Generic Name: Captopril
Class: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
VA Class: CV800
CAS Number: 62571-86-2
May cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality if used during pregnancy.401 402 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions.)
If pregnancy is detected, discontinue captopril as soon as possible.115 402
Sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor.1 3 4 5
Uses for Capoten
Management of hypertension (alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents).115 317 500
ACE inhibitors are recommended as one of several preferred agents for the initial management of hypertension; other options include angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium-channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics.501 502 503 504 While there may be individual differences with respect to specific outcomes, these antihypertensive drug classes all produce comparable effects on overall mortality and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal outcomes.500 501 502 504 Individualize choice of therapy; consider patient characteristics (e.g., age, ethnicity/race, comorbidities, cardiovascular risk) as well as drug-related factors (e.g., ease of administration, availability, adverse effects, cost).500 501 502 503 504 515
ACE inhibitors may be preferred in hypertensive patients with heart failure, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, or cerebrovascular disease or post-MI.500 501 502 504 520 523 524 525 526 527 534 535 536 543
Black hypertensive patients generally tend to respond better to monotherapy with calcium-channel blockers or thiazide diuretics than to ACE inhibitors.379 380 386 399 400 500 501 504 However, diminished response to an ACE inhibitor is largely eliminated when administered concomitantly with a calcium-channel blocker or thiazide diuretic.500 504
The optimum BP threshold for initiating antihypertensive drug therapy is controversial.501 504 505 506 507 508 515 523 530 Further study needed to determine optimum BP thresholds/goals; individualize treatment decisions.501 503 507 515 526 530
JNC 7 recommends initiation of drug therapy in all patients with uncomplicated hypertension and BP ≥140/90 mm Hg;500 JNC 8 panel recommends SBP threshold of 150 mm Hg for patients ≥60 years of age.501 Although many experts agree that SBP goal of <150 mm Hg may be appropriate for patients ≥80 years of age,502 504 505 530 application of this goal to those ≥60 years of age is controversial, especially for those at higher cardiovascular risk.501 502 505 506 508 511 515
In the past, initial antihypertensive drug therapy was recommended for patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease who had BP ≥130/80 mm Hg;367 385 388 389 500 503 current hypertension management guidelines generally recommend a BP threshold of 140/90 mm Hg for these individuals (same as for the general population of patients without these conditions), although a goal of <130/80 mm Hg may still be considered.501 502 503 504 520 530 535 536 541
Has been used in the management of hypertensive urgencies†.231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 313 314 500
Management of diabetic nephropathy manifested by proteinuria (urinary protein excretion >500 mg/24 hours) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.115 262 263 264 265 268 269
A recommended agent in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and persistent albuminuria who have modestly elevated (30–300 mg/24 hours) or higher (>300 mg/24 hours) levels of urinary albumin excretion; slows rate of progression of renal disease in such patients.520 535 536
Management of heart failure, usually in conjunction with other agents such as cardiac glycosides, diuretics, and β-adrenergic blocking agents (β-blockers).115 210 246 247 248 249 250 252 253 254 256 257 292 304 319 320 524 700
Some evidence indicates that therapy with an ACE inhibitor may be less effective than angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy (e.g., sacubitril/valsartan) in reducing cardiovascular death and heart failure-related hospitalization.700 702
ACCF, AHA, and the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) recommend that patients with chronic symptomatic heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (NYHA class II or III) who are able to tolerate an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist be switched to therapy containing an ARNI to further reduce morbidity and mortality.700 701 703
Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Acute MI
Treatment of clinically stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) to improve survival following MI and to reduce the incidence of overt heart failure and subsequent hospitalizations for heart failure.115 319 374 524
Capoten Dosage and Administration
BP Monitoring and Treatment Goals
Carefully monitor BP during initial titration or subsequent upward adjustment in dosage.500 501
When available, use evidence-based dosing information (i.e., dosages shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce complications of hypertension) to determine target dosages; target dosages usually can be achieved within 2–4 weeks but may take up to several months.501
If adequate BP response not achieved with a single antihypertensive agent, add a second drug with demonstrated benefit; if goal BP still not achieved with optimal dosages of 2 antihypertensive agents, add a third drug.501 May maximize dosage of the first drug before adding a second drug, or add a second drug before maximizing dosage of the initial drug.501
Consider initiating antihypertensive therapy with a combination of drugs if patient's BP exceeds goal BP by >20/10 mm Hg.500 501 503 504
Goal is to achieve and maintain optimal control of BP; individualize specific target BP based on consideration of multiple factors, including patient age and comorbidities, and currently available evidence from clinical studies.500 501 (See Hypertension under Uses.)
Administer orally 1 hour before meals to maximize absorption.115
Dosage has been reduced in proportion to body weight; titrate carefully.115 Some experts recommend an initial dosage of 0.9–1.5 mg/kg daily (given as 0.3–0.5 mg/kg 3 times daily).398 Increase dosage as necessary to a maximum of 6 mg/kg daily.398
JNC 8 expert panel recommends initial dosage of 50 mg daily (given in 2 divided doses) and target dosage of 150–200 mg daily (given in 2 divided doses) based on dosages used in randomized controlled studies.501
Manufacturer recommends initial dosage of 25 mg 2 or 3 times daily; if response is inadequate after 1–2 weeks, dosage may be increased to 50 mg 2 or 3 times daily.115
Lower initial dosages (e.g., 6.25 mg twice daily to 12.5 mg 3 times daily) may be effective in some patients, particularly those already receiving a diuretic.a (See Hypotension under Cautions.)
Usual maintenance dosage: Manufacturers recommend 25–150 mg 2 or 3 times daily (usually not necessary to exceed 150 mg daily).115
Some experts have recommended usual dosage range of 25–100 mg daily given in 2 divided doses; rationale for this lower dosage range is that it may be preferable to add another antihypertensive drug rather than continue to increase dosage of captopril.397 500
If intolerable adverse effects occur, consider dosage reduction; if adverse effects worsen or fail to resolve, may need to discontinue and switch to another antihypertensive drug class.501
Captopril/Hydrochlorothiazide Fixed-combination TherapyOral
If combination therapy is initiated with captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination preparation, initial dosage of captopril 25 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg once daily; adjust dosage (generally at 6-week intervals) by administering each drug separately or by advancing the fixed-combination preparation.102 259
Severe (e.g., accelerated, malignant) hypertension: 25 mg 2 or 3 times daily, initiated promptly under close supervision with frequent monitoring of BP.115 May continue previous diuretic therapy, but discontinue other hypotensive agents.115 May increase dosage at intervals of ≤24 hours under continuous supervision until optimum BP response is attained or 450 mg daily is given.115 Adjunctive therapy with other hypotensive agents may be necessary.a
Hypertensive urgency†: Acute therapy (e.g., 12.5–25 mg, repeated once or twice if necessary at intervals of 30–60 minutes or longer) has been used. 231 232 259
25 mg 3 times daily.115 262
Manufacturers recommend initial dosage of 25 mg 3 times daily;115 in patients with normal or low BP who may be volume- and/or salt-depleted, initial dosage of 6.25 or 12.5 mg 3 times daily.115 Increase dosage gradually to 50 mg 3 times daily; delay further dosage increases for ≥2 weeks to assess response.115
ACCF and AHA recommend initial dosage of 6.25 mg 3 times daily, with gradual titration to 50 mg 3 times daily.524 Generally titrate dosage to prespecified target (i.e., ≥150 mg daily) or highest tolerated dosage rather than according to response.524
Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Acute MI
Manufacturers recommend initiation of therapy ≥3 days post-MI with single dose of 6.25 mg, followed by 12.5 mg 3 times daily.115 Increase dosage over next several days to 25 mg 3 times daily and then over next several weeks (as tolerated) to 50 mg 3 times daily.115
Some clinicians recommend initiation of therapy <24 hours post-MI with initial dose of 6.25 mg, followed by 12.5 mg 2 hours later, 25 mg 10–12 hours later, and then 50 mg twice daily as tolerated.319 Recommended maintenance dosage: 50 mg 3 times daily.115
Maximum 6 mg/kg daily.398
Maximum 450 mg daily.115
Dosage of captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination generally should not exceed captopril 150 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily.102
Maximum dosage recommended by manufacturer is 450 mg daily.115 Experts suggest maximum dosage of 50 mg 3 times daily.524
Manufacturers recommend initial dosage of <75 mg daily; increase dosage in small increments at 1- to 2-week intervals.115 After desired therapeutic effect has been attained, slowly reduce dosage to minimum effective level.115
Patients with Clcr 10–50 mL/minute: 75% of usual captopril dosage or administration of usual dose every 12–18 hours suggested by some clinicians.211
Clcr <10 mL/minute: 50% of usual dosage or administration of usual dose every 24 hours suggested by some clinicians.211
Patients undergoing hemodialysis may require supplemental dose after dialysis.211
Fixed-combination captopril/hydrochlorothiazide tablets usually are not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment.102
Usual adult dosages generally have been used; dosages of 6.25–12.5 mg 1–4 times daily used occasionally.175
Volume-and/or Salt-Depleted Patients
Correct volume and/or salt depletion prior to initiation of therapy or initiate therapy under close medical supervision using lower initial dosage.115 116 148 153 (See Dosage: Heart Failure, under Dosage and Administration.)
