid hypoplasia. Patients with renal impairment are at high risk of developing neutropenia. Patients with renal impairment, collagen vascular disease (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus) or on multiple nephrotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs or with a combination of these factors are at an even higher risk of developing neutropenia. Periodically monitor CBC with differential in these patients.

• Photosensitivity: Photosensitization may occur.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function.

• Sulfonamide (“sulfa”) allergy: The FDA-approved product labeling for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group includes a broad contraindication in patients with a prior allergic reaction to sulfonamides. There is a potential for cross-reactivity between members of a specific class (eg, two antibiotic sulfonamides). However, concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An expanded understanding of allergic mechanisms indicates cross-reactivity between antibiotic sulfonamides and nonantibiotic sulfonamides may not occur or at the very least this potential is extremely low (Brackett 2004; Johnson 2005; Slatore 2004; Tornero 2004). In particular, mechanisms of cross-reaction due to antibody production (anaphylaxis) are unlikely to occur with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. T-cell-mediated (type IV) reactions (eg, maculopapular rash) are less well understood and it is not possible to completely exclude this potential based on current insights. In cases where prior reactions were severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN), some clinicians choose to avoid exposure to these classes.

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic stenosis: Use with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis; may reduce coronary perfusion resulting in ischemia.

• Cardiovascular disease: Initiation of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or cerebrovascular disease warrants close observation due to the potential consequences posed by falling blood pressure (eg, MI, stroke). Fluid replacement if needed may restore blood pressure; therapy may then be resumed. Discontinue therapy in patients whose hypotension recurs. Initial perindopril dose reduction recommended for patients with heart failure; clearance of active metabolite (perindoprilat) is reduced in these patients.

• Collagen vascular disease: Use perindopril with caution in patients with collagen vascular disease especially with concomitant renal impairment; may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity. Indapamide can cause systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exacerbation or activation.

• Diabetes: Use indapamide with caution in patients with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus; may see a change in glucose control.

• Gout: Hyperuricemia has been observed with indapamide use. In certain patients with a history of gout, a familial predisposition to gout, or chronic renal failure, gout can be precipitated by indapamide.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with prior hepatic dysfunction. Prior to initiation of therapy obtain baseline transaminase and bilirubin levels. In cirrhosis, avoid electrolyte and acid/base imbalances that might lead to hepatic encephalopathy. Contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment or hepatic encephalopathy.

• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with outflow tract obstruction: Use with caution in patients with HCM and outflow tract obstruction since reduction in afterload may worsen symptoms associated with this condition.

• Renal artery stenosis: Use perindopril with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis is present or suspected, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in preexisting renal insufficiency; dosage adjustment may be needed. Avoid rapid dosage escalation which may lead to further renal impairment. Patients with renal impairment may be at increased risk for hematologic toxicity. Use of Coversyl Plus 8 mg/1.25 mg and Coversyl Plus HD are contraindicated with GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Use of Coversyl Plus 4 mg/1.25 mg and Coversyl Plus LD are contraindicated with GFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Pregnancy: [Canadian Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Use is contraindicated during pregnancy and in women planning to get pregnant.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Lactose: Formulation contains lactose; use in patients with Lapp lactose deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or hereditary problems of galactose intolerance is contraindicated.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Surgery: In patients on chronic ACE inhibitor therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; use with caution before, during, or immediately after major surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative blood loss, or vasodilating anesthesia increases endogenous renin release. Use of ACE inhibitors perioperatively will blunt angiotensin II formation and may result in hypotension. The manufacturer labeling recommends discontinuing use 24 hours prior to surgery. However, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis, 2011).

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure; BUN, serum creatinine, hepatic function (baseline and then as clinically indicated); uric acid (as appropriate), glucose (as appropriate), and electrolytes; if patient has collagen vascular disease and/or renal impairment, periodically monitor CBC with differential

Pregnancy Considerations

Use is contraindicated during pregnancy and in women planning to become pregnant.

[Canadian Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. Also see individual agents.

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