Label Changes for:
Changes have been made to the PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections of the safety label.
Detailed View: Safety Labeling Changes Approved By FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)
PLR Conversion; please refer to label.
ADVERSE REACTIONS (updated)
Clinical Trials Experience
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- The safety of ALINIA was evaluated in 2177 HIV-uninfected subjects 12 months of age and older who received ALINIA Tablets or ALINIA for Oral Suspension at the recommended dose for at least three days. In pooled controlled clinical trials involving 536 HIV-uninfected subjects treated with ALINIA Tablets or ALINIA for Oral Suspension, the most common adverse reactions were abdominal pain, headache, chromaturia and nausea (>2%).
- Safety data were analyzed separately for 280 HIV-uninfected subjects =12 years of age receiving ALINIA at the recommended dose for at least three days in 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials and for 256 HIV-uninfected subjects 1 through 11 years of age in 7 controlled clinical trials. There were no differences between the adverse reactions reported for ALINIA-treated subjects based upon age.
- The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of ALINIA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following is a list of adverse reactions spontaneously reported with ALINIA Tablets which were not included in clinical trial listings:
- Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Nervous System disorders: dizziness
- Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
- Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash, urticarial
DRUG INTERACTIONS (updated)
Highly Protein Bound Drugs with Narrow Therapeutic Indices
- Tizoxanide (the active metabolite of nitazoxanide) is highly bound to plasma protein (>99.9%). Therefore, monitor for adverse reactions when administering nitazoxanide concurrently with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices, as competition for binding sites may occur (e.g., warfarin).
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
- There are no data with ALINIA in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. No teratogenicity or fetotoxicity was observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of nitazoxanide to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 30 and 2 times, respectively, the exposure at the maximum recommended human dose of 500 mg twice daily based on body surface area (BSA).
- In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
- Nitazoxanide was administered orally to pregnant rats at doses of 0, 200, 800 or 3200 mg/kg/day on gestation days 6 to 15. Nitazoxanide produced no evidence of systemic maternal toxicity when administered once daily via oral gavage to pregnant female rats at levels up to 3200 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis.
- In rabbits, nitazoxanide administered at doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day on gestation days 7 to 20. Oral treatment of pregnant rabbits with nitazoxanide during organogenesis resulted in minimal maternal toxicity and no external fetal anomalies.
- No information regarding the presence of nitazoxanide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production is available. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ALINIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ALINIA or from the underlying maternal condition.
- The safety and efficacy of ALINIA for Oral Suspension for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 1 to 11 years of age has been established based on three (3) randomized, controlled studies with 104 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA for Oral Suspension 100 mg/5 mL. Furthermore, the safety and efficacy of ALINIA for Oral Suspension for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age has been established based on two (2) randomized controlled studies with 44 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA for Oral Suspension 100 mg/5 mL.
- The safety and efficacy of ALINIA Tablets for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age has been established based on three (3) randomized controlled studies with 47 pediatric subjects treated with ALINIA Tablets 500 mg.
Renal and Hepatic Impairment (addition)
- The pharmacokinetics of nitazoxanide in patients with compromised renal or hepatic function has not been studied.
PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION (new section)
- Advise patients and parents/caregivers of pediatric patients taking ALINIA Tablets or ALINIA for Oral Suspension of the following information:
- Dosage and Administration:
- ALINIA Tablets and ALINIA for Oral Suspension should be taken with food.
- ALINIA for Oral Suspension: The container should be kept tightly closed, and the suspension should be shaken well before each administration.
- The suspension may be stored at room temperature for 7 days, after which any unused portion must be discarded.
- Drug-drug Interactions:
- Avoid concurrent warfarin use.