Cautions for Capoten
Known hypersensitivity (e.g. history of angioedema) to captopril or another ACE inhibitor.115 147 325 326
Possible neutropenia or agranulocytosis; risk of neutropenia appears to depend principally on degree of renal impairment and presence of collagen vascular disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma).115
Use with caution and only after careful risk/benefit assessment in patients with collagen vascular disease or those taking drugs known to affect leukocytes or immune response.115
If used in patients with renal impairment, determine complete and differential leukocyte counts prior to initiation of therapy, at about 2-week intervals for the first 3 months of therapy, and periodically thereafter.115 Discontinue therapy if confirmed neutrophil count is <1000/mm3.115
Proteinuria possible, particularly in patients with prior renal disease and/or those receiving relatively high dosages (>150 mg daily).115 Usually occurs by the 8th month of treatment1 3 46 and subsides or clears within 6 months whether or not therapy is continued;115 however, may persist in some patients.a
Possible excessive hypotension, particularly in volume- and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those treated with diuretics or undergoing dialysis, patients with severe heart failure).1 5 17 23 25 31 66 85 115 116 148 154 156
Hypotension may occur in patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension; recommended treatment is fluid volume expansion.115
Transient hypotension is not a contraindication to additional doses; may reinstate therapy cautiously after BP is stabilized (e.g., with volume expansion).115
To minimize potential for hypotension, consider recent antihypertensive therapy, extent of BP elevation, sodium intake, fluid status, and other clinical conditions.a (See Special Populations under Dosage and Administration.) Discontinue other antihypertensive therapy, if possible, 1 week before initiating captopril, except in patients with severe hypertension.115 a Withholding diuretic therapy and/or increasing sodium intake approximately 3–7 days prior to initiation of captopril may minimize potential for severe hypotension.115 116 148 153
Initiate therapy in patients with heart failure under close medical supervision; monitor closely for first 2 weeks following initiation of captopril or any increase in captopril or diuretic dosage.115
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
Possible fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when used during pregnancy.102 115 239 240 241 402 (See Boxed Warning.) Such potential risks occur throughout pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters.402
Also may increase the risk of major congenital malformations when administered during the first trimester of pregnancy.401 402
Discontinue as soon as possible when pregnancy is detected, unless continued use is considered lifesaving.402 Nearly all women can be transferred successfully to alternative therapy for the remainder of their pregnancy.239
Clinical syndrome that usually is manifested initially by cholestatic jaundice and may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis (occasionally fatal) reported rarely with ACE inhibitors.102 115 370
If jaundice or marked elevation of liver enzymes occurs, discontinue drug and monitor patient.115
Anaphylactoid reactions and/or angioedema possible; if associated with laryngeal edema, may be fatal.115 Immediate medical intervention (e.g., epinephrine) for involvement of tongue, glottis, or larynx.115 Intestinal angioedema possible; consider in differential diagnosis of patients who develop abdominal pain.115
Anaphylactoid reactions reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors while undergoing LDL apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption115 275 276 277 or following initiation of hemodialysis that utilized high-flux membrane.102 115 242 243 244
Life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions reported in at least 2 patients receiving ACE inhibitors while undergoing desensitization treatment with hymenoptera venom.102 155 278
Not recommended in patients with a history of angioedema associated with or unrelated to ACE inhibitors.a
Transient increases in BUN and Scr possible, especially in patients with preexisting renal impairment, sodium depletion, or hypovolemia; patients with renovascular hypertension, particularly those with bilateral renal-artery stenosis or those with renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney;5 86 115 117 122 123 124 207 208 209 372 or patients with chronic or severe hypertension in whom the glomerular filtration rate may decrease transiently.1 115
Possible increases in BUN and Scr in patients with heart failure;115 206 rapidity of onset and magnitude may depend in part on degree of sodium depletion.148 156 206 372
Closely monitor renal function following initiation of therapy in such patients.86 87 115 117 122 123 124 333 372 Some patients may require dosage reduction or discontinuance of ACE inhibitor or diuretic and/or adequate sodium repletion.115 156 206 207 209
Possible hyperkalemia,5 7 38 69 70 85 115 122 125 126 162 163 164 177 especially in patients with impaired renal function, heart failure, or diabetes mellitus and those receiving drugs that can increase serum potassium concentration (e.g., potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes).38 85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 372 (See Interactions.)
Monitor serum potassium concentration carefully in these patients.126 162 163
Persistent and nonproductive cough; resolves after drug discontinuance.102 115
Possible risk of decreased coronary perfusion in patients with aortic stenosis when treated with captopril.a 115
Use of Fixed Combinations
When used in fixed combination with hydrochlorothiazide, consider the cautions, precautions, and contraindications associated with hydrochlorothiazide.102
Category C (1st trimester); Category D (2nd and 3rd trimesters).115 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions and see Boxed Warning.)
Distributed into milk.115 Discontinue nursing or the drug.115
Safety and efficacy not established; however, captopril has been used in children.115 Manufacturer states that captopril should be used only when other measures for controlling BP have not been effective.115
Possible excessive, prolonged, and unpredictable decreases in BP and associated complications (e.g., oliguria, seizures) in infants.115
Systemic exposure to captopril may be increased.115 (See Special Populations under Pharmacokinetics.) Initial dosage adjustment recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.115 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)
Deterioration of renal function may occur.115 211 Possible increased risk of neutropenia/agranulocytosis,115 proteinuria,115 and hyperkalemia.115 (See Warnings and General Precautions under Cautions.)
Use of captopril/hydrochlorothiazide fixed combination usually is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.102
BP reduction may be smaller in black patients compared with nonblack patients.115 139 177 178 179 180 181 351 (See Hypertension under Uses.)
Higher incidence of angioedema reported with ACE inhibitors in black patients compared with other races.102 115 325 326 327 351 379 380 500
Common Adverse Effects
Rash, pruritus, cough, dysgeusia, proteinuria, tachycardia, chest pain, palpitations.115
Interactions for Capoten
Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests
Drug or Test
Adrenergic neuron blocking agents (guanethidine)
Possible increased hypotensive effect115
Use with caution115
Decreased rate and extent of captopril absorption197 201
Clinical importance is uncertain197 201
Antidiabetic agents, oral
Possible hypoglycemia in diabetic patients101
Consider risk of hypoglycemia if used concomitantly101
Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely115
β-Adrenergic blocking agents
Increased (but less than additive) hypotensive effect115
Further documentation of interaction necessarya
Possible increased serum digoxin concentrations in patients with heart failure198 199 200
Monitor serum digoxin concentration;198 200 reduction of digoxin dosage not required upon initiation of captopril198
Possible additive hypotensive effectsa
Pharmacokinetic interaction with furosemide unlikely115
Adjust dosage carefullya (see Dosage under Dosage and Administration)
Diuretics, potassium-sparing (amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene)
Possible hyperkalemia, especially in patients with renal impairment162 329 331 335
Use cautiously and only if hypokalemia is documented; monitor serum potassium carefully;85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 discontinue or reduce dosage of potassium-sparing diuretic as necessary85 126 148 162 163
Possible hypoglycemia in diabetic patients101
Consider risk of hypoglycemia101
Possible increased serum lithium concentrations, particularly in patients receiving concomitant diuretic therapy115
Use with caution; monitor serum lithium concentrations frequently115
Possible decreased antihypertensive response to captopril;283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 364 706 potential for acute reduction of renal function;285 291 possible attenuation of hemodynamic actions of ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure333 364
Monitor BP carefully and be alert for evidence of impaired renal function;285 if interaction is suspected, discontinue NSAIA or modify captopril dosage or use another hypotensive agent285 286
Potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes
Possible hyperkalemia, especially in patients with renal impairment162
Use cautiously and only if hypokalemia is documented; monitor serum potassium carefully;85 115 125 126 148 162 163 164 discontinue or reduce dosage of potassium supplement as necessary85 126 148 162 163
Possible increased blood concentrations of captopril and its metabolites203 204 205 213
Test for urine acetone
Possible false-positive results with sodium nitroprusside reagent54 115
Vasodilating agents (e.g., hydralazine, nitrates, prazosin)
Possible increased hypotensive effect115
If possible, discontinue vasodilating agent before starting captopril; if vasodilating agent is resumed during captopril therapy, administer with caution and possibly at a lower dosage115
Rapidly absorbed following oral administration in fasting individuals,19 20 84 115 with peak blood concentration attained in 1 hour.19 Approximately 60–75% of an oral dose is absorbed.19 20 84 115
Hypotensive effect may be apparent within 15 minutes5 6 16 23 and usually is maximal in 1–2 hours after a single oral dose.1 3 10 15 16 17 21 24 29 Several weeks of therapy may be required before full effect on BP is achieved.1 3 5 16 21 28
Duration of action generally is 2–6 hours but appears to increase with increasing doses.a
Food may decrease absorption of captopril by up to 25–40%;1 3 115 191 195 196 197 202 effect may not be clinically important.191 192 195
Appears to be rapidly distributed into most body tissues, except CNS.1 5
Crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.115
Plasma Protein Binding
25–30%1 3 22 (mainly albumin).3
About half the absorbed dose is rapidly metabolized.3 5 19 Captopril and its metabolites may undergo reversible interconversions.3
Excreted in urine (95%) as unchanged drug (40–50%) and metabolites.3 19 20 22 115
Elimination half-life is about 20–40 hours in patients with Clcr <20 mL/minute 3 and up to 6.5 days in anuric patients.5 22
Tight containers at ≤30°C.115
Tablets (Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide)
Tight containers at ≤30°C.102
Suppresses the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.1
Advice to Patients
Risk of angioedema, anaphylactoid reactions, or other sensitivity reactions.115 Importance of reporting sensitivity reactions (e.g., edema of face, eyes, lips, tongue, or extremities; hoarseness; swallowing or breathing with difficulty) immediately to clinician and of discontinuing the drug.115
Importance of reporting signs of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever).115
Risk of hypotension.115 Importance of informing clinicians promptly if lightheadedness or fainting occurs.115
Importance of adequate fluid intake; risk of volume depletion with excessive perspiration, dehydration, vomiting, or diarrhea.115
Importance of not discontinuing or interrupting therapy unless instructed by a clinician.115
Risks of use during pregnancy.115 401 402 (See Boxed Warning.)
