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Dextromethorphan and Quinidine

Medically reviewed on Nov 15, 2018

Pronunciation

See also: Nuedexta

(deks troe meth OR fan & KWIN i deen)

Index Terms

  • Dextromethorphan HBr/Quinidine
  • Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and Quinidine Sulfate
  • Quinidine and Dextromethorphan

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule, oral:

Nuedexta: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide 20 mg and quinidine sulfate 10 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Nuedexta

Pharmacologic Category

  • N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist

Pharmacology

Dextromethorphan may relieve the symptoms of PBA by binding to sigma-1 receptors in the brain which may be involved in behavior, however the exact mechanism of action is not known. In the treatment of agitation and/or aggression in Alzheimer disease (off-label use), dextromethorphan may potentially relieve symptoms by several proposed mechanisms, including N-methyl-D-aspartase antagonism, sigma-1 receptor agonism, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, and nicotinic alpha-3-beta-4 receptor antagonism (Cummings 2015). However, the exact mechanism of action within this condition is not known.

Quinidine is used to block the rapid metabolism of dextromethorphan, thereby increasing serum concentrations. The dose of quinidine in this combination product provides serum concentrations 1% to 3% of those needed to treat cardiac arrhythmias.

Absorption

Bioavailability of dextromethorphan increased ~20-fold when administered with quinidine

Metabolism

Dextromethorphan: Hepatic via CYP2D6 to dextrorphan (active); Quinidine: Hepatic via CYP3A4 to 3-hydroxyquinidine (active) and other metabolites

Excretion

Urine (~20% as unchanged)

Time to Peak

Dextromethorphan: 3 to 4 hours; Quinidine: 1 to 2 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Dextromethorphan: 13 hours in extensive metabolizers; Quinidine: 7 hours in extensive metabolizers

Protein Binding

Dextromethorphan: 60% to 70%; Quinidine: 80% to 89%

Use: Labeled Indications

Pseudobulbar affect: Treatment of pseudobulbar affect (PBA)

Off Label Uses

Agitation and/or aggression in Alzheimer disease

Data from a 10-week, phase-2, randomized, double-blind controlled study suggests dextromethorphan and quinidine may be beneficial in the treatment of agitation and/or aggression in those with Alzheimer disease [Cummings 2015]. Of note, the patients in the trial were predominantly outpatients. Additional data may be necessary to further define the role of dextromethorphan and quinidine in this condition.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to dextromethorphan, quinidine, quinine, mefloquine, or any component of the formulation; concomitant use with quinidine or other medications containing quinidine, quinine, or mefloquine; history of quinine-, mefloquine-, or quinidine-induced thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, bone marrow depression, or lupus-like syndrome; concurrent administration with or within 2 weeks of discontinuing an MAO inhibitor; patients with prolonged QT interval, congenital QT syndrome, or history of torsade de pointes; patients with heart failure; concurrent use of drugs that prolong the QT interval and are metabolized by CYP2D6 (eg, pimozide, thioridazine); patients with complete atrioventricular (AV) block without an implanted pacemaker or patients at high risk of complete AV block

Dosing: Adult

Pseudobulbar affect: Oral: Dextromethorphan 20 mg/quinidine 10 mg once daily for 7 days, then increase to dextromethorphan 20 mg/quinidine 10 mg every 12 hours; reassess patient periodically to determine if continued use is necessary. Do not exceed dextromethorphan 40 mg/quinidine 20 mg in a 24-hour period.

Agitation/aggression in Alzheimer disease (off-label use): Oral: Dextromethorphan 20 mg/quinidine 10 mg once daily for 7 days, then increase to dextromethorphan 20 mg/quinidine 10 mg twice daily (Cummings 2015). Additional data may be necessary to further define the role of dextromethorphan and quinidine in this condition. Note: The trial further increased the dosage after 14 days to dextromethorphan 30 mg/quinidine 10 mg twice daily but that dosage form is not commercially available.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

Mild to moderate impairment (CrCl 30 to 80 mL/minute): No dosage adjustment necessary.

