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Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on July 10, 2020.

Pronunciation

(MEE zels, mumpz & roo BEL a VYE rus vak SEEN)

Index Terms

  • Measles
  • MMR
  • MMR Vaccine
  • Mumps
  • Mumps, Measles, and Rubella Vaccine
  • Rubella
  • Rubella, Measles, and Mumps Vaccine

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Injection, powder for reconstitution [preservative free]:

M-M-R II: Measles virus ≥1000 TCID50, mumps virus ≥12,500 TCID50, and rubella virus ≥1000 TCID50 [contains albumin (human), bovine serum, chicken egg protein, gelatin, neomycin, sorbitol, and sucrose 1.9 mg/vial; supplied with diluent]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • M-M-R II

Pharmacologic Category

  • Vaccine
  • Vaccine, Live (Viral)

Pharmacology

As a live, attenuated vaccine, MMR vaccine offers active immunity to disease caused by the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.

Onset of Action

The median seroconversion after 1 vaccine dose is 96% (measles), 99% (rubella), mumps (94%) (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Duration of Action

The median duration of immunity after 2 doses is ≥15 years for all components of the vaccine (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Use: Labeled Indications

Measles, mumps, and rubella prevention: Active immunization for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in patients ≥12 months of age

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination for the following (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]):

• All children (first dose given at 12 to 15 months of age)

• Adults born in 1957 or later (without evidence of immunity or documentation of vaccination). Vaccine may be given to adults born prior to 1957 if they do not have contraindications to the MMR vaccine.

• Adults at higher risk for exposure to and transmission of measles, mumps, and rubella should receive special consideration for vaccination, unless an acceptable evidence of immunity exists. This includes international travelers, persons attending colleges and other post high school education, persons working in health care facilities.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to measles, mumps, and/or rubella vaccine or any component of the formulation (including gelatin and neomycin); active moderate or severe febrile illness; active untreated tuberculosis; immunosuppression (including patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy [does not include corticosteroids as replacement therapy]); family history of congenital or hereditary immunodeficiency (until immune competence in the vaccine recipient is demonstrated); pregnancy.

Dosing: Adult

Note: Immunization during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Routine vaccination should NOT be delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic (CDC 2020; WHO 2020). In general, simultaneous administration of all vaccines for which a patient is eligible (according to current immunization schedules/guidelines) is recommended (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]). However, outpatient visits solely for vaccination should be delayed in persons in quarantine due to close contact with COVID-19 or persons who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection (regardless of symptoms); refer to the CDC's "Interim Guidance for Immunization Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic" for current recommendations (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pandemic-guidance/index.html). Additional information is available from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Immunization Action Coalition.

Note: The minimum interval between 2 doses of MMR vaccine is 28 days (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Immunization: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose; 1 or 2 doses administered at least 28 days apart based upon the following criteria (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]):

Adults born in or after 1957 should be vaccinated with ≥1 dose unless they have acceptable evidence of immunity.

Adults born prior to 1957 are considered immune to measles, mumps, and rubella but may be vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses if they do not have contraindications to the vaccine. Pregnant adults born prior to 1957 are not considered immune to rubella.

Adults who received inactivated or unknown type of measles vaccine during 1963 to 1967: One or two doses of MMR.

Adults who received inactivated or unknown type of mumps vaccine before 1979 and who are at high risk: Two doses of MMR.

Health care personnel: Persons born in or after 1957 should have 2 doses of vaccine unless they have acceptable evidence of immunity. Unvaccinated persons born prior to 1957 should also consider vaccination with 2 doses of MMR for measles and mumps or 1 dose of MMR for rubella unless they have laboratory evidence or laboratory confirmation of disease (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

HIV infection (without severe immunosuppression): Two doses of MMR unless there is acceptable evidence of immunity.

Household/close contacts of immunocompromised persons: Two doses of MMR unless there is acceptable evidence of immunity.

International travelers: Two doses of MMR prior to travel unless there is acceptable evidence of immunity.