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs (including salt substitutes containing potassium) as well as any concomitant illnesses.115
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.115
Importance of taking 1 hour before meals.115
Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.115 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
25 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg*
Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets
25 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg*
Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets
50 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg*
Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets
50 mg Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg*
Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets
AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright 2017, Selected Revisions March 3, 2017. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. ER Squibb & Sons, Inc. Capoten prescribing information. Princeton, NJ; 1981 Mar.
3. ER Squibb & Sons, Inc. Capoten (captopril) monograph. Princeton, NJ; 1981 Apr.
4. Atkinson AB, Robertson JIS. Captopril in the treatment of clinical hypertension and cardiac failure. Lancet. 1979; 2:836-9. [PubMed 90928]
5. Heel RC, Brogden RN, Speight TM et al. Captopril: a preliminary review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1980; 20:409-52. [PubMed 7009133]
6. Ferguson RK, Turini GA, Brunner HR et al. A specific orally active inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme in man. Lancet. 1977; 1:775-8. [PubMed 66571]
7. Gavras H, Brunner HR, Turini GA et al. Antihypertensive effect of the oral angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor SQ 14225 in man. N Engl J Med. 1978; 298:991-5. [PubMed 205788]
8. Larochelle P, Genest J, Kuchel O et al. Effect of captopril (SQ 14225) on blood pressure, plasma renin activity and angiotensin I converting enzyme activity. Can Med Assoc J. 1979; 121:309-16. [PubMed 223756]
9. Swartz S, Williams GH, Hollenberg NK et al. Increase in prostaglandins during converting enzyme inhibition. Clin Sci. 1980; 59(Suppl):133-5S.
10. Brunner HR, Gavras H, Waeber B et al. Oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in long-term treatment of hypertensive patients. Ann Intern Med. 1979; 90:19-23. [PubMed 217289]
11. Johnston CI, Millar JA, McGrath BP et al. Long-term effects of captopril (SQ 14225) on blood-pressure and hormone levels in essential hypertension. Lancet. 1979; 2:493-6. [PubMed 90216]
12. McCaa CS, Langford HG, Cushman WC et al. Response of arterial blood pressure, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration to long-term administration of captopril to patients with severe, treatment-resistant malignant hypertension. Clin Sci. 1979; 57(Suppl):371-3S.
13. Fagard R, Amery A, Reybrouck T et al. Acute and chronic systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with captopril in hypertensive patients. Am J Cardiol. 1980; 46:295-300. [PubMed 6250392]
14. Maruyama A, Ogihara T, Naka T et al. Long-term effects of captopril in hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 28:316-23. [PubMed 6996895]
15. Mimran A, Brunner HR, Turini GA et al. Effect of captopril on renal vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci. 1979; 57(Suppl):421-3S. [PubMed 519950]
16. Case DB, Atlas SA, Laragh JH et al. Clinical experience with blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by an oral converting-enzyme inhibitor (SQ 14,225, captopril) in hypertensive patients. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1978; 21:195-206. [PubMed 214819]
17. Morganti A, Pickering TG, Lopez-Ovejero JA et al. Endocrine and cardiovascular influences of converting enzyme inhibition with SQ 14225 in hypertensive patients in the supine position and during head-up tilt before and after sodium depletion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980; 50:748-54. [PubMed 6245101]
19. Kripalani KJ, McKinstry DN, Singhvi SM et al. Disposition of captopril in normal subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 27:636-41. [PubMed 6989546]
20. McKinstry DN, Kripalani KJ, Migdalof BH et al. The effect of repeated administration of captopril (CP) on its disposition in hypertensive patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 27:270-1.
21. Case DB, Atlas SA, Laragh JH et al. Use of first-dose response or plasma renin activity to predict the long-term effect of captopril: identification of triphasic pattern of blood pressure response. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1980; 2:339-46. [PubMed 6156332]
22. Rommel AJ, Pierides AM, Heald A et al. Captopril elimination in chronic renal failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 27:282.
23. Ferguson RK, Vlasses PH. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic applications of the new oral angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. Am Heart J. 1981; 101:650-6. [PubMed 6261570]
24. Ferguson RK, Vlasses PH, Koplin JR et al. Captopril in severe treatment-resistant hypertension. Am Heart J. 1980; 99:579-85. [PubMed 6989221]
25. Brunner HR, Waeber B, Wauters JP et al. Inappropriate renin secretion unmasked by captopril (SQ 14,225) in hypertension of chronic renal failure. Lancet. 1978; 2:704-7. [PubMed 80634]
26. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Roulston JE et al. Essential hypertension: effect of an oral inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Br Med J. 1979; 2:1106-9. [PubMed 229941]
27. Atkinson AB, Brown JJ, Lever AF et al. Combined treatment of severe intractable hypertension with captopril and diuretic. Lancet. 1980; 2:105-8. [PubMed 6105291]
28. White NJ, Rajagopalan B, Yahaya H et al. Captopril and furosemide in severe drug-resistant hypertension. Lancet. 1980; 2:108-10. [PubMed 6105292]
29. Koffer H, Vlasses PH, Ferguson RK et al. Captopril in diuretic-treated hypertensive patients. JAMA. 1980; 244:2532-5. [PubMed 7001071]
30. Swartz SL, Williams GH, Hollenberg NK et al. Endocrine profile in the long-term phase of converting-enzyme inhibition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 28:499-508. [PubMed 6250761]
31. Jenkins AC, McKinstry DN. Review of clinical studies of hypertensive patients treated with captopril. Med J Aust. 1979; 2(Suppl):32-7.
32. Friedlander D. Captopril and propranolol in mild and moderate essential hypertension: preliminary report. N Z Med J. 1979; 90:146-9. [PubMed 386192]
38. Dzau VJ, Colucci WS, Williams GH et al. Sustained effectiveness of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1980; 302:1373-9. [PubMed 6246425]
42. Lopez-Ovejero JA, Saal SD, D’Angelo WA et al. Reversal of vascular and renal crises of scleroderma by oral angiotensin-converting-enzyme blockade. N Engl J Med. 1979; 300:1417-9. [PubMed 220537]
43. D’Angelo WA, Lopez-Ovejero JA, Saal SD et al. Early versus late treatment of scleroderma renal crisis and malignant hypertension with captopril. Arthritis Rheum. 1980; 23:664.
44. Whitman HH, Case DB, Botstein G et al. Variable response to oral converting enzyme blockade in hypertensive scleroderma patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1980; 23:762-3.
45. Hoorntje SJ, Weening JJ, Kallenberg CGM et al. Serum-sickness-like syndrome with membranous glomerulopathy in patient on captopril. Lancet. 1979; 2:1297.
46. Case DB, Atlas SA, Mouradian JA et al. Proteinuria during long-term captopril therapy. JAMA. 1980; 244:346-9. [PubMed 6993700]
54. Warren SE. False-positive urine ketone test with captopril. N Engl J Med. 1980; 303:1003-4. [PubMed 6997747]
56. Case DB, Whitman HH III, Laragh JH et al. Successful low dose captopril rechallenge following drug-induced leucopenia. Lancet. 1981; 1:1362-3.
57. Nicholls MG, Maslowski AH, Ikram H et al. Ulceration of the tongue—a complication of captopril therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1981; 94:659. [PubMed 7015949]
58. Fouad FM, Salcedo EE, Saragoca M et al. Hyperkinetic circulation associated with captopril therapy for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1981; 305:405-6. [PubMed 7019709]
59. Forslund T, Borgmastars H, Fyhrquist F. Captopril-associated leukopenia confirmed by rechallenge in patient with renal failure. Lancet. 1981; 1:166. [PubMed 6109854]
60. Edwards CRW, Drury P, Penketh A et al. Successful reintroduction of captopril following neutropenia. Lancet. 1981; 1:723. [PubMed 6110936]
63. Harris C, Smith GH. Captopril. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1981; 15:932-9. [PubMed 7040022]
65. Man In’t Veld AJ, Wenting GJ, Schalerkamp MADH. Does captopril lower blood pressure in anephric patients? Br Med J. 1979; 2:1110.
66. Man In’t Veld AJ, Schicht IM, Derkx FHM et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) on blood pressure in anephric subjects. Br Med J. 1980; 280:288-90. [PubMed 6986949]
67. Leslie BR, Case DB, Sullivan JF et al. Absence of blood-pressure lowering effect of captopril in anephric patients. Br Med J. 1980; 280:1067-8. [PubMed 6992919]
69. Grossman A, Eckland D, Price P et al. Captopril: reversible renal failure with severe hyperkalemia. Lancet. 1980; 1:712. [PubMed 6103125]
70. Warren SE, O’Connor DT. Hyperkalemia resulting from captopril administration. JAMA. 1980; 244:2551-2. [PubMed 7001073]
71. Anon. Captopril: benefits and risks in severe hypertension. Lancet. 1980; 2:129-30. [PubMed 6105297]
77. Vidt DG, Bravo EL, Fouad FM. Captopril. N Engl J Med. 1982; 306:214-9. [PubMed 7033784]
84. Duchin KL, Singhvi SM, Willard DA et al. Captopril kinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 31:452-8. [PubMed 7037265]
85. Romankiewicz JA, Brogden RN, Heel RC et al. Captopril: an update review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in congestive heart failure. Drugs. 1983; 25:6-40. [PubMed 6218982]
86. Hricik DE, Browning PJ, Kopelman R et al. Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal-artery stenoses or renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. N Engl J Med. 1983; 308:373-6. [PubMed 6337327]
87. Blythe WB. Captopril and renal autoregulation. N Engl J Med. 1983; 308:390-1. [PubMed 6337329]
101. Ferriere M, Lachkar H, Richard JL et al. Captopril and insulin sensitivity. Ann Intern Med. 1985; 102:134-5. [PubMed 3881067]
102. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. Capozide (captopril/hydrochlorothiazide) 25/15, 25/25, 50/15, 50/25 prescribing information. Spring Valley, NY; 2002 Jul.