Severe impairment (CrCl <30 mL/minute): There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied); however, increases in dextromethorphan/quinidine levels are likely to be observed.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Mild to moderate impairment (Child-Pugh class A or B): No dosage adjustment necessary; however, an increase in adverse reactions is observed with moderate impairment.

Severe impairment (Child-Pugh class C): There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied); however, increases in dextromethorphan/quinidine levels are likely to be observed.

Administration

May be administered with or without food. Administer twice-daily doses every 12 hours.

Dietary Considerations

Avoid grapefruit juice.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abiraterone Acetate: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Avoid concurrent use of abiraterone with CYP2D6 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index whenever possible. When concurrent use is not avoidable, monitor patients closely for signs/symptoms of toxicity. Consider therapy modification

AbobotulinumtoxinA: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of AbobotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Aclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: Per US labeling: reduce afatinib by 10mg if not tolerated. Per Canadian labeling: avoid combination if possible; if used, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with or after the dose of afatinib. Consider therapy modification

Ajmaline: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Ajmaline. Avoid combination

Amifampridine: May diminish the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Amifampridine. Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Amiodarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Amisulpride: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Amisulpride. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Amphetamines: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Amphetamines. Monitor therapy

Antacids: May decrease the excretion of QuiNIDine. Exceptions: Aluminum Hydroxide. Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: See full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Please refer to the full interaction monograph for details concerning the recommended dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

Asunaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Consider therapy modification

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

AtoMOXetine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AtoMOXetine. Management: Initiate atomoxetine at a reduced dose (adult doses -- patients up to 70kg: 0.5mg/kg/day; patients 70kg or more: 40mg/day) in patients receiving a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Azithromycin (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Azithromycin (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Benzhydrocodone: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Benzhydrocodone. Monitor therapy

Betrixaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Management: Decrease the betrixaban dose to an initial single dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg once daily if combined with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Management: Consider alternatives when possible; bilastine should be avoided in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency who are receiving p-glycoprotein inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Boceprevir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Brentuximab Vedotin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose to 50% of usual with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor; this recommendation does not apply if treating major depressive disorder. Reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor and a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine): May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers (Dihydropyridine). Exceptions: Felodipine; Nisoldipine. Monitor therapy

Cannabinoid-Containing Products: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the tachycardic effect of Cannabinoid-Containing Products. Exceptions: Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: May decrease the excretion of QuiNIDine. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. Management: Upon quinidine initiation, consider reducing cardiac glycoside dose by 25% to 50%, with continued monitoring of glycoside serum concentrations and clinical response until the quinidine reaches steady state (5-10 days). Consider therapy modification

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Chloral Betaine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Chloroquine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Chloroquine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Cimetidine: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider alternatives to cimetidine. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor for increased quinidine concentrations/toxicity with cimetidine initiation/dose increase, or decreased concentrations/effects with cimetidine discontinuation/dose decrease. Consider therapy modification

Cimetropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Cimetropium. Avoid combination

Citalopram: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Citalopram. Avoid combination

Clarithromycin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Avoid combination

Clofazimine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clofazimine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of QuiNIDine. CloZAPine may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Cobicistat: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Codeine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Codeine. These CYP2D6 inhibitors may prevent the metabolic conversion of codeine to its active metabolite morphine. Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a p-glycoprotein inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Crizotinib: QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Crizotinib. Crizotinib may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Crizotinib may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May decrease the metabolism of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Consider therapy modification

CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Exceptions: Ajmaline; Dapoxetine; Indoramin; Tamoxifen; Timolol (Ophthalmic); Tropisetron. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Consider giving dabigatran 2 hrs before oral quinidine; other dose reductions may be needed. Specific recommendations vary by U.S. vs Canadian labeling, renal function, and indication for dabigatran. Refer to full monograph or dabigatran labeling. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dacomitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Avoid concurrent use of dacomitinib with CYP2D6 subtrates that have a narrow therapeutic index. Consider therapy modification

Dalfampridine: QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Dalfampridine. Management: Recommendations differ significantly between international labelings in regards to the concomitant use of dalfampridine (referred to as fampridine in Canada) and quinidine. Consult appropriate product labeling. Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators. Avoid combination

Darunavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dasatinib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deutetrabenazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Deutetrabenazine. Management: The total daily dose of deutetrabenazine should not exceed 36 mg, and the maximum single dose of deutetrabenazine should not exceed 18 mg with concurrent use of a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Dextromethorphan: QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Dextromethorphan. Management: Avoid concurrent use of these agents when possible, unless the increased psychoactive effects of dextromethorphan are desired. Since codeine activation is also inhibited by quinidine, codeine is unlikely to be suitable as an alternative antitussive. Consider therapy modification

Dihydrocodeine: QuiNIDine may diminish the analgesic effect of Dihydrocodeine. Specifically, quinidine may prevent the metabolic conversion of dihydrocodeine to its active metabolite Monitor therapy

DilTIAZem: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Domperidone: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Domperidone. Avoid combination

Doxepin-Containing Products: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Doxepin-Containing Products. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP2D6 inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to P-glycoprotein inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Droperidol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Droperidol. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

DULoxetine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: See full monograph for details. Reduced doses are recommended for patients receiving edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in combination with certain P-gp inhibitors. Similar dose adjustment is not recommended for edoxaban use in atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce the eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily. Avoid use of eliglustat in combination with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor and a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Eluxadoline. Avoid combination

Encorafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

EPHEDrine (Nasal): May diminish the therapeutic effect of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

EPHEDrine (Systemic): May diminish the therapeutic effect of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may diminish the therapeutic effect of EPHEDrine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Erythromycin (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Erythromycin (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Escitalopram: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Escitalopram. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Etravirine: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Monitor therapy

Fesoterodine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Monitor therapy

Fingolimod: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Flecainide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Flecainide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Monitor therapy

Fluconazole: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Fluconazole may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Flupentixol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Flupentixol. Avoid combination

FluvoxaMINE: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of FluvoxaMINE. Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Fosphenytoin may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. Monitor patients receiving this combination closely forsigns and symptoms of excessive QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmia, as well as for decreased serum concentrations/therapeutic effects of quinidine. Consider therapy modification

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Gadobenate Dimeglumine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Gadobenate Dimeglumine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic): Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic). Monitor therapy

Gemifloxacin: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Glucagon: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Glucagon. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects may be increased. Monitor therapy

Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation): Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). Avoid combination

Glycopyrronium (Topical): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Halofantrine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Halofantrine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of HYDROcodone. Specifically, concentrations of hydromorphone may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Iloperidone: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P88 may be increased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolite P95 may be decreased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Indinavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Indoramin: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Indoramin. Monitor therapy

Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Inotuzumab Ozogamicin. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Ipratropium (Oral Inhalation): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Itopride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Itopride. Monitor therapy

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Kaolin: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider separating doses of kaolin and quinidine by at least 2 hours in order to reduce the risk of interaction. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of quinidine if kaolin is simultaneously coadministered. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Ketoconazole (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Levofloxacin-Containing Products (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Levosulpiride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Levosulpiride. Avoid combination

Lofexidine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Lofexidine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Management: Patients on lomitapide 5 mg/day may continue that dose. Patients taking lomitapide 10 mg/day or more should decrease the lomitapide dose by half. The lomitapide dose may then be titrated up to a max adult dose of 30 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Loperamide-Loperamide Oxide: QuiNIDine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Loperamide-Loperamide Oxide. Specifically, the combination may result in enhanced CNS effects of loperamide (eg, miosis, respiratory depression) and/or possible proarrhythmic effects. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Loperamide-Loperamide Oxide. Monitor therapy

Lopinavir: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Specifically, lopinavir/ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of quinidine. Avoid combination

Lumefantrine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Lurasidone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider alternatives to quinidine in patients with acute lurasidone overdose. If quinidine treatment cannot be avoided, monitor for excessive QTc interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Mefloquine: QuiNIDine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mefloquine. Specifically, the risk for QTc-prolongation and the risk for convulsions may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use, and delay administration of mefloquine until at least 12 hours after the last dose of quinidine when possible. Avoid combination