Measles, mumps, or rubella outbreak (community): Adults who received 1 dose of MMR should be considered for a second dose if the outbreak involves measles or mumps in adults. Vaccination should also be considered for persons born prior to 1957 without evidence of immunity who may be exposed to mumps. A single dose of a rubella-containing vaccine is considered adequate vaccination during a rubella outbreak. During a mumps outbreak, a third dose of MMR vaccine is recommended for at-risk persons who have been previously vaccinated with 2 doses (CDC/ACIP [Marin 2018]; Cardemil 2017); consult local public health authorities.

Measles, mumps, or rubella outbreak (healthcare facility): Unvaccinated health care personnel without evidence of immunity regardless of birth year should receive 2 doses during a measles or mumps outbreak and one dose during a rubella outbreak.

Students: Persons entering post high school educational facilities should receive 2 doses of MMR unless they have acceptable evidence of immunity prior to enrollment.

Women of childbearing potential: One dose of MMR unless they have acceptable evidence of immunity. Vaccination should not be given during pregnancy and pregnancy should be avoided for 28 days after vaccine administration.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Immunization during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Routine vaccination should NOT be delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic (CDC 2020; WHO 2020). In general, simultaneous administration of all vaccines for which a patient is eligible (according to current immunization schedules/guidelines) is recommended (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]). However, outpatient visits solely for vaccination should be delayed in persons in quarantine due to close contact with COVID-19 or persons who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection (regardless of symptoms); refer to the CDC's "Interim Guidance for Immunization Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic" for current recommendations (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pandemic-guidance/index.html). Additional information is available from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Immunization Action Coalition.

Note: The minimum interval between two doses of MMR vaccine is 28 days (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]). Refer to Additional Information for a description of acceptable evidence of immunity. Consult CDC/ACIP annual immunization schedules for additional information including specific detailed recommendations for catch-up scenarios and/or care of patients with high-risk conditions. According to ACIP, doses administered ≤4 days before minimum interval or age are considered valid; however, local or state mandates may supersede this timeframe (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

Primary immunization: Children ≥12 months: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose for a total of 2 doses given as follows: 12 to 15 months of age and the second dose at 4 to 6 years of age; the second dose is recommended prior to entering kindergarten or first grade. The second dose may be administered at any time provided at least 28 days have elapsed since the first dose (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Catch-up immunization (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]): School-aged Children and Adolescents: Ensure that 2 doses have been given at least 28 days apart

Measles outbreak without acceptable evidence of immunity and at risk for exposure: Note: Should be administered within 72 hours postexposure.

Infants 6 to 11 months: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose as a single dose (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]). Children should be vaccinated at ≥12 months with standard 2-dose series

Children 1 to 4 years: Children who received 1 dose (0.5 mL SubQ) of MMR should be considered for a second dose if the outbreak involves preschool-aged children (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Mumps outbreak (eg, community):

Children 1 to 4 years (without acceptable evidence of immunity and at risk for exposure): Children who received 1 dose of MMR should be considered for a second dose (0.5 mL SubQ) if the outbreak involves preschool-aged children (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013])

Children and Adolescents (fully immunized [2 previous MMR doses]); community outbreak: A third dose of MMR vaccine may be considered; appropriate patients should be guided by public health officials (ACIP/CDC [Marin 2018]); in a large, cohort trial (total: n=20,496; treatment cohort: n=4,783; age range: 18 to 24 years), subjects who received a third dose of MMR vaccine had significantly decreased incidence of mumps compared to those students who had only received 2 doses (Cardemil 2017); consult local public health authorities.

Household/close contacts of immunocompromised persons without acceptable evidence of immunity: Children ≥12 months and Adolescents: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose for a total of 2 doses administered at least 28 days apart unless they have acceptable evidence of immunity (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013])

HIV infection without evidence of MMR immunity: Children ≥12 months and Adolescents: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose. Children and adolescents with HIV infection and without evidence of severe immunosuppression should have 2 additional doses of MMR; those with perinatal HIV infection who were vaccinated prior to effective ART should have 2 additional doses of MMR once ART is established (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

International travel, without evidence of immunity (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]):

Infants 6 to 11 months: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose. Administer 1 dose of MMR before departure from the United States; these infants should be revaccinated with 2 doses of MMR with the first dose between 12 to 15 months of age (and at least 28 days after the previous dose; target 12 months of age if child remains in area where disease risk if high) and the second dose at least 28 days later.