103. De Jonge A, Wilffert B, Kalkman HO et al. Captopril impairs the vascular smooth muscle contraction mediated by postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptors in the pithed rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1981; 74:385-6. [PubMed 6271562]
104. Dzau VJ. Significance of the vascular renin-angiotensin pathway. Hypertension. 1986; 8:553-9. [PubMed 3013773]
105. Riley LJ Jr, Vlasses PH, Ferguson RK. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic applications of the new oral converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril. Am Heart J. 1985; 109:1085-9. [PubMed 2986440]
106. Antonaccio MJ, Asaad M, Rubin B et al. Captopril: factors involved in its mechanism of action. In: Horovitz ZP, ed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Baltimore-Munich: Urban/Schwarzenberg; 1981:161-80.
107. Unger T, Ganten D, Lang RE et al. Is tissue converting enzyme inhibition a determinant of the antihypertensive efficacy of converting enzyme inhibitors? Studies with the two different compounds, Hoe 498 and Mk 421, in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1984; 6:872-80. [PubMed 6209494]
108. Unger T, Ganten D, Lang RE et al. Persistent tissue converting enzyme inhibition following chronic treatment with Hoe498 and MK421 in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7:36-41. [PubMed 2580148]
109. Cohen ML, Kurz KD. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in tissue from spontaneously hypertensive rats after treatment with captopril or MK-421. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982; 220:63-9. [PubMed 6273529]
110. Velletri P, Bean BL. The effects of captopril on rat aortic angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1982; 4:315-25. [PubMed 6175817]
111. Okamura T, Miyazaki M, Inagami T et al. Vascular renin-angiotensin system in two-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1986; 8:560-5. [PubMed 3013774]
112. Antonaccio MJ, Kerwin L. Pre- and post junctional inhibition of vascular sympathetic function by captopril in SHR: implication of vascular angiotensin II in hypertension and antihypertensive actions of captopril. Hypertension. 1981; 3(Suppl I):I54-62. [PubMed 6167515]
113. Imai Y, Abe K, Seino M et al. Attenuation of pressor responses to norepinephrine and pitressin and potentiation of pressor response to angiotensin II by captopril in human subjects. Hypertension. 1982; 4:444-51. [PubMed 7040234]
114. Moore TJ, Crantz FR, Hollenberg NK et al. Contribution of prostaglandins to the antihypertensive action of captopril in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1981; 3:168-73. [PubMed 6260645]
115. Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. Capoten (captopril) tablets prescribing information. Spring Valley, NY; 2003 Jun.
116. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril (Capoten) enalapril (Vasotec). Drug Interact Newsl. 1986; 6(Updates):U17-8.
117. Schreiber MJ Jr, Fang LST. Renal failure associated with captopril. JAMA. 1983; 250:31.
118. Steinman TI, Silva M. Acute renal failure, skin rash, and eosinophilia associated with captopril therapy. Am J Med. 1983; 75:154-6. [PubMed 6222649]
119. Verbeelen DL, deBoel S. Reversible acute on chronic renal failure during captopril treatment. BMJ. 1984; 289:20-1. [PubMed 6428648]
120. Murphy BF, Whitworth JA, Kincaid-Smith P. Renal insufficiency with combinations of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics. BMJ. 1984; 288:844-5. [PubMed 6322905]
121. Packer M, Lee WH, Kessler PD. Preservation of glomerular filtration rate in human heart failure by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Circulation. 1986; 74:766-74. [PubMed 3019586]
122. Frohlich ED, Cooper RA, Lewis EJ. Review of the overall experience of captopril in hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144:1441-4. [PubMed 6233948]
123. Watson ML, Bell GM, Muir AL et al. Captopril/diuretic combinations in severe renovascular disease: a cautionary note. Lancet. 1983; 2:404-5. [PubMed 6135901]
124. Jackson B, Matthews PG, McGrath BP et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in renovascular hypertension: frequency of reversible renal failure. Lancet. 1984; 1:225-6. [PubMed 6198567]
125. Zanella MT, Mattei E Jr, Draibe SA et al. Inadequate aldosterone response to hyperkalemia during angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in chronic renal failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985; 38:613-7. [PubMed 2998675]
126. Textor SC, Bravo EL, Fouad FM et al. Hyperkalemia in azotemic patients during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and aldosterone reduction with captopril. Am J Med. 1982; 73:719-25. [PubMed 6291388]
127. Santucci A, Aguglia F, de Mattia G et al. Long-term captopril treatment in moderate to severe hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):775-9.
128. Irvin JD, Viau JM. Safety profiles of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors captopril and enalapril. Am J Med. 1986; 81(Suppl 4C):46-50. [PubMed 3022584]
129. Gavras I, Gavras H. Clinical utility of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension. Am J Med. 1986; 81(Suppl 4C):28-31. [PubMed 3022582]
130. Weinberger MH. Comparison of captopril and hydrochlorothiazide alone and in combination in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):127S-31. [PubMed 6753893]
131. Anon. Drugs for hypertension. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1984; 26:107-12. [PubMed 6150424]
132. Moser M. Initial treatment of adult patients with essential hypertension. Part 1: why conventional stepped-care therapy of hypertension is still indicated. Pharmacotherapy. 1985; 5:189-95. [PubMed 2863806]
133. Kaplan NM. Initial treatment of adult patients with essential hypertension. Part 2: alternating monotherapy is the preferred treatment. Pharmacotherapy. 1985; 5:195-200. [PubMed 4034407]
134. Bauer JH. Stepped-care approach to the treatment of hypertension: is it obsolete? (unpublished observations)
135. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Fourth Mild Hypertension Conference. 1986 guidelines for the treatment of mild hypertension: memorandum from the WHO/ISH. Hypertension. 1986; 8:957-61.
137. Andren L, Karlbert B, Ohman P et al. Captopril and atenolol combined with hydrochlorothiazide in essential hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):107-11S. [PubMed 7104162]
138. Stumpe KO, Overlack A, Kolloch R et al. Long-term efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with captopril in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):121-6S.
139. Veterans Administration Co-operative Study Group On Antihypertensive Agents. Racial differences in response to low-dose captopril are abolished by the addition of hydrochlorothiazide. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):97-101S. [PubMed 7049210]
140. Chrysant SG, Danisa K, Kem DC et al. Racial differences in pressure, volume and renin interrelationships in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1979; 1:136-41. [PubMed 399939]
141. Bauer JH, Reams GP. Antihypertensive treatment in patients with renal disease: control of glomerular hypertension. Kidney. (in press)
142. Taguma Y, Kitamotoa Y, Futaki G et al. Effect of captopril on heavy proteinuria in azotemic diabetics. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313:1617-20. [PubMed 3906398]
143. Bauer JH. Role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in essential and renal hypertension. Am J Med. 1984; 77(Suppl 2A):43-51. [PubMed 6206722]
144. Bauer JH, Reams GP. Renal effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension. Am J Med. 1986; 81(Suppl 4C):19-27. [PubMed 3022581]
145. Thind GS, Johnson A, Bhatnagar D et al. A parallel study of enalapril and captopril and 1 year of experience with enalapril treatment in moderate-to-severe essential hypertension. Am Heart J. 1985; 109:852-8. [PubMed 2984913]
146. Cooper RA. Captopril associated neutropenia: who is at risk? Arch Intern Med. 1983; 143:659-60. Editorial.
147. Merck Sharp & Dohme. Vasotec (enalapril maleate) prescribing information. West Point, PA; 1985 Dec.
148. Packer M, Kessler PD, Gottlieb SS. Adverse effects of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe congestive heart failure: pathophysiology and management. Postgrad Med J. 1986; 62(Suppl 1):179-82. [PubMed 3022272]
149. McMurray J, Matthews DM. Effect of diarrhoea on a patient taking captopril. Lancet. 1985; 1:581. [PubMed 2857931]
150. Benett PR, Cairns SA. Captopril, diarrhoea, and hypotension. Lancet. 1985; 1:1105. [PubMed 2860320]
151. Captopril Multicenter Research Group. ACE-inhibitor captopril in refractory congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 2:755. [PubMed 6350401]
152. Cleland J, McAlpine H, Semple P et al. First dose hypotension with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. Br Heart J. 1985; 53:672-3.
153. Hodsman GP, Isles CG, Murray GD et al. Factors related to first dose hypotensive effect of captopril: prediction and treatment. BMJ. 1983; 286:832-4. [PubMed 6403103]
154. Cody RJ, Franklin KW, Laragh JH. Postural hypotension during tilt with chronic captopril and diuretic therapy of severe congestive heart failure. Am Heart J. 1982; 103:480-4. [PubMed 7039281]
155. LaBarre TR, O’Connell JB, Gunnar RM. Captopril therapy for severe CHF: hypotensive response in presence of markedly elevated PRA. Am Heart J. 1982; 103:308-10. [PubMed 7034517]
156. Packer M, Lee WH, Yushak M et al. Comparison of captopril and enalapril in patients with severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315:847-53. [PubMed 3018566]
157. Ader R, Chatterjee K, Ports T et al. Immediate and sustained hemodynamic and clinical improvement in chronic heart failure by an oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Circulation. 1980; 61:931-7. [PubMed 6244906]
158. Chrysant SG, Dunn M, Marples D et al. Severe reversible azotemia from captopril therapy. Report of three cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1983; 143:437-41. [PubMed 6338847]
159. Borders JV. Captopril and onycholysis. Ann Intern Med. 1986; 105:305-6. [PubMed 3524344]
160. Goodfield MJ, Millard LG. Severe cutaneous reactions to captopril. BMJ. 1985; 290:1111. [PubMed 3157419]
161. Rahmat J, Gelfand RL, Gelfand MC et al. Captopril-associated cholestatic jaundice. Ann Intern Med. 1985; 102:56-8. [PubMed 3881069]
162. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Captopril (Capoten) interactions. Drug Interact Newsl. 1985; 5(Updates):U10-1.
