Skip to main content

Prostatectomy

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 24, 2022.

Overview

Prostatectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is situated in the male pelvis, below the urinary bladder. It surrounds the urethra, which carries urine from the bladder to the penis.

The procedure is used to treat a number of conditions affecting the prostate. It's most commonly used as a treatment for prostate cancer.

Prostatectomy can be performed in several ways, depending on the condition involved. Options include minimally invasive surgery performed with robotic assistance and traditional open surgery.

Why it's done

Most often, prostatectomy is done to treat localized prostate cancer. It may be used alone, or in conjunction with radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Radical prostatectomy is surgery to remove the entire prostate gland and surrounding lymph nodes to treat men with localized prostate cancer. A surgeon can perform a radical prostatectomy using different techniques, including:

Less often, simple prostatectomy may be recommended for men with severe urinary symptoms and very enlarged prostate glands. Enlarged prostate glands are known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH.

Simple prostatectomy is usually performed as a minimally invasive procedure with robotic assistance. It's not often done as an open procedure anymore.

Simple prostatectomy to treat BPH doesn't always involve removing the entire prostate, as in a radical prostatectomy. Instead, this procedure removes just the part of the prostate that's blocking the flow of urine. The surgery eases urinary symptoms and complications resulting from blocked urine flow, including:

Your surgical team will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, as well as your preferences, to determine which approach is best for you.

Risks

Radical prostatectomy risks

In addition to the risks associated with any surgery, risks with radical prostatectomy include:

Simple prostatectomy risks

Although simple prostatectomy works well at relieving urinary symptoms, it has a higher risk of complications and a longer recovery time than other enlarged prostate procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser PVP surgery or holmium laser prostate surgery (HoLEP).

Risks of open simple prostatectomy include:

How you prepare

Before surgery, your doctor may want to do a test that uses a visual scope to look inside your urethra and bladder (cystoscopy). Cystoscopy lets your doctor check the size of your prostate and examine your urinary system. Your doctor may also want to perform other tests, such as blood tests or tests to specifically measure your prostate and to measure urine flow.

Follow your doctor's instructions on what to do before your treatment. Here are some issues to discuss with your doctor:

Food and medications

Clothing and personal items

Plan ahead to avoid wearing these items into surgery:

Arrangements after surgery

Ask your doctor how long you'll be in the hospital. You'll want to arrange in advance for a ride home, because you won't be able to drive immediately following surgery.

Activity restrictions

You may not be able to work or do strenuous activities for several weeks after surgery. Ask your doctor how much recovery time you may need.

What you can expect

Before the procedure

Prostatectomy is usually done using general anesthesia, which means you're not awake during the procedure. Your doctor may also give you an antibiotic right before surgery to help prevent infection.

During the procedure

After the procedure

After surgery you should expect that:

Make sure you understand the post-surgery steps you need to take, and any restrictions such as driving or lifting heavy things:

Prostatectomy incisions

During an open prostatectomy, one large incision is made in your abdomen (left). During a robotic prostatectomy, several smaller incisions are made in the abdomen (right).

Results

Robot-assisted prostatectomy can result in reduced pain and blood loss, reduced tissue trauma, a shorter hospital stay, and a quicker recovery period than a traditional prostatectomy. You usually can return to normal activity, with minor restrictions, around four weeks after surgery.

Simple prostatectomy provides long-term relief of urinary symptoms due to an enlarged prostate. Although it's the most invasive procedure to treat an enlarged prostate, serious complications are rare. Most men who have the procedure generally don't need any follow-up treatment for their BPH.

© 1998-2024 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. Terms of use.

Learn more about Prostatectomy

Treatment options

Care guides