Children ≥12 months and Adolescents: SubQ: 0.5 mL per dose. Administer 2 doses of MMR before departure from the United States with the second dose at least 28 days later.

Reconstitution

Reconstitute with total volume of the provided diluent. Gently agitate to mix thoroughly. Discard if powder does not dissolve. Use as soon as possible following reconstitution (may be stored at 2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]; protect from light); discard if not used within 8 hours.

Administration

SubQ: Administer SubQ in outer aspect of the upper arm or into the higher outer aspect of the thigh. Not for IV administration. Do not mix with other vaccines or injections; separate needles and syringes should be used for each injection. To prevent syncope related injuries, patients should be vaccinated while seated or lying down (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]). US law requires that the date of administration, the vaccine manufacturer, lot number of vaccine, Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) edition date and date it was provided, and the administering person's name, title, and address be recorded.

Priorix (Canadian product): SubQ administration preferred; may also be given by IM injection in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh or the deltoid muscle; do not administer intravascularly. Do not mix with other vaccines or injections; separate needles and syringes should be used for each injection. To prevent syncope-related injuries, patients should be vaccinated while seated or lying down (NACI 2019).

Storage

Prior to reconstitution, store the powder at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Protect from light. Diluent may be stored in refrigerator or at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]). Do not freeze diluent. Use as soon as possible following reconstitution; may be stored under refrigeration and protected from light for up to 8 hours.

Drug Interactions

Atoltivimab, Maftivimab, and Odesivimab: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Wait several months (3 to 6 months, and even as long as 11 months) after use of atoltivimab, maftivimab, and odesivimab before administering live vaccines. Consider therapy modification

AzaTHIOprine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). AzaTHIOprine may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Low-dose azathioprine (3 mg/kg/day or less) is not considered sufficiently immunosuppressive to create vaccine safety concerns and is not a contraindication for administration of zoster vaccine. Higher doses of azathioprine should be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Belimumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Brexucabtagene Autoleucel: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Brexucabtagene Autoleucel may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Corticosteroids (Systemic) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid live vaccines during and for 1 month after therapy with immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids (equivalent to prednisone >2 mg/kg or 20 mg/day in persons over 10 kg for at least 2 weeks). Give live vaccines prior to therapy whenever possible. Consider therapy modification

Daclizumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Daclizumab may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Deflazacort: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Deflazacort may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Administer all vaccines according to immunization guidelines prior to initiating deflazacort. Live vaccines should be administered at least 4 to 6 weeks prior to initiating deflazacort. Consider therapy modification

Dimethyl Fumarate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Specifically, Dimethyl Fumarate may increase the risk of vaccinal infection. Dimethyl Fumarate may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Non-US labeling for dimethyl fumarate states that live attenuated vaccine administration is not recommended during treatment. US labeling states that safety and effectiveness of live vaccines administered with dimethyl fumarate has not been assessed. Monitor therapy

Dupilumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Fingolimod: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Vaccinal infections may develop. Fingolimod may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Guselkumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Immune Globulins: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Consult full interaction monograph for dose interval recommendations. This interaction does not apply to oral Ty21a typhoid vaccine or others listed as exceptions. Consider therapy modification

Immunosuppressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid use of live organism vaccines with immunosuppressants; live-attenuated vaccines should not be given for at least 3 months after immunosuppressants. Avoid combination

Leflunomide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Leflunomide may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: The ACIP guidelines state that live-attenuated vaccines should generally be avoided for at least 3 months after cessation of immunosuppressant therapy. However, the ACR does not recommend avoiding live vaccines in patients being treated with leflunomide. Consider therapy modification