163. Burnakis TG, Mioduch JM. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144:2371-2. [PubMed 6391404]
164. Vlasses PH, Ferguson RK, Chatterjee K. Captopril: clinical pharmacology and benefit-to-risk ratio in hypertension and congestive heart failure. Pharmacotherapy. 1982; 2:1-17. [PubMed 6765388]
165. Sesoko S, Kaneko Y. Cough associated with the use of captopril. Arch Intern Med. 1985; 145:1524. [PubMed 3896184]
166. Semple PF, Herd GW. Cough and wheeze caused by inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. N Engl J Med. 1986; 314:61. [PubMed 2999601]
167. Reviewers’ comments on enalapril maleate (personal observations); 1986 Nov.
168. Packer M, Medina N, Yushak M. Relation between serum sodium concentration and the hemodynamic and clinical responses to converting enzyme inhibition with captopril in severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984; 3:1035-43. [PubMed 6323565]
169. Creager MA, Halperin JL, Bernard DB et al. Acute regional circulatory and renal hemodynamic effects of converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1981; 64:483-9. [PubMed 6266691]
170. Singhui SM, Duchin KL, Willard DA et al. Renal handling of captopril: effect of probenecid. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 32:182-9. [PubMed 7047044]
171. Croog SH, Levine S, Testa MA et al. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on the quality of life. N Engl J Med. 1986; 314:1657-64. [PubMed 3520318]
172. Chobanian AV. Antihypertensive therapy in evolution. N Engl J Med. 1986; 314:1701-2. [PubMed 3713773]
173. The Captopril Multicenter Research Group I. A cooperative study of captopril in congestive heart failure: hemodynamic effects and long-term response. Am Heart J. 1985; 110:439-47. [PubMed 3895877]
174. Jenkins AC, Dreslinski GR, Tadros SS et al. Captopril in hypertension: seven years later. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7(Suppl 1):S96-101. [PubMed 2580185]
175. Jenkins AC, Knill JR, Dreslinski GR. Captopril in the treatment of the elderly hypetensive patient. Arch Intern Med. 1985; 145:2029-31. [PubMed 3904655]
177. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Low-dose captopril for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. I. Results of a 14-week trial. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 144:1947-53. [PubMed 6237623]
178. Drayer JI, Weber MA. Monotherapy of essential hypertension with a converting-enzyme inhibitor. Hypertension. 1983; 5(Suppl 2):III108-13.
179. Holland OB, von Kuhnert L, Campbell WB et al. Synergistic effect of captopril with hydrochlorothiazide for the treatment of low-renin hypertensive black patients. Hypertension. 1983; 5:235-9. [PubMed 6337951]
180. Moser M, Lunn J. Responses to captopril and hydrochlorothiazide in black patients with hypertension. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 32:307-12. [PubMed 7049502]
181. Weinberger MH. Blood pressure and metabolic responses to hydrochlorothiazide, captopril, and the combination in black and white mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7(Suppl 1):S52-5. [PubMed 2580177]
182. Smit AJ, Hoountje SJ, Donker AJ. Zinc deficiency during captopril treatment. Nephron. 1983; 34:196-7. [PubMed 6348568]
183. Brueggemeyer CD, Ramirez G. Onycholysis associated with captopril. Lancet. 1984; 1:1352-3. [PubMed 6145047]
184. Di Carlo L, Chatterjee K, Parmley WW et al. Enalapril: a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in chronic heart failure: acute and chronic hemodynamic evaluations. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983; 2:865-71. [PubMed 6313787]
185. Webb D, Benjamin N, Collier J et al. Enalapril-induced cough. Lancet. 1986; 2:1094. [PubMed 2877240]
186. Cruickshank JM. Antihypertensive therapy and quality of life. N Engl J Med. 1987; 316:53.
187. Hommel E, Parving HH, Mathiesen E et al. Effect of captopril on kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. BMJ. 1986; 293:467-70. [PubMed 3091164]
188. Bjorck S, Nyberg G, Mulec H et al. Beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. BMJ. 1986; 293:471-4. [PubMed 3017501]
189. O’Hare JA. Captopril and diabetic proteinuria: a correction. N Engl J Med. 1987; 316:52. [PubMed 3785349]
190. Murphy PJ, van der Cammen T, Malone-Lee J. Captopril in elderly patients with heart failure. BMJ. 1986; 293:239-40. [PubMed 3089469]
191. Ohman KP, Kagedal B, Larsson R et al. Pharmacokinetics of captopril and its effects on blood pressure during acute and chronic administration and in relation to food intake. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7(Suppl 1):S20-4. [PubMed 2580171]
192. Salvetti A, Pedrinelli R, Magagna A et al. Influence of food on acute and chronic effects of captopril in essential hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7(Suppl 1):S25-9. [PubMed 2580172]
193. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Banks RA et al. Captopril in essential hypertension; contrasting effects of adding hydrochlorothiazide or propranolol. BMJ. 1982; 284:693-6. [PubMed 6802291]
194. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Racial differences in response to low-dose captopril are abolished by the addition of hydrochlorothiazide. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl): 97-101S.
195. Kubo SH, Cody RJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: a review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1985; 10:377-91. [PubMed 2994938]
196. Singhvi SM, McKinstry DN, Shaw JM et al. Effect of food on the bioavailability of captopril in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 22:135-40. [PubMed 7040498]
197. Mantyla R, Mannisto PT, Vuorela A et al. Impairment of captopril bioavailability by concomitant food and antacid intake. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1984; 22:626-9. [PubMed 6389377]
198. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Pettigrew A et al. The effects of captopril on serum digoxin and urinary urea and digoxin clearances in patients with congestive heart failure. Am Heart J. 1986; 112:130-5. [PubMed 3524169]
199. Cleland JGF, Dargie HJ, Hodsman GP et al. Interaction of digoxin and captopril. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1983; 17:214P.
200. Mangini RJ, ed. Drug interaction facts. St. Louis: JB Lippincott Co; 1987(Oct):204a.
201. Mangini RJ, ed. Drug interaction facts. St. Louis: JB Lippincott Co; 1987(Jul):125a.
202. Williams GM, Sugerman AA. The effect of a meal, at various times relative to drug administration, on the bioavailability of captopril. J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 22:18A.
203. Mangini RJ, ed. Drug interaction facts. St. Louis: JB Lippincott Co; 1987(Jul):127.
204. Singhvi SM, Duchin KL, Willard DA et al. Renal handling of captopril: effect of probenecid. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982; 32:182-9. [PubMed 7047044]
205. Johnston CI, Arnolda L, Hiwatari M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. Drugs. 1984; 27:271-7. [PubMed 6323123]
206. Packler M, Lee WH, Medina M et al. Functional renal insufficiency during long-term therapy with captopril and enalapril in severe chronic heart failure. Ann Intern Med. 1987; 106:346-54. [PubMed 3028221]
207. Hricik DE. Captopril-induced renal insufficiency and the role of sodium balance. Ann Intern Med. 1985; 103:222-3. [PubMed 3893255]
208. Spital A. Captopril-induced renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 1986; 104:126. [PubMed 3510053]
209. Hricik DE. Captopril-induced renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 1986; 104:126. [PubMed 3510053]
210. The Captopril-Digoxin Multicenter Research Group. Comparative effects of therapy with captopril and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. JAMA. 1988; 259:539-44. [PubMed 2447297]
211. Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Golper TA et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure: dosing guidelines for adults. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1987:36-7.
212. Nicholls MG, Gilchrist NL. Sulindac and cough induced by converting enzyme inhibitors. Lancet. 1987; 1:872. [PubMed 2882285]
213. Drummer OH, Thompson J, Hooper R et al. Effect of probenecid on the disposition of captopril dimer in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985; 34:3347-51. [PubMed 2994681]
214. Ollivier JP, Ducrocq MB, Droniou J. Un effet secondaire des inhibiteurs de l’enzyme de conversion: la toux. Presse Med. 1987; 16:759-61. [PubMed 3035534]
216. The Expert Panel (coordinated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). Report of the Joint National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Arch Intern Med. 1988; 148:36-69. [PubMed 3422148]
217. Ferguson RK, Vlasses PH, Rotmensch HH. Clinical applications of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Med. 1984; 77:690-8. [PubMed 6091446]
218. Kostis JB. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. II. Clinical use. Am J Med. 1988; 116(6 Part 1):1591-1605.
