Pronunciation: ESS-moe-lahl HIGH-droe-KLOR-ide
Class: Beta-adrenergic blocking agent
- Injection 10 mg/mL
- Injection 250 mg/mL
Blocks beta-receptors primarily affecting CV system (eg, decreases heart rate, contractility, BP) and lungs (promoting bronchospasm).
Distribution t ½ is approximately 2 min. 55% is protein bound.
Rapidly metabolized by the esterases in the cytosol of red blood cells to an acid metabolite and methanol.
The t ½ is approximately 9 min. Less than 2% excreted unchanged in the urine.
Indications and Usage
Short-term management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and noncompensatory sinus tachycardia.
Treatment of caffeine toxicity; attenuation of CV responses to electroconvulsive therapy or induction of anesthesia; adjunct therapy for acute MI and unstable angina; treatment of thyroid storm.
Sinus bradycardia; second- or third-degree heart block; CHF unless secondary to tachyarrhythmia treatable with beta-blockers; overt cardiac failure; cardiogenic shock.
Dosage and AdministrationAdults
Usual: IV 500 mcg/kg/min for 1 min; then infusion of 50 to 200 mcg/kg/min, which has been titrated to desired end point (eg, heart rate, BP) in 50 mcg/kg/min increments.
- 10 mg/mL vial does not need further dilution.
- Do not administer through butterfly needles.
- For IV administration, use 250 mg/mL solution diluted in dextrose 5% injection and sodium chloride 0.9% or 0.45% injection, lactated Ringer's injection, and potassium chloride (40 mEq/L) in dextrose 5% injection or sodium chloride 0.9% or 0.45% injection. To prepare solution remove 20 mL from 500 mL bottle of suitable infusion fluid and add 2 amps of 250 mg/mL solution of esmolol. Final concentration is 10 mg/mL.
Store diluted solution at room temperature or under refrigeration. Discard after 24 h.
May enhance or reverse antihypertensive effect; potentially life-threatening increases in BP may occur, especially on withdrawal.NSAIDs
Some agents may impair antihypertensive effect.Prazosin
Potential for and degree of orthostatic hypotension may be increased.Verapamil
Effects of both drugs may be increased.
Sodium bicarbonate 5% injection.
Laboratory Test Interactions
Antinuclear antibodies may develop; usually reversible on discontinuation. May interfere with glucose or insulin tolerance test results. May cause changes in serum lipid levels.
Hypotension; bradycardia; CHF; cold extremities; pallor; second or third-degree heart block.
Insomnia; fatigue; dizziness; depression; lethargy; drowsiness; forgetfulness.
Rash; hives; fever; alopecia.
Dry eyes; blurred vision; tinnitus; slurred speech; sore throat.
Nausea; vomiting, diarrhea; dry mouth.
Impotence; painful, difficult, or frequent urination.
Agranulocytosis; thrombocytopenia purpura.
Bronchospasm; shortness of breath; wheezing.
Weight changes; facial swelling; muscle weakness; inflammation at infusion site.
Category C .
Safety and efficacy not established.
Reduced daily dose advised.
Reduced daily dose advised.
Deaths have occurred; aggressive therapy may be required.
Administer drug in patients with CHF controlled by digitalis and diuretics. Notify health care provider at first sign or symptom of CHF or other unexplained respiratory symptoms.
May mask signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (eg, tachycardia, BP changes). May potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
Nonallergic bronchospasm (eg, chronic bronchitis, emphysema)
Use caution in patients with bronchospastic diseases.
Peripheral vascular disease
May precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency.
May mask clinical signs (eg, tachycardia) of developing or continuing hyperthyroidism. Abrupt withdrawal may exacerbate symptoms of hyperthyroidism, including thyroid storm.
Hypotension, bradycardia, intraventricular conduction disturbances, shock.
- Caution patient to notify health care provider of any urticaria, shortness of breath, vertigo, syncope, or inability to void.
- Advise diabetic patient to notify health care provider of hypoglycemic reaction symptoms.
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