Mercaptopurine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Mercaptopurine may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Low-dose 6-mercaptopurine (1.5 mg/kg/day or less) is not considered sufficiently immunosuppressive to create vaccine safety concerns and is not a contraindication for administration of zoster vaccine. Higher doses of mercaptopurine should be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Methotrexate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Methotrexate may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Low-dose methotrexate (0.4 mg/kg/week or less) is not considered sufficiently immunosuppressive to create vaccine safety concerns. Higher doses of methotrexate should be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Ocrelizumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Ocrelizumab may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Rabies Immune Globulin (Human): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid administering the measles vaccine within 4 months after administration of rabies immune globulin. Avoid administering other live vaccines within 3 months after administration of rabies immune globulin. Consider therapy modification

Rho(D) Immune Globulin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine. Management: Do not delay administration of the measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine in women who have recently received Rho (D) immune globulin. If possible, women should be tested 3 or more months after vaccine administration to ensure immunity. Consider therapy modification

Risankizumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Tildrakizumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). The risk for contracting an infection from the vaccine may be increased. Tildrakizumab may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Avoid combination

Tuberculin Tests: Vaccines (Live) may diminish the diagnostic effect of Tuberculin Tests. Management: If a parenteral live vaccine has been recently administered, do administer a scheduled PPD skin test for at least 4-6 weeks following administration of the vaccine. Simultaneous administration of a parenteral live vaccine and PPD skin test is acceptable. Consider therapy modification

Vaccines (Live): May diminish the therapeutic effect of other Vaccines (Live). Management: Two or more injectable or nasally administered live vaccines not administered on the same day should be separated by at least 28 days (ie, 4 weeks). If not, the vaccine administered second should be repeated at least 4 week later. Monitor therapy

Venetoclax: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Venetoclax may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid use of live, attenuated vaccines before, during, or after (prior to B-cell recovery) venetoclax treatment. Avoid combination

Test Interactions

Temporary suppression of tuberculin skin test reactivity. Tuberculin test may be given prior to vaccination, simultaneously at separate sites on the same day as measles-containing vaccine, or 4 to 6 weeks later (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Syncope, vasculitis

Central nervous system: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, ataxia, dizziness, Guillain-Barré syndrome, headache, irritability, malaise, paresthesia, polyneuropathy, retrobulbar neuritis, seizure, sensorineural hearing loss, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, transverse myelitis

Dermatologic: Erythema multiforme, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schnolein purpura/acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy), morbilliform rash, pruritus, rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Diabetes mellitus

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea, pancreatitis, parotitis, sore throat, vomiting

Genitourinary: Epididymitis, orchitis

Hematologic & oncologic: Leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy (regional), purpura, thrombocytopenia

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylaxis, angioedema

Infection: Atypical measles

Local: Injection site reaction (including burning, induration, redness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, vesiculation, wheal and flare)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthropathy (arthralgia/arthritis: Women 12% to 26%; children ≤3%), myalgia, panniculitis

Ophthalmic: Conjunctivitis, oculomotor nerve paralysis, optic neuritis, optic papillitis, retinitis

Otic: Otitis media

Respiratory: Bronchospasm, cough, pneumonia, rhinitis

Miscellaneous: Febrile seizures, fever

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Aseptic meningitis (associated with Urabe strain of mumps vaccine), brain disease, encephalitis

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anaphylactoid/hypersensitivity reactions: Immediate treatment (including epinephrine 1 mg/mL) for anaphylactoid and/or hypersensitivity reactions should be available during vaccine use (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

• Febrile seizures: Febrile seizures have been reported within 2 weeks following immunization with MMR vaccine; risk is increased in those who experienced previous febrile seizure from any cause and those with family history of febrile seizures.

• Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration: Vaccine administration that is too high on the upper arm may cause shoulder injury (eg, shoulder bursitis, tendinopathy) resulting in shoulder pain and reduced range of motion following injection. Use proper injection technique for vaccines administered in the deltoid muscle (eg, injecting in the central, thickest part of the muscle) to reduce the risk of shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (Cross 2016; Foster 2013).