219. Williams GH. Converting-enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319:1517-25. [PubMed 3054561]
220. Schatz PL, Mesologites D, Hyun J et al. Captopril-induced hypersensitivity lung disease: an immune-complex-mediated phenomenon. Chest. 1989; 95:685-7. [PubMed 2522035]
221. Miralles R, Pedro-Botet J, Farré M et al. Captopril and vasculitis. Ann Intern Med. 1988; 109:514.
222. Edwards IR, Coulter DM, Beasley DMG et al. Captopril: 4 years of post marketing surveillance of all patients in New Zealand. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 23:529-36. [PubMed 3297125]
223. Goodfield MJD, Millard LG, Banks DC et al. Extended use of captopril. Lancet. 1984; 2:517. [PubMed 6147571]
224. Laaban J, Marie JP, Wallach D et al. Eur Heart J. 1987; 8:319.
225. Guillevin L, Le Roux G, Breau JL. Vasculitis: case report. Ann Med Interne. 1987; 138:658-9.
226. Markusse HM, Meyboom RHB. Gynaecomastia associated with captopril. BMJ. 1988; 296:1262-3.
227. Al Mahdy H, Boswell GV. Captopril-induced oesophagitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 34:95. [PubMed 3282896]
228. Kim CR, Maley MB, Mohler ER Jr. Captopril and aplastic anemia. Ann Intern Med. 1989; 111:187-8. [PubMed 2662851]
229. Strair RK, Mitch WE, Faller DV et al. Reversible captopril-associated bone marrow aplasia. Can Med Assoc J. 1985; 132:320-2. [PubMed 3882212]
230. ACE-inhibitors: contraindicated in pregnancy. WHO Drug Information. 1990; 4:23.
231. Gifford RW Jr. Management of hypertensive crises. JAMA. 1991; 266:829-35. [PubMed 1865522]
232. Komsuoglu B, Sengun B, Bayram A et al. Treatment of hypertensive urgencies with oral nifedipine, nicardipine, and captopril. Angiology. 1991; 42:447-54. [PubMed 2042792]
233. Angeli P, Chiesa M, Caregaro L et al. Comparison of sublingual captopril and nifedipine in immediate treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Arch Intern Med. 1991; 151:678-82. [PubMed 2012448]
234. Guerrera G, Melina D, Capaldi L et al. Sublingually administered captopril versus nifedipine in hypertension emergencies. (Spanish; with English abstract.) Minerva Cardioangiol. 1990; 38:37-44.
235. Ceyhan B, Karaaslan Y, Caymaz O et al. Comparison of sublingual captopril and sublingual nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990; 52:189-93. [PubMed 2179605]
236. Moritz RD, de Queiroz LP, Pereira MR et al. Comparative study of the use of nifedipine and captopril in hypertensive emergencies. (Portuguese; with English abstract.) Arq Bras Cardiol. 1989; 52:323-6.
237. Guerrera G, Melina D, Capaldi L et al. Usefulness of sublingual captopril in hypertensive emergencies: preliminary results. (Spanish; with English abstract.) Cardiologia. 1989; 34:167-71.
238. del Castillo AC, Rodriguez M, Gonzalez E et al. Dose-response effect of sublingual captopril in hypertensive crises. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 28:667-70. [PubMed 3063729]
239. US Food and Drug Administration. Dangers of ACE inhibitors during second and third trimesters of pregnancy. FDA Med Bull. 1992; 22:2.
240. Joint letter of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Pharmaceutical Division; Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals Inc; ICI Pharmaceutical Group, ICI Americas Inc; Merck Human Health Division; Parke-Davis, Division of Warner-Lambert Company. Important warning information regarding use of ACE inhibitors in pregnancy. 1992 Mar 16.
241. Piper JM, Ray WA, Rosa FW. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Obstet Gynecol. 1992; 80:429-32. [PubMed 1495700]
242. US Food and Drug Administration. Severe allergic reactions associated with dialysis and ACE inhibitors. FDA Med Bull. 1992; 22:4.
243. Parnes EL, Shapiro WB. Anaphylactoid reactions in hemodialysis patients treated with the AN69 dialyzer. Kidney Int. 1991; 40:1148-52. [PubMed 1762316]
244. Tielemans C, Madhoun P, Lenaers M et al. Anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis on AN69 membranes in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Kidney Int. 1990; 38:982-4. [PubMed 2266684]
245. Bristol-Myers Squibb. Princeton, NJ: Personal communication.
246. Cohn JN. The prevention of heart failure—a new agenda. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:725-7. [PubMed 1495526]
247. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moyé LA et al for the SAVE Investigators Group. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction: results of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargment Trial. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:669-77. [PubMed 1386652]
248. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:685-91. [PubMed 1463530]
249. Swedberg K, Held P, Kjekshus J et al. Effects of the early administration of enalapril on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the Cooperative New Scandinavian enalapril survival study II (Consensus II). N Engl J Med. 1992; 327:678-84. [PubMed 1495520]
250. Sharpe N, Smith H, Murphy J et al. Early prevention of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition. Lancet. 1991; 337:872-6. [PubMed 1672967]
251. Oldroyd KG, Pye MP, Ray SG et al. Effects of early captopril administration on infarct expansion, left ventricular remodeling and exercise capacity after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1991; 68:713-8. [PubMed 1892076]
252. Sharpe N, Murphy J, Smith H et al. Treatment of patients with symptomless left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1988; 1:255-9. [PubMed 2893080]
253. Pfeffer MA, Lamas GA, Vaughan DE et al. Effect of captopril on progressive ventricular dilatation after anterior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319:80-6. [PubMed 2967917]
254. Kjekshus J, Swedberg K, Snappin S. Effects of enalapril on long-term mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1992; 69:103-7. [PubMed 1729857]
255. Scott AA, Purohit DM. Neonatal renal failure: a complication of maternal antihypertensive therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 160:1223-4. [PubMed 2543224]
256. Braunwald E. ACE inhibitors—a cornerstone of the treatment of congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325:351-3. [PubMed 2057038]
257. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325:293-302. [PubMed 2057034]
258. E. R. Squibb and Sons, Inc. Capozide (captopril-hydrochlorothiazide) tablets prescribing information. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 46th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1992(Suppl A):A116.
259. Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC V). Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153:154-83. [PubMed 8422206]
260. Weber MA, Laragh JH. Hypertension: steps forward and steps backward: the Joint National Committee fifth report. Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153:149-52. [PubMed 8422205]
261. Alderman MH. Which antihypertensive drugs first—and why! JAMA. 1992; 267:2786-7. Editorial.
262. Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Bain RP et al. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329:1456-62. [PubMed 8413456]
263. Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P. Slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329:1496-7. [PubMed 8413463]
264. Anon. Captopril for diabetic nephropathy. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1994; 36:46-7. [PubMed 8177138]
265. Kasiske VL, Kalil RSN, Ma JZ et al. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on the kidney in patients with diabetes: a meta-regression analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118:129-138. [PubMed 8416309]
266. Viberti G, Mogensen CE, Groop LC et al. Effect of captopril on progression to clinical proteinuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria. JAMA. 1994; 271:275-9. [PubMed 8295285]
267. Mathiesen ER, Hommel E, Giese J et al. Efficacy of captopril in postponing nephropathy in normotensive insulin dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. BMJ. 1991; 303:81-7. [PubMed 1860008]
268. Bakris GL. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118:643-4. [PubMed 8452332]
269. Fournier A, Lalau JD. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330:937. [PubMed 8114873]
270. Dawnay A, Lipkin GW. ACE inhibition and diabetic nephropathy. BMJ. 1991; 303:1400. [PubMed 1810297]
271. Baker DW, Konstam MA, Bottorff M et al. Management of heart failure. JAMA. 1994; 272:1361-6. [PubMed 7933398]
272. Young JB. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure: new strategies justified by recent clinical trials. Int J Cardiol. 1994; 43:151-63. [PubMed 8181869]
273. Sharpe N. ACE inhibitors versus diuretics: when to choose which drug? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1993; 7:877-9. Abstract.
274. Riegger GA. The effects of ACE inhibitors on exercise capacity in the treatment of congestive heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1990; 15(Suppl 2):S41-6.
275. Agishi T. Anion-blood contact reaction (ABC reaction) in patients treated by LDL apheresis with dextran sulfate–cellulose column while receiving ACE inhibitors. JAMA. 1994; 271:195-6. [PubMed 7695665]
276. Olbricht CJ, Schaumann D, Fischer D. Anaphylactoid reactions, LDL apheresis with dextran sulphate, and ACE inhibitors. Lancet. 1992; 340:908-9. [PubMed 1357312]
277. Keller C, Grützmacher P, Bahr F et al. LDL-apheresis with dextran sulphate and anaphylactoid reactions to ACE inhibitors. Lancet. 1993; 341:60-1. [PubMed 8093314]
278. Tunon-de-Lara JM, Villanueva P, Marcos M et al. ACE inhibitors and anaphylactoid reactions during venom immunotherapy. Lancet. 1992; 340:908. [PubMed 1357311]
279. Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ: Personal communication.
280. Ravid M, Savin H, Jutrin I et al. Long-term stabilizing effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on plasma creatinine and on proteinuria in normotensive type II diabetic patients. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118:577-81. [PubMed 8452322]
281. Björck S, Mulec H, Johnsen SA et al. Renal protective effect of enalapril in diabetic nephropathy. BMJ. 1992; 304:339-43. [PubMed 1540729]
282. Cook J, Daneman D, Spino M et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy to decrease microalbuminuria in normotensive children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr. 1990; 117:39-45. [PubMed 2196359]
283. McNeil. Motrin (ibuprofen suspension, chewable tablets, caplets) prescribing information. Fort Washington, PA; 1994 Dec.
284. Abe K, Ito T, Sato M et al. Role of prostaglandin in the antihypertensive mechanisms of captopril in low renin hypertension. Clin Sci. 1980; 59:141-4s.
285. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor interactions: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In: Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug interactions and updates. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc; 1993:131-2.
286. ACE inhibitors/indomethacin. In: Tatro DS, Olin BR, Hebel SK et al. Drug interaction facts. St. Louis: JB Lippincott Co; 1992(April):28.
287. Salvetti A, Abdel-Haq B, Magagna A et al. Indomethacin reduces the antihypertensive action of enalapril Clin Exp Hypertens. 1987; 9:559-67.