Memantine: NMDA Receptor Antagonists may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Memantine. Monitor therapy

Mequitazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mequitazine. Avoid combination

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Methadone: QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Methadone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Methylene Blue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Methylphenidate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators. Specifically, the risk of serotonin syndrome or serotonin toxicity may be increased. Monitor therapy

Metoclopramide: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Metoclopramide. This may be manifest as symptoms consistent with serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Monitor therapy

Metoprolol: CYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Metoprolol. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs in order to avoid metoprolol toxicity. If the combination must be used, monitor response to metoprolol closely. Metoprolol dose reductions may be necessary. Consider therapy modification

Mianserin: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Midostaurin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Midostaurin. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. MiFEPRIStone may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Avoid quinidine during and 2 weeks following mifepristone for treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome. The interaction magnitude could be lower with single doses used to terminate pregnancy, but neither effect has been studied clinically. Avoid combination

Mirabegron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mirabegron. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Dextromethorphan. This may cause serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Moxifloxacin (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moxifloxacin (Systemic). Avoid combination

Naldemedine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Monitor therapy

Nebivolol: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nebivolol. Monitor therapy

Nelfinavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents: QuiNIDine may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Nicergoline. Specifically, concentrations of the MMDL metabolite may be increased. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Nicergoline. Specifically, concentrations of the MDL metabolite may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Nilotinib. Avoid combination

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy

Nitroglycerin: Anticholinergic Agents may decrease the absorption of Nitroglycerin. Specifically, anticholinergic agents may decrease the dissolution of sublingual nitroglycerin tablets, possibly impairing or slowing nitroglycerin absorption. Monitor therapy

OLANZapine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of OLANZapine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and Ritonavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Canadian labeling recommends avoiding this combination. Monitor therapy

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Canadian labeling recommends avoiding this combination. Monitor therapy

OnabotulinumtoxinA: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of OnabotulinumtoxinA. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ondansetron. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Opioid Analgesics: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Opioid Analgesics. Specifically, the risk for constipation and urinary retention may be increased with this combination. Monitor therapy

Opioid Analgesics: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Osimertinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Osimertinib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Oxatomide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Panobinostat: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Parecoxib: May increase the serum concentration of Dextromethorphan. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Peginterferon Alfa-2b: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Pentamidine (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pentamidine (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Perhexiline: CYP2D6 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Perhexiline. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination if possible. If combined, monitor for increased perhexiline serum concentrations and toxicities (eg, hypoglycemia, neuropathy, liver dysfunction). Perhexiline dose reductions will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Exceptions: Loperamide. Monitor therapy

PHENobarbital: May enhance the hepatotoxic effect of QuiNIDine. PHENobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Pilsicainide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pilsicainide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Pimozide: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pimozide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Avoid combination

Piperaquine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. Avoid combination

Pitolisant: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Combined use of pitolisant with a CYP3A4 substrate that has a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Other CYP3A4 substrates should be monitored more closely when used with pitolisant. Consider therapy modification

Posaconazole: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Potassium Chloride: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Chloride. Management: Patients on drugs with substantial anticholinergic effects should avoid using any solid oral dosage form of potassium chloride. Avoid combination

Potassium Citrate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Citrate. Avoid combination

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Pramlintide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. These effects are specific to the GI tract. Consider therapy modification

Primaquine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Primaquine. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of possible treatment failure with primaquine in patients who are taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. If efficacy of primaquine is compromised, may consider adjusting therapies. Consider therapy modification

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Probucol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Probucol. Avoid combination

Propafenone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Propranolol: QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Propranolol. Monitor therapy

Prucalopride: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Prucalopride. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Avoid): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of other QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Exceptions: Ajmaline. Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

QUEtiapine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QUEtiapine. Avoid combination

QuiNIDine: May increase the serum concentration of Dextromethorphan. Management: Avoid concurrent use of these agents when possible, unless the increased psychoactive effects of dextromethorphan are desired. Since codeine activation is also inhibited by quinidine, codeine is unlikely to be suitable as an alternative antitussive. Consider therapy modification

Ramosetron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Ramosetron. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Reserpine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Ribociclib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

Rifamycin Derivatives: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Management: Consider alternatives to combination treatment with quinidine and rifampin due to large potential decreases in quinidine concentrations. Monitor for decreased quinidine concentrations/effects with initiation/dose increase of any rifamycin derivative. Consider therapy modification

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Monitor therapy

RimabotulinumtoxinB: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of RimabotulinumtoxinB. Monitor therapy

RisperiDONE: QuiNIDine may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of RisperiDONE. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of RisperiDONE. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Ritonavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Saquinavir: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Secretin: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Secretin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of anticholinergic agents and secretin. Discontinue anticholinergic agents at least 5 half-lives prior to administration of secretin. Consider therapy modification

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Dextromethorphan. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Dextromethorphan. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of dextromethorphan and SSRIs, particularly fluoxetine and paroxetine, when possible. The risk for this interaction may persist for several weeks following discontinuation of fluoxetine or paroxetine. Exceptions: FluvoxaMINE. Consider therapy modification

Serotonin Modulators: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Serotonin Modulators. The development of serotonin syndrome may occur. Exceptions: Nicergoline; Tedizolid. Monitor therapy

Silodosin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Avoid combination

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Sodium Stibogluconate: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Sodium Stibogluconate. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Sparfloxacin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Sparfloxacin. Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Sucralfate: May decrease the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Specifically, sucralfate may decrease the absorption of quinidine. Management: Administer quinidine at least 2 hours before or at least 6 hours after sucralfate. Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Management: These listed exceptions are discussed in detail in separate interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Tamoxifen: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Tamoxifen. Specifically, strong CYP2D6 inhibitors may decrease the metabolic formation of highly potent active metabolites. Avoid combination

Tamsulosin: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Monitor therapy

Telaprevir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of QuiNIDine. Telaprevir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Tetrabenazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrabenazine. Specifically, concentrations of the active alpha- and beta-dihydrotetrabenazine metabolites may be increased. Management: Tetrabenazine adult dose should be reduced by 50% when starting a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Maximum tetrabenazine adult dose is 50 mg/day when used with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Anticholinergic Agents may increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thioridazine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine. Avoid combination

Timolol (Ophthalmic): CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Timolol (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Tiotropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Tiotropium. Avoid combination

Tipranavir: May increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Topiramate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Topiramate. Monitor therapy

Topotecan: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may diminish the therapeutic effect of TraMADol. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of TraMADol. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

TraMADol: Serotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of TraMADol. The risk of seizures may be increased. TraMADol may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QuiNIDine. QuiNIDine may increase the serum concentration of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Exceptions: Doxepin (Systemic); Doxepin (Topical). Consider therapy modification

Tropisetron: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tropisetron. Monitor therapy

Umeclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Valbenazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Valbenazine. Monitor therapy

Vemurafenib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Vemurafenib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring these combinations. Consider therapy modification

Verapamil: QuiNIDine may enhance the hypotensive effect of Verapamil. Verapamil may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): QuiNIDine may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Note that the INR/PT might be unchanged in the face of increased bleeding. Monitor therapy

Voriconazole: QuiNIDine may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Voriconazole. Voriconazole may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Avoid combination

Vortioxetine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: The vortioxetine dose should be reduced by 50% when used together with a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor. Following cessation of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, the vortioxetine dose should be returned to the normal level. Consider therapy modification

Test Interactions

See individual agents.

Adverse Reactions

Also see individual agents.

>10%: Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (13%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Peripheral edema (5%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (10%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (3%)

Gastrointestinal: Vomiting (5%), flatulence (3%)

Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (4%)

Infection: Influenza (4%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (5%)

Respiratory: Cough (5%)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anticholinergic effects: May cause anticholinergic effects; use caution in patients with myasthenia gravis or other conditions which may be affected.

• Dizziness: May cause dizziness; use caution in patients with motor impairment or history of falls.

• Hepatotoxicity: Quinidine has been associated with hepatitis, including granulomatous hepatitis, occurring generally during the first few weeks of therapy. Most cases resolve when quinidine is discontinued.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Agranulocytosis, angioedema, bronchospasm, hemolytic anemia, increased skeletal muscle enzymes, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, pneumonitis, rash, sicca syndrome, uveitis, vasculitis may be associated with use.

• Lupus-like syndrome: Lupus-like syndrome, with polyarthritis and sometimes a positive antinuclear antibody test, may occur with quinidine. Use is contraindicated in patients with quinidine-, quinine-, or mefloquine-induced lupus-like syndrome.

• Thrombocytopenia: Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (severe or fatal) may be associated with quinidine use. Unless clearly not drug related, discontinue immediately; continued use may be associated with an increase in fatal hemorrhage. Thrombocytopenia generally resolves within a few days of discontinuation. Therapy should not be restarted in sensitized patients. Use is contraindicated in patients with prior history of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with structurally related drugs (eg, quinine, mefloquine).

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• High potential for interactions: Concomitant use of moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase quinidine levels and prolong the QTc interval. Quinidine inhibits CYP2D6; concomitant use with CYP2D6 substrates may cause an accumulation of concomitantly administered drug and/or reduce active metabolite formation, decreasing their safety and/or efficacy.

• QT prolonging agents: Use caution with medications which may further prolong the QT interval or cause cardiac arrhythmias. Dose-dependent QTc prolongation may occur. Monitor patients at risk following the first dose. Discontinue if arrhythmia occurs.

• Serotonin syndrome: Symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, hyper-reflexia, myoclonus, shivering, and tachycardia may occur with concomitant proserotonergic drugs (ie, SSRIs/SNRIs or triptans); especially with higher dextromethorphan doses. Discontinue if such reaction occurs.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use caution in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular dysfunction which are more common in patients with chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease or history of stroke; risk of QTc prolongation may be increased. Use is contraindicated in patients with prolonged QT interval, congenital QT syndrome, or history of torsade de pointes, patients with heart failure, complete AV block without an implanted pacemaker or patients at high risk of complete AV block. Correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to therapy.

• Hepatic impairment: Safety and efficacy have not been established with severe hepatic impairment; increased serum concentrations may occur.

• Renal impairment: Safety and efficacy have not been established with severe renal impairment; increased serum concentrations may occur.

Special populations:

• CYP2D6 poor metabolizers: Dextromethorphan is metabolized by hepatic CYP2D6. Poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 may have exaggerated or prolonged effects of dextromethorphan. Increased risk may be seen with concomitant use of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors; use with caution (Abduljalil 2010; Jurica 2012; Sager 2014; Zhou 2009).

• Dementia: Has not shown to be safe or effective in other types of commonly occurring emotional labilities (eg, neurological disease or injury).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Periodically reassess the need for treatment; spontaneous improvement of PBA may occur.

• Abuse/misuse: Patients with a history of drug abuse should be monitored closely for signs of abuse/misuse (eg, development of tolerance, increase in dose, drug-seeking behavior). Abuse of dextromethorphan may cause brain damage, cardiac arrhythmia, loss of consciousness, or death.

Monitoring Parameters

QT interval at baseline and 3 to 4 hours after the first dose in patients at risk for QTc prolongation; potassium and magnesium prior to and during therapy; CBC, liver and renal function tests; periodically assess risk factors for arrhythmias during treatment; periodically reassess the need for treatment (spontaneous improvement of PBA may occur); worsening myasthenia gravis or other sensitive conditions due to anticholinergic effects.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were observed in animal reproduction studies using this combination. See individual agents.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience diarrhea or cough. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of bleeding (vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; hematuria; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding); signs of lupus (rash on the cheeks or other body parts, sunburn easy, muscle or joint pain, angina or shortness of breath, or swelling in the arms or legs); signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), abnormal heartbeat, severe dizziness, tachycardia, passing out, severe loss of strength and energy, severe nausea, severe vomiting, chills, enlarged lymph nodes, swelling of arms or legs, depression, vision changes, or signs of serotonin syndrome (dizziness, severe headache, agitation, hallucinations, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, flushing, tremors, sweating a lot, change in balance, severe nausea, or severe diarrhea) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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