• Syncope: Syncope has been reported with use of injectable vaccines and may result in serious secondary injury (eg, skull fracture, cerebral hemorrhage); typically reported in adolescents and young adults and within 15 minutes after vaccination. Procedures should be in place to avoid injuries from falling and to restore cerebral perfusion if syncope occurs (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

Disease-related concerns:

• Acute illness: The decision to administer or delay vaccination because of current or recent febrile illness depends on the severity of symptoms and the etiology of the disease. Defer administration in patients with moderate or severe acute illness (with or without fever). Although fever is a contraindication per the manufacturer, current guidelines allow for administration to patients with mild acute illness (without fever) (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]; CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

• CNS disorders: Use with caution in patients with history of cerebral injury, seizures, or other conditions where stress due to fever should be avoided.

• Measles exposure: Exposure to measles is not a contraindication to vaccine; use within 72 hours of exposure may provide some protection.

• Mumps exposure: Postexposure vaccination has not been shown to prevent or alter disease following mumps exposure (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

• Rubella exposure: Postexposure vaccination has not been shown to prevent or alter disease following rubella exposure (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

• Thrombocytopenia: Thrombocytopenia (transient) has been reported 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination; use with caution in patients with thrombocytopenia and those who developed thrombocytopenia after a previous dose.

• Tuberculosis: Defer vaccination in patients with active untreated tuberculosis.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Immune globulins: Recent administration of immune globulins may interfere with immune response. Guidelines with suggested administration intervals are available (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

• Vaccines: In order to maximize vaccination rates, the ACIP recommends simultaneous administration (ie, >1 vaccine on the same day at different anatomic sites) of all age-appropriate vaccines (live or inactivated) for which a person is eligible at a single clinic visit, unless contraindications exist. The use of combination vaccines is generally preferred over separate injections, taking into consideration provider assessment, patient preference, and potential adverse events. When using combination vaccines, the minimum age for administration is the oldest minimum age for any individual component; the minimum interval between dosing is the greatest minimum interval between any individual components. The ACIP prefers each dose of a specific vaccine in a series come from the same manufacturer when possible (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

Special populations:

• Altered immunocompetence: Use is contraindicated in severely immunocompromised patients. The ACIP does not recommend vaccination for persons with primary or acquired immunodeficiency (including immunosuppression associated with cellular immunodeficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, dysgammaglobulinemia and AIDs, or severe immunosuppression associated with HIV); persons with blood dyscrasia, leukemia, lymphoma, or other malignant neoplasms which affect the bone marrow or lymphatic system; persons with a family history of congenital or hereditary immunodeficiency in first degree relatives (unless immunocompetence can be established); persons taking systemic corticosteroid therapy for ≥2 weeks in doses of corticosteroids ≥2 mg/kg of body weight or prednisone (or equivalent) ≥20 mg/day for persons who weigh >10 kg. Patients with HIV infection, who are asymptomatic and not severely immunosuppressed may be vaccinated (severe immunosuppression is defined as CD4+ T-lymphocyte <15% at any age or CD4 count <200 lymphocytes/mm3 for persons >5 years) (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]). Patients with leukemia who are in remission and who have not received chemotherapy for at least 3 months may be vaccinated. In general, household and close contacts of persons with altered immunocompetence may receive all age appropriate vaccines (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

• Pediatric: Safety and efficacy of measles vaccine has not been established in children <6 months of age and safety and efficacy of mumps and rubella vaccines have not been established in <12 months of age. Local health departments may recommend vaccine to children 6 to 12 months of age in outbreak situations, but this would not count towards their immunization series.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Albumin: Some dosage forms may contain human albumin.