288. Fujita T, Yamashita N, Yamashita K. Effect of indomethacin on antihypertensive action of captopril in hypertensive patients. Clin Exp Hypertens. 1981; 3:939-52. [PubMed 7026199]
289. Moore TJ, Crantz FR, Hollenberg NK et al. Contribution of prostaglandins to the antihypertensive action of captopril in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1981; 3:168-73. [PubMed 6260645]
290. Silberbauer K, Stanek B, Templ H. Acute hypotensive effect of captopril in man modified by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 14(Suppl 2):87:93S.
291. Seelig CB, Maloley PA, Campbell JR. Nephrotoxocity associated with concomitant ACE inhibitor and NSAID therapy. South Med J. 1990; 83:1144-8. [PubMed 2218652]
292. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico. GISSI-3: effects of lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together on 6-week mortality and ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1994; 343:1115-22. [PubMed 7910229]
293. Ambrosioni E, Borghi C, Magnani B for the Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-Term Evaluation (SMILE) Study Investigators. The effect of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor zofenopril on mortality and morbidity after anterior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:80-5. [PubMed 7990904]
294. The Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Lancet. 1993; 342:821-8. [PubMed 8104270]
295. Ball SG, Hall AS, Murray GD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors after myocardial infarction: indications and timing J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995; 25(Suppl):42-6S. (IDIS 350026)
296. ISIS-4 Collaborative Group. Fourth international study of infarct survival: protocol for a large simple study of the effects of oral mononitrate, of oral captopril, and intravenous magnesium. Am J Cardiol. 1991; 68:87-100D.
297. Simoons ML. Myocardial infarction: ACE inhibitors for all? for ever? Lancet. 1994; 344:279-81. Editorial.
298. Anon. An ACE inhibitor after a myocardial infarction. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1994; 36:69-70. [PubMed 8035753]
299. Ertl G, Jugdutt B. ACE inhibition after myocardial infarction: can megatrials provide answers? Lancet. 1994; 344:1068-9.
300. Ertl G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in angina and myocardial infarction: what role will they play in the 1990s? Drugs. 1993; 46:209-18.
301. Purcell H, Coats A, Fox K et al. Improving outcome after acute myocardial infarction: what is the role of ACE inhibitors? Br J Clin Pract. 1995; 49:195-9. (IDIS 349780)
302. Ball SG, Hall AS. What to expect from ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction. Br Heart J. 1994; 72(Suppl):S70-4.
303. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58 050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1995; 345:669-85. [PubMed 7661937]
304. Chinese Cardiac Study Collaborative Group. Oral captopril versus placebo among 13 634 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: interim report from the Chinese Cardiac Study (CCS-1). Lancet. 1995; 345:686-7. [PubMed 7885123]
305. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NHLBI panel reviews safety of calcium channel blockers. Rockville, MD; 1995 Aug 31. Press release.
306. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. New analysis regarding the safety of calcium-channel blockers: a statement for health professionals from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Rockville, MD; 1995 Sep 1.
307. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD et al. The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies. JAMA. 1995; 274:620-5. [PubMed 7637142]
308. Yusuf S. Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation? Circulation. 1995; 92:1079-82. Editorial.
309. Calhoun DA, Oparil S. Treatment of hypertensive crisis. N Engl J Med. 1990; 323:1177-83. [PubMed 2215596]
310. Gales MA. Oral antihypertensives for hypertensive urgencies. Ann Pharmacother. 1994; 28:352-8. [PubMed 8193426]
311. Grossman E, Messerli FH, Grodzicki T et al. Should a moratorium be placed on sublingual nifedipine capsules given for hypertensive emergencies and pseudoemergencies? JAMA. 1996; 276:1328-31.
312. Rehman F, Mansoor GA, White WB. “Inappropriate” physician habits in prescribing oral nifedipine capsules in hosptalized patients. Am J Hypertens. 1996; 9:1035-9. [PubMed 8896658]
313. Pascale C, Zampaglione B, Marchisio M. Management of hypertensive crisis: nifedipine in comparison with captopril, clonidine, and furosemide. Curr Ther Res. 1992; 51:9-18.
314. Wu SG, Lin SL, Shiao WY et al. Comparison of sublingual captopril, nifedipine and prazosin in hypertensive emergencies during hemodialysis. Nephron. 1993; 65:284-7. [PubMed 8247194]
315. Abdelwahab W, Frishman W, Landau A. Management of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995; 35:747-62. [PubMed 8522630]
316. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1997 Nov. (NIH publication No. 98-4080.)
317. Kaplan NM. Choice of initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA. 1996; 275:1577-80. [PubMed 8622249]
318. Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovich DS et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 1997; 277:739-45. [PubMed 9042847]
319. American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28:1328-428. [PubMed 8890834]
320. Garg R, Yusuf S for the Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. JAMA. 1995; 273:1450-6. [PubMed 7654275]
321. American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). Circulation. 1995; 92:2764-84. [PubMed 7586389]
322. Klahr S, Levey AS, Beck GJ et al for the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330:877-84. [PubMed 8114857]
323. Maschio G, Alberti D, Jannin G et al for the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibition in Progressive Renal Insufficiency Study Group. Effect of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor benazepril on the progression of chronic renal insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334:939-45. [PubMed 8596594]
324. Giatras I, Lau J, Levey AS et al for the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Progressive Renal Insufficiency Study Group. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on the progression of nondiabetic renal disease: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 127:337-45. [PubMed 9273824]
325. Vaseretic (enalapril maleate–hydrochlorothiazide) tablets prescribing information. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 50th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1996 (Suppl A):A121-2.
326. Merck & Co. Vasotec I.V. (enalaprilat) prescribing information. In: Physicians; desk reference. 50th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1996 (Suppl A):A122.
327. Merck & Co. Vasotec tabelts (enalapril maleate) prescribing information. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 50th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1996 (Suppl A):A122.
328. Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA et al. for the TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA. 1998; 279:839-46. [PubMed 9515998]
329. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341(10): 709-17. [PubMed 10471456]
330. The RALES Investigators. Effectiveness of spironolactone added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a loop diuretic for severe chronic congestive heart failure (the randomized aldosterone evaluation study [RALES]). Am J Cardiol. 1996; 78:902-7. [PubMed 8888663]
331. Zannad F. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and spironolactone combination therapy: new objectives in congestive heart failure treatment.). Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71:34A-9A. [PubMed 8422003]
332. Dahlstrom U, Karlsson E. Captopril and spironolactone therapy for refractory congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. . 1993; 71:29A-33A. [PubMed 8422001]
333. Anon. Consensus recommendations for the management of chronic heart failure. On behalf of the membership of the advisory council to improve outcomes nationwide in heart failure. Part II. Management of heart failure: approaches to the prevention of heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83:9A-38A.
334. American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations 2003. Position Statement. Diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(Suppl 1):S94-8.
335. Weber KT. Aldosterone and spironolactone in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:753-5. Editorial.
336. Genuth S. United Kingdom prospective diabetes study results are in. J Fam Pract. 1998; 47:(Suppl 5):S27.
337. Watkins PJ. UKPDS: a message of hope and a need for change. Diabet Med. 1998; 15:895-6. [PubMed 9827842]
338. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998; 317:703-13. [PubMed 9732337]
339. Bretzel RG, Voit K, Schatz H et al. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS): implications for the pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1998; 106:369-72. [PubMed 9831300]
340. Struthers AD. Aldosterone escape during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in chronic heart failure. J Card Fail. 1996;2: 47-54.
341. Tatti P, Pahor M, Byington RP et al. Outcome results of the fosinopril versus amlodipine cardiovascular events randomized trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21:597-603. [PubMed 9571349]
342. Staessen J, Lijnen P, Fagard R et al. Rise in plasma concentration of aldosterone during long-term angiotensin II suppression. J Endocr. 1981;91:457-65.
343. Semplicini A, Rossi GP, Bongiovi S et al. Time course changes in blood pressure, aldosterone and body fluids during enalapril treatment: a double-blind randomized study vs hydrochlorothiazide plus propranolol in essential hypertension. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1986; 13:17-24. [PubMed 3011329]
344. MacFadyen RJ, Lee AF, Morton JJ et al. How often are angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations raised during chronic ACE inhibitor treatment in cardiac failure? Heart. 1999; 82:57-61.
345. Struthers AD. Why does spironolactone improve mortality over and above an ACE inhibitor in congestive heart failure? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 47:479-82.
346. Johnston CI, Jackson BJ, Larmour I et al. Plasma enalapril levels and hormonal effects after short- and long-term administration in essential hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984; 18(Suppl 2):233-9S.
347. Sanchez RA, Marco E, Gilbert HB et al. Natriuretic effect and changes in renal haemodynamics induced by enalapril in essential hypertension. Drugs. 1985; 30(Suppl 1):49-58. [PubMed 2994987]
348. Hodsman GP, Brown JJ, Cumming AM et al. Enalapril in the treatment of hypertension with renal artery stenosis. BMJ. 1983; 287:1413-7. [PubMed 6315126]
349. American Diabetes Association. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) for type 2 diabetes: what you need to know about the results of a long-term study. Washington, DC; 1998 Sep 15 from American Diabetes Association web site ().
350. Anon. Spironolactone for heart failure. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1999; 41:81-2. [PubMed 10505071]
351. Mylan Pharmaceuticals. Captopril tablets prescribing information 1998 Mar. In: Physicians’ desk reference. 53rd ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company Inc; 1999:1958-61.
352. Weiner B, Kraus DM, Clifton GD et al. ASHP therapeutic guidelines on angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1997; 54:299-313. [PubMed 9028424]
353. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. BMJ. 1998; 317:713-20. [PubMed 9732338]
354. Davis TM. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study: the end of the beginning? Med J Aust. 1998; 169:511-2.
357. Apothecon. Captopril/Hydrochlorothiazide tablets prescribing information. Princeton, NJ; 1997 Mar.
358. Pitt B. “Escape” of aldosterone production in patients with left ventricular dysfunction treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor: implications for therapy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1995; 9:145-9. [PubMed 7786835]
359. Aspirin interactions: captopril. In: Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug interactions and updates. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc; 1997:62-3.
360. Packer M, Poole-Wilson PA, Armstrong PW et al. Comparative effects of low and high doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1999; 100:2312-8. [PubMed 10587334]
361. Izzo JL, Levy D, Black HR. Importance of systolic blood pressure in older Americans. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1021-4. [PubMed 10818056]
362. Frohlich ED. Recognition of systolic hypertension for hypertension. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1019-20. [PubMed 10818055]
363. Latini R, Tognoni G, Maggioni AP et al. Clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35:1801-7. [PubMed 10841227]
364. Hall D. The aspirin-angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor tradeoff: to halve and halve not. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35:1808-12. [PubMed 10841228]
365. Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L et al. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: A consensus approach. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36:646-61. [PubMed 10977801]
366. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet. 1998; 351:1755-62. [PubMed 9635947]
367. American Diabetes Association. Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(Suppl. 1):S80-2.
368. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet. 2000; 355: 253-9.
369. Niskanen L, Hender T, Hansson L et al. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/β-blocker-based treatment regimen. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24:2091-6. [PubMed 11723089]
370. Schattner A, Kozak N, Friedman J. Captopril-induced jaundice: report of 2 cases and a review of 13 additional reports in the literature. Am J Med Sci. 2001; 322:236-40. [PubMed 11678523]
372. Schoolwerth AC, Sica DA, Ballermann BJ et al. Renal considerations in angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease and the Council for High Blood Pressure Research of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 104:1985-91. [PubMed 11602506]
373. Morgensen CE, Neldman S, Tikkanen I et al. Randomised controlled trial of dual blockade of renin-angiotensin system in patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, and non-insulin dependent diabetes: the candesartan and lisinopril microalbuminuria (CALM) study. BMJ. 2000; 321:1440-4. [PubMed 11110735]
374. Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW et al. ACC/AHA guideline update for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients with Unstable Angina). 2002. Available from website. Accessed Sep. 10, 2002.
375. Williams MA, Fleg JL, Ades PA et al. Secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in the elderly (with emphasis on patients ≥ 75 years of age). An American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology Subcommittee on Exercise, Cardiac rehabilitation, and Prevention. Circulation. 2002; 105:1735-43. [PubMed 11940556]
376. Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR et al. Cardiovascular health in childhood: a statement for health professional from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2002; 106:143-60. [PubMed 12093785]
377. Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). 2001. Available from website. Accessed July 25, 2002.
378. Ryan TJ, Antman EM, Brooks NH et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction: 1999 update: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Management of Acute Myocardial Infaction). Available from website. Accessed Sep. 26, 2002.
379. Appel LJ. The verdict from ALLHAT—thiazide diuretics are the preferred initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA. 2002; 288:3039-60. [PubMed 12479770]
380. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002; 288:2981-97. [PubMed 12479763]
381. Frohlich ED. Treating hypertension—what are we to believe? N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:639-401.
383. Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, et al. Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American settings: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:393-404.
384. Black HR, Elliott WJ, Neaton JD et al. Baseline characteristics and elderly blood pressure control in the CONVINCE trial. Hypertension. 2001; 37:12-18. [PubMed 11208750]
385. American Diabetes Association. Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(Suppl 1):S80-2.
386. Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: Consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163:525-41. [PubMed 12622600]
388. The Guidelines Subcommittee of the WHO/ISH Mild Hypertension Liaison Committee. 1999 guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertension. 1999; 17:392-403.
389. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on the Thiazides General Statement 40:28.
390. Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs. Lancet. 2000;356:1955-64.
391. Black HR, Elliott WJ, Grandits G, et al. Principal results of the Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular End Points (CONVINCE) trial. JAMA. 2003;289:2073-2082.
392. Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE). Lancet. 2002;359:995-1003.
393. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145-153.
394. PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet. 2001;358:1033-41.
395. Wing LMH, Reid CM, Ryan P, et al, for Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study Group. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:583-92.
396. Sica DA, Elliott WJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers in combination: theory and practice. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2001; 3:383-7. [PubMed 11723362]
397. Carter B for the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Personal communication.
398. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. The Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114(Suppl 2):555-76.
399. Wright JT, Dunn JK, Cutler JA et al. Outcomes in hypertensive black and nonblack patients treated with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril. JAMA. 2005; 293:1595-607. [PubMed 15811979]
400. Neaton JD, Kuller LH. Diuretics are color blind. JAMA. 2005; 293:1663-6. [PubMed 15811986]
401. Cooper WO, Hernandez-Diaz S, Arbogast PG et al. Major congenital malformations after first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:2443-51. [PubMed 16760444]
402. Food and Drug Administration. FDA public health advisory: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) drugs and pregnancy. From FDA website ().
403. National Kidney Foundation Guideline. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002; 39(Suppl 2):S1-246.
404. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Work Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Inter Suppl. 2013: 3:1-150.
500. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2003 Aug. (NIH publication No. 04-5230.)
501. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014; 311:507-20. [PubMed 24352797]
502. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013; 31:1281-357. [PubMed 23817082]
503. Go AS, Bauman MA, Coleman King SM et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension. 2014; 63:878-85. [PubMed 24243703]
504. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014; 16:14-26. [PubMed 24341872]
505. Wright JT, Fine LJ, Lackland DT et al. Evidence supporting a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 150 mm Hg in patients aged 60 years or older: the minority view. Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160:499-503. [PubMed 24424788]
506. Mitka M. Groups spar over new hypertension guidelines. JAMA. 2014; 311:663-4. [PubMed 24549531]
507. Peterson ED, Gaziano JM, Greenland P. Recommendations for treating hypertension: what are the right goals and purposes?. JAMA. 2014; 311:474-6. [PubMed 24352710]
508. Bauchner H, Fontanarosa PB, Golub RM. Updated guidelines for management of high blood pressure: recommendations, review, and responsibility. JAMA. 2014; 311:477-8. [PubMed 24352759]
510. Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L et al. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet. 1997; 350:757-64. [PubMed 9297994]
511. JATOS Study Group. Principal results of the Japanese trial to assess optimal systolic blood pressure in elderly hypertensive patients (JATOS). Hypertens Res. 2008; 31:2115-27. [PubMed 19139601]
515. Thomas G, Shishehbor M, Brill D et al. New hypertension guidelines: one size fits most?. Cleve Clin J Med. 2014; 81:178-88. [PubMed 24591473]
518. SPS3 Study Group, Benavente OR, Coffey CS et al. Blood-pressure targets in patients with recent lacunar stroke: the SPS3 randomised trial. Lancet. 2013; 382:507-15. [PubMed 23726159]
520. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37 Suppl 1:S14-80. [PubMed 24357209]
522. Patel A, ADVANCE Collaborative Group, MacMahon S et al. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 370:829-40. [PubMed 17765963]
523. Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2012; 126:e354-471. [PubMed 23166211]
524. WRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERS, Yancy CW, Jessup M et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013; 128:e240-327. [PubMed 23741058]
525. Smith SC, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO et al. AHA/ACCF Secondary Prevention and Risk Reduction Therapy for Patients with Coronary and other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2011; 124:2458-73. [PubMed 22052934]
526. Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR et al. Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014; :. [PubMed 24788967]
527. O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013; 127:e362-425. [PubMed 23247304]
528. Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, Granger CB et al. Effects of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: the CHARM-Overall programme. Lancet. 2003; 362:759-66. [PubMed 13678868]
530. Myers MG, Tobe SW. A Canadian perspective on the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) hypertension guidelines. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014; 16:246-8. [PubMed 24641124]
531. . Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lancet. 2000; 355:253-9. [PubMed 10675071]
534. Qaseem A, Hopkins RH, Sweet DE et al. Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159:835-47. [PubMed 24145991]
535. Taler SJ, Agarwal R, Bakris GL et al. KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for management of blood pressure in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 62:201-13. [PubMed 23684145]
536. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012: 2: 337-414.
537. Levey AS, de Jong PE, Coresh J et al. The definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease: a KDIGO Controversies Conference report. Kidney Int. 2011; 80:17-28. [PubMed 21150873]
541. Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J. 2012; 33:1635-701. [PubMed 22555213]
542. Marik PE, Varon J. Hypertensive crises: challenges and management. Chest. 2007; 131:1949-62. [PubMed 17565029]
543. National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. K/DOQI Clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease (2002). From National Kidney Foundation website.
700. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B et al. 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update on New Pharmacological Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2016; 134:e282-93. [PubMed 27208050]
701. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2016; 37:2129-200. [PubMed 27206819]
702. McMurray JJ, Packer M, Desai AS et al. Angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371:993-1004. [PubMed 25176015]
703. Ansara AJ, Kolanczyk DM, Koehler JM. Neprilysin inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of heart failure: mortality bang for your buck. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016; 41:119-27. [PubMed 26992459]
705. Reed BN, Sueta CA. Stage B: what is the evidence for treatment of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction?. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2015; 11:18-22. [PubMed 24251458]
706. Massie BM. Aspirin use in chronic heart failure: what should we recommend to the practitioner?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46:963-6. [PubMed 16168276]
a. AHFS drug information 2015. McEvoy GK, ed. Captopril. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists; 2015:.
b. Par. Capoten prescribing information. Spring Valley, NY; 2002 May.
More about Capoten (captopril)
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding
- Dosage Information
- Drug Images
- Drug Interactions
- Support Group
- En Español
- 0 Reviews – Add your own review/rating
- Drug class: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors