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Drug Interaction Report

Drug interactions for the following 2 drug(s):

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bupropion
trazodone

Interactions between your selected drugs

Major

bupropion trazodone

Applies to: bupropion, trazodone

MONITOR CLOSELY: The use of bupropion is associated with a dose-related risk of seizures. The risk may be further increased when coadministered with other agents that can reduce the seizure threshold, including antidepressants, CNS stimulants, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, phenothiazines, and dopaminergic blocking agents such as neuroleptics and metoclopramide. These agents are often individually epileptogenic and may have additive effects when combined. The estimated incidence of seizures is approximately 0.4% for immediate-release bupropion hydrochloride at dosages between 300 to 450 mg/day (equivalent to 348 to 522 mg/day of bupropion hydrobromide), but increases almost tenfold between 450 mg and 600 mg/day (equivalent to 522 and 696 mg/day of bupropion hydrobromide). Data for sustained-release (SR) bupropion hydrochloride revealed a seizure incidence of approximately 0.1% at dosages up to 300 mg/day and 0.4% at 400 mg/day. Likewise, in clinical trials, an overall seizure incidence of approximately 0.1% has been reported with extended-release (XL) bupropion hydrochloride at dosages up to 450 mg/day and approximately 0.39% at 450 mg/day. The 0.4% seizure incidence may exceed that of other marketed antidepressants by as much as 4-fold.

ADJUST DOSE: Coadministration with bupropion may increase the plasma concentrations of drugs that are metabolized by CYP450 2D6, including many antidepressants, neuroleptics, CNS stimulants (e.g., amphetamines), metoclopramide, and some acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil, galantamine). The mechanism is decreased clearance due to inhibition of CYP450 2D6 activity by bupropion and its metabolite, hydroxybupropion. Approximately 93% of Caucasians and more than 98% of Asians and individuals of African descent are extensive metabolizers of CYP450 2D6 and may be affected by this interaction. In a study of 15 male volunteers who were extensive metabolizers of CYP450 2D6, administration of a single 50 mg dose of desipramine following treatment with bupropion 150 mg twice daily increased the desipramine peak plasma concentration (Cmax), systemic exposure (AUC) and half-life by an average of 2-, 5-, and 2-fold, respectively. The effect was present for at least 7 days after the last dose of bupropion. A case report describes a 4-fold increase in plasma levels of imipramine and its metabolite, desipramine, in a 64-year-old woman following the addition of bupropion 225 mg/day. Plasma levels of desipramine were increased twofold more than the imipramine levels, which is consistent with the fact that desipramine is primarily metabolized by CYP450 2D6 while imipramine is also metabolized by other CYP450 isoenzymes. In another report, an 83-year-old woman became unsteady, confused, and lethargic following the addition of bupropion SR 300 mg/day. Her nortriptyline level was found to have increased by 185%. A later rechallenge prompted recurrence of the interaction. Likewise, a 62-year-old woman with no history of seizures developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure in association with toxic trimipramine plasma levels following the addition of bupropion 300 mg/day. No further seizures occurred following dosage reductions of both drugs.

MANAGEMENT: Extreme caution is advised if bupropion is administered with any substance that can reduce the seizure threshold, particularly in the elderly and in patients with a history of seizures or other risk factors for seizures (e.g., head trauma; brain tumor; severe hepatic cirrhosis; metabolic disorders; CNS infections; excessive use of alcohol or sedatives; addiction to opiates, cocaine, or stimulants; diabetes treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin). Bupropion as well as concomitant medications should be initiated at the lower end of the dosage range and titrated gradually as needed and as tolerated. The maximum recommended dosage for the specific bupropion formulation should not be exceeded. Clinical and laboratory monitoring may be appropriate for concomitant medications that are substrates of CYP450 2D6 whenever bupropion is added to or withdrawn from therapy. Bupropion should be discontinued and not restarted in patients who experience a seizure during treatment.

References

  1. Johnston JA, Lineberry CG, Ascher JA, et al. "A 102-center prospective study of seizure in association with bupropion." J Clin Psychiatry 52 (1991): 450-6
  2. Masco HL, Kiev A, Holloman LC, Batey SR, Johnston JA, Lineberry CG "Safety and efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline in outpatients with depression." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 55 (1994): 851-63
  3. Shin YW, Erm TM, Choi EJ, Kim SY "A Case of Prolonged Seizure Activity After Combined Use of Bupropion and Clomipramine." Clin Neuropharmacol 27 (2004): 192-194

View all 19 references

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Other drugs and diseases that your selected drugs interact with


Interactions between your selected drugs and food

Moderate

bupropion food

Applies to: bupropion

GENERALLY AVOID: Excessive use or abrupt discontinuation of alcohol after chronic ingestion may precipitate seizures in patients receiving bupropion. Additionally, there have been rare postmarketing reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients who drank alcohol during treatment with bupropion. According to one forensic report, a patient died after taking large doses of both bupropion and alcohol. It is uncertain whether a drug interaction was involved. Single-dose studies in healthy volunteers given bupropion and alcohol failed to demonstrate either a significant pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction.

MANAGEMENT: The manufacturer recommends that alcohol consumption be minimized or avoided during bupropion treatment. The use of bupropion is contraindicated in patients undergoing abrupt discontinuation of alcohol.

References

  1. "Product Information. Wellbutrin (bupropion)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  2. Posner J, Bye A, Jeal S, Peck AW, Whiteman P "Alcohol and bupropion pharmacokinetics in healthy male volunteers." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 26 (1984): 627-30
  3. Hamilton MJ, Bush MS, Peck AW "The effect of bupropion, a new antidepressant drug, and alcohol and their interaction in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1984): 75-80

View all 4 references

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Moderate

trazodone food

Applies to: trazodone

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol may potentiate some of the pharmacologic effects of CNS-active agents. Use in combination may result in additive central nervous system depression and/or impairment of judgment, thinking, and psychomotor skills.

MANAGEMENT: Patients receiving CNS-active agents should be warned of this interaction and advised to avoid or limit consumption of alcohol. Ambulatory patients should be counseled to avoid hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination until they know how these agents affect them, and to notify their physician if they experience excessive or prolonged CNS effects that interfere with their normal activities.

References

  1. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  2. "Product Information. Fycompa (perampanel)." Eisai Inc, Teaneck, NJ.
  3. Warrington SJ, Ankier SI, Turner P "Evaluation of possible interactions between ethanol and trazodone or amitriptyline." Neuropsychobiology 15 (1986): 31-7

View all 4 references

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Therapeutic duplication warnings

Therapeutic duplication is the use of more than one medicine from the same drug category or therapeutic class to treat the same condition. This can be intentional in cases where drugs with similar actions are used together for demonstrated therapeutic benefit. It can also be unintentional in cases where a patient has been treated by more than one doctor, or had prescriptions filled at more than one pharmacy, and can have potentially adverse consequences.

Duplication

Antidepressants

Therapeutic duplication

The recommended maximum number of medicines in the 'antidepressants' category to be taken concurrently is usually one. Your list includes two medicines belonging to the 'antidepressants' category:

  • bupropion
  • trazodone

Note: The benefits of taking this combination of medicines may outweigh any risks associated with therapeutic duplication. This information does not take the place of talking to your doctor. Always check with your healthcare provider to determine if any adjustments to your medications are needed.

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a guideline only. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific patient is difficult to determine using this tool alone given the large number of variables that may apply.

Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Multum is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. Multum's information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Multum Information Services, Inc. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. Copyright 2000-2017 Multum Information Services, Inc. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

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