• Egg allergy: Vaccine may contain trace amounts of chick embryo antigen. Use caution in patients with history of immediate hypersensitivity/anaphylactic reactions following egg ingestion. Generally, the MMR vaccine can be safely administered to persons with an egg allergy (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

• Gelatin: Products may contain gelatin. Use is contraindicated in patients with a history of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to gelatin

• Neomycin sensitivity: Manufactured with neomycin. Use is contraindicated in patients with history of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions to neomycin. Contact dermatitis due to neomycin is not a contraindication to the vaccine.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Antipyretics: Antipyretics have not been shown to prevent febrile seizures; antipyretics may be used to treat fever or discomfort following vaccination (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]). One study reported that routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen prior to vaccination to prevent fever decreased the immune response of some vaccines; the clinical significance of this reduction in immune response has not been established (Prymula 2009).

• Appropriate use: Use of this vaccine for specific medical and/or other indications (eg, immunocompromising conditions, hepatic or kidney disease, diabetes) is also addressed in the annual ACIP Recommended Immunization Schedules (refer to CDC schedule for detailed information). Specific recommendations for vaccination in immunocompromised patients with asplenia, cancer, HIV infection, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, cochlear implants, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (prior to or after), sickle cell disease, solid organ transplant (prior to or after), or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy for chronic conditions as well as contacts of immunocompromised patients are available from the IDSA (Rubin 2014).

• Blood products: Recent administration of blood or blood products may interfere with immune response. Guidelines with suggested administration intervals are available (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

• Effective immunity: Vaccination may not result in effective immunity in all patients. Response depends upon multiple factors (eg, type of vaccine, age of patient) and may be improved by administering the vaccine at the recommended dose, route, and interval. Vaccines may not be effective if administered during periods of altered immune competence (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]).

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor for anaphylaxis and syncope for 15 minutes following administration (ACIP [Ezeanolue 2020]). If seizure-like activity associated with syncope occurs, maintain patient in supine or Trendelenburg position to reestablish adequate cerebral perfusion.

Reproductive Considerations

This vaccine should not be administered to women who plan to become pregnant within 1 month of immunization.

Prenatal screening is recommended for all pregnant women who lack evidence of rubella immunity. Women of childbearing age without documentation of rubella vaccination or serologic evidence of immunity should be vaccinated (for women of childbearing potential, birth prior to 1957 is not acceptable evidence of immunity to rubella).

Sterility in males and infertility in prepubescent females may occur with natural mumps infection (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Pregnancy Considerations

Based on information collected following inadvertent administration during pregnancy, adverse events have not been observed following use of rubella vaccine. However, theoretical risks cannot be ruled out; use of this vaccine is contraindicated in pregnant females. The risk of congenital rubella syndrome following vaccination is significantly less than the risk associated following infection; therefore, inadvertent administration of MMR during pregnancy is not considered an indication to terminate pregnancy.

Adverse consequences of natural infection in unvaccinated pregnant women have been reported. Measles infection during pregnancy may increase the risk of premature labor, preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion and low birth weights. Rubella infection during the first trimester may lead to miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (includes auditory, ophthalmic, cardiac and neurologic defects; intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation); fetal rubella infection can occur during any trimester of pregnancy. Maternal mumps infection during the first trimester may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion or intrauterine fetal death.

Prenatal screening is recommended for all pregnant women who lack evidence of rubella immunity. Women of childbearing age without documentation of rubella vaccination or serologic evidence of immunity should be vaccinated (for women of childbearing potential, birth prior to 1957 is not acceptable evidence of immunity to rubella). Women who are pregnant should be vaccinated upon completion or termination of pregnancy, prior to discharge. Household contacts of pregnant women may be vaccinated (CDC/ACIP [McLean 2013]).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Burning or stinging

• Injection pain, redness, or swelling

• Headache

• Loss of strength of energy

• Fatigue

• Irritability

• Muscle pain

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Joint pain

• Joint swelling

• Diarrhea

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Pancreatitis like severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting

• High blood sugar like confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, passing a lot of urine, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit

• Confusion

• Behavioral changes

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Burning or numbness feeling

• Change in balance

• Abnormal gait

• Seizures

• Testicular swelling

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Swollen gland

• Cough

• Shortness of breath

• Change in hearing

• Vision changes

• Eye pain

• Severe eye irritation

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.