Ultrasound Beats Blood Test for Gauging Ovarian Cancers: Study
THURSDAY, Nov. 15 -- Ultrasound exams are better than blood tests at identifying whether ovarian tumors are benign or malignant, a team of international researchers reports.
Ultrasound correctly identified 93 percent of tumors as benign or cancerous, while the blood test was correct 83 percent of the time.
Results of the study, by the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis collaboration group (IOTA), were published online Nov. 13 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
"To my knowledge, the IOTA study is the first study that clearly demonstrated that in experienced hands, ultrasound is significantly better than blood tests,'" said study leader Dr. Dirk Timmerman, a researcher at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium.
An estimated 22,430 new cases of ovarian cancer are expected to be diagnosed in 2007 in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society, with about 15,280 deaths. The disease typically strikes women over age 55. Symptoms include bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, difficulty eating or feeling full quickly, or urinary symptoms such as a frequent need to urinate.
Because the symptoms are often similar to less serious conditions, only about 20 percent of ovarian cancers are found at an early stage, the cancer society estimates. This makes the quest for the best techniques to detect the cancer early even more important.
For the IOTA study, Timmerman and his colleagues compared ultrasound with blood tests to decide if the ovarian masses discovered in 1,066 women were benign or malignant.
Experts examined patterns in ultrasound images, and then compared those results with blood tests that detect an elevated level of the protein CA-125, considered an indicator of whether an ovarian tumor is cancerous or benign.
The ultrasound exams, including transvaginal gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound exams, were given within 120 days of surgery to remove the tumors. Before surgery, 809 of the women gave blood, and the samples were analyzed later for CA-125 levels.
When the results from both methods were compared with the findings at surgery, the researchers found that ultrasound correctly classified 93 percent of tumors as cancerous or not, while the blood test was correct in only 83 percent of cases.
"The IOTA study not only demonstrated that ultrasound is better than blood tests but also that the blood tests do not give additional benefit in mathematical models developed to distinguish between benign and malignant masses," Timmerman said.
Timmerman emphasized that the study only looked at the best method to decide if a tumor was cancerous after the mass had already been discovered. "Of course, this is different from screening," he said. "In screening studies, a healthy population is screened for a specific disease, for example, ovarian cancer. In that setting, a blood test might prove to be useful in the future." He noted that two large studies exploring that issue are expected to conclude in about five years.
Dr. Robert Morgan, co-director of the gynecologic oncology/peritoneal malignancy program at the City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, Calif., said the study results confirm what doctors have known for a long time. "CA-125 is only elevated in about 50 percent of early stage ovarian cancer, and the data in this paper confirms that," he said.
The study's bottom line: Most of these cancers are being picked up with ultrasound, not the blood test, Morgan said. "And, most of the time, when [the ultrasound] says it's not malignant, it's not," he said.
''C-125 tests are not cheap and, particularly when you do them in a huge number of patients, the costs add up. And, apparently, they don't seem to be adding anything to the diagnostic accuracy," he added.
Sherry Salway Black, executive director of the Ovarian Cancer National Alliance, called the new study results exciting. "It gives more information, more evidence that a transvaginal ultrasound can be effective under these circumstances."
Still, she said, the blood test might prove to have some benefit. "It may not be the best stand-alone diagnostic tool. This [study] appears to say transvaginal ultrasound is definitely better." But the study authors did find that CA-125 levels in women found to have cancer were higher for postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, for instance. And such details, Black said, might prove valuable.
Meanwhile, a study from Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital has found that regular consumption of foods containing the flavonoid kaempferol, including nonherbal tea and broccoli, was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. The study, funded by the National Cancer Institute and published in the Nov. 15 issue of the International Journal of Cancer, also found a decreased risk in women who consumed large amounts of the flavonoid luteolin, found in carrots, peppers and cabbage.
"This is good news, because there are few lifestyle factors known to reduce a woman's risk of ovarian cancer," first author Margaret Gates, a research fellow at the hospital, said in a prepared statement. "Although additional research is needed, these findings suggest that consuming a diet rich in flavonoids may be protective."
"Other flavonoid-rich foods, such as onions, beans and kale, may also decrease ovarian cancer risk, but the number of women who frequently consumed these foods was not large enough to clearly evaluate these associations. More research is needed," concluded Gates, who is also a research fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health.
Posted